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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 42, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Review of Microbially Mediated Smectite-illite Reaction
Kim, Jin-Wook ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 395~401
The smectite-illite (SI) reaction is a ubiquitous process in siliciclastic sedimentary environments. For the last 4 decades the importance of smectite to illite (S-I) reaction was described in research papers and reports, as the degree of the (S-I) reaction, termed "smectite illitization", is linked to the exploration of hydrocarbons, and geochemical/petrophysical indicators. The S-I transformation has been thought that the reaction, explained either by layer-by-layer mechanism in the solid state or dissolution/reprecipitation process, was entirely abiotic and to require burial, heat, and time to proceed, however few studies have taken into account the bacterial activity. Recent laboratory studies showed evidence suggesting that the structural ferric iron (Fe(III)) in clay minerals can be reduced by microbial activity and the role of microorganisms is to link organic matter oxidation to metal reduction, resulting in the S-I transformation. In abiotic systems, elevated temperatures are typically used in laboratory experiments to accelerate the smectite to illite reaction in order to compensate for a long geological time in nature. However, in biotic systems, bacteria may catalyze the reaction and elevated temperature or prolonged time may not be necessary. Despite the important role of microbe in S-I reaction, factors that control the reaction mechanism are not clearly addressed yet. This paper, therefore, overviews the current status of microbially mediated smectite-to-illite reaction studies and characterization techniques.
Study for the Geochemical Reaction of Feldspar with Supercritical
in the Brine Aquifer for
Choi, Won-Woo ; Kang, Hyun-Min ; Kim, Jae-Jung ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Lee, Min-Hee ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 403~412
The objective of this study is to investigate the geochemical change of feldspar minerals by supercritical
, which exists at
sequestration sites. High pressurized cell system (100 bar and
) was designed to create supercritical
in the cell and the surface change and the dissolution of plagioclase and orthoclase were observed when the mineral surface reacted with supercritical
and water (or without water) for 30 days. The polished slab surface of feldspar was contacted with supercritical
and an artificial brine water (pH 8) in the experiments. The experiments for the reaction of feldspar with only supercritical
(without brine water) were also conducted. Results from the first experiment showed that the average roughness value of the plagioclase surface was 0.118 nm before the reaction, but it considerably increased to 2.493 nm after 30 days. For the orthoclase, the average roughness increased from 0.246 nm to 1.916 nm, suggesting that the dissolution of feldspar occurs in active when the feldspars contact with supercritical
and brine water at
sequestration site. The dissolution of
from the plagioclase occurred and a certain part of them precipitated inside of the high pressurized cell as the form of amorphous silicate mineral. For the orthoclase,
were dissolved in order and the kaolinite was precipitated. In the experiments without water, the change of the average roughness value and the dissolution of feldspar scarcely occurred, suggesting that the geochemical reaction of feldspars contacted with supercritical
at the environment without the brine water is not active.
Geomicrobiological Behavior of Heavy Metals in Paddy Soil Near Abandoned Au-Ag Mine Supplied with Carbon Sources
Ko, M.S. ; Lee, J.U. ; Park, H.S. ; Shin, J.S. ; Bang, K.M. ; Chon, H.T. ; Lee, J.S. ; Kim, J.Y. ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 413~426
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of indigenous bacteria on geochemical behavior of toxic heavy metals in contaminated paddy soil near an abandoned mine. The effects of sulfate amendment to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction on heavy metal behaviors were also investigated. Batch-type experiments were performed with lactate or glucose as a carbon source to activate indigenous bacteria in the soil under anaerobic condition for 100 days. Sulfate (250 mg/L) was artificially injected at 60 days after the onset of the experiments. In the case of glucose supply, solution pH increased from 4.8 to 7.6 while pH was maintained at 7~8 in the lactate solution. The initial low pH in the case of glucose supply likely resulted in the enhanced extraction of Fe and most heavy metals at the initial experimental period. Lactate supply exerted no significant difference on the amounts of dissolved Zn, Pb, Ni and Cu between microbial and abiotic control slurries; however, lower Zn, Pb and Ni and higher Cu concentrations were observed in the microbial slurries than in the controls when glucose supplied. Sulfate amendment led to dramatic decrease in dissolved Cr and maintenance of dissolved As, both of which had gradually increased over time till the sulfate injection. Black precipitates formed in solution after sulfate amendment, and violarite(
) was found with XRD analysis in the microbial precipitates. Conceivably the mineral might be formed after Fe(III) reduction and microbial sulfate reduction with coprecipitation of heavy metal. The results suggested that heavy metals which can be readily extracted from contaminated paddy soils may be stabilized in soil formation by microbial sulfate reduction.
Biosorption of Pb and Cd by Indigenous Bacteria Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Oil and Heavy Metals
Kim, Sang-Ho ; Chon, Hyo-Taek ; Lee, Jong-Un ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 427~434
Indigenous bacterium which shows a tolerance to high metal toxicity was isolated from soil concomitantly contaminated with oil and heavy metals. The characteristics of the bacterium for Pb and Cd biosorption was investigated under the various experimental conditions such as bacterial growth phase, the initial metal concentration, the input biomass amount, temperature and pH. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm modeling was described to know the capacity and intensity of biosorption. The low initial concentration of heavy metals and high biomass has a maximum heavy metal removal efficiency, but biosorption capacity of Pb and Cd has different values. Biosorption efficiency was highest in the end of the microbial growth stage and under pH 5~9 condition, but was less affected by temperature variation of 25~
. The maximum biosorption capacity for Pb and Cd was 62.11 and 192.31 mg/g, respectively and each
was calculated as 0.71 and 0.98 by applying Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation. Biosorption for Cd was considered as monomolecular adsorption to single layer on the surface of cells, whereas biosorption for Pb was considered as accumulation process into the cell by the microbial metabolism and precipitation reaction with anion of bacteria.
Removal of Dissolved Heavy Metals through Biosorption onto Indigenous Bacterial Biofilm Developed in Soil
Kim, Sang-Ho ; Chon, Hyo-Taek ; Lee, Jong-Un ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 435~444
In situ stabilization of heavy metals through adsorption onto indigenous bacterial biofilm developed on soil particles was investigated. Biofilms were developed in soil columns by supply of various carbon sources such as acetate, lactate and glucose. During development of biofilms, acetate, lactate, and glucose solutions were flew out from the soil columns with volume ratios of 98.5%, 97.3%, and 94.7%, respectively, when compared with soil column supplied with deionized water. Decrease in effluent amounts through the soil columns amended with carbon sources over time indicated the formation of biofilms resulting in decrease of soil porosity. Solutions of Cd, Cr(VI), Cu, Pb, and Zn were injected into the biofilms supported on soil particles in the columns, and the dissolved heavy metals in effluents were determined. Concentrations of dissolved Cd, Cr(VI), Cu, and Zn in the effluents through biofilm columns were lower than those of control column supplied with deionized water. The result was likely due to enhanced adsorption of the metals onto biofilms. Efficiency of metal removal by biofilms depended on the type of carbon sources supplied. The enhanced removal of dissolved heavy metals by bacterial biofilms in this study may be effectively applied to technical development of in situ stabilization of heavy metals in natural soil formation contaminated with heavy metals.
In-situ Precipitation of Arsenic and Copper in Soil by Microbiological Sulfate Reduction
Jang, Hae-Young ; Chon, Hyo-Taek ; Lee, Jong-Un ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 445~455
Microbiological sulfate reduction is the transformation of sulfate to sulfide catalyzed by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria using sulfate as an electron acceptor. Low solubility of metal sulfides leads to precipitation of the sulfides in solution. The effects of microbiological sulfate reduction on in-situ precipitation of arsenic and copper were investigated for the heavy metal-contaminated soil around the Songcheon Au-Ag mine site. Total concentrations of As, Cu, and Pb were 1,311 mg/kg, 146 mg/kg, and 294 mg/kg, respectively, after aqua regia digestion. In batch-type experiments, indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria rapidly decreased sulfate concentration and redox potential and led to substantial removal of dissolved As and Cu from solution. Optimal concentrations of carbon source and sulfate for effective microbial sulfate reduction were 0.2~0.5% (w/v) and 100~200 mg/L, respectively. More than 98% of injected As and Cu were removed in the effluents from both microbial and chemical columns designed for metal sulfides to be precipitated. However, after the injection of oxygen-rich solution, the microbial column showed the enhanced long-term stability of in-situ precipitated metals when compared with the chemical column which showed immediate increase in dissolved As and Cu due to oxidative dissolution of the sulfides. Black precipitates formed in the microbial column during the experiments and were identified as iron sulfide and copper sulfide. Arsenic was observed to be adsorbed on surface of iron sulfide precipitate.
Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Shooting Range Soil Using a Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans
Han, Hyeop-Jo ; Lee, Jong-Un ; Ko, Myoung-Soo ; Choi, Nag-Choul ; Kwon, Young-Ho ; Kim, Byeong-Kyu ; Chon, Hyo-Taek ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 457~469
Applicability of bioleaching techniques using a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, for remediation of shooting range soil contaminated with toxic heavy metals was investigated. The effects of sulfur concentration, the amount of bacterial inoculum and operation temperature on the efficiency of heavy metal solubilization were examined as well. As sulfur concentration and the amount of bacterial inoculum increased, the solubilization efficiency slightly increased; however, significant decrease of heavy metal extraction was observed with no addition of sulfur or bacterial inoculum. Bacteria solubilized the higher amount of heavy metals at
. Lead showed the highest removal amount from the contaminated soil but the lowest removal efficiency when compared with Zn, Cu and Cr. It was likely due to formation of insoluble
as precipitate or colloidal suspension. Sequential extraction of the microbially treated soil revealed that the proportion of readily extractable phases of Zn, Cu and Cr increased by bacterial leaching, and thus additional treatment or optimization of operation conditions such as leaching time were required for safe reuse of the soil. Bioleaching appeared to be a useful strategy for remediation of shooting range soil contaminated with heavy metals, and various operating conditions including concentration of sulfur input, inoculum volume of bacteria, and operation temperature exerted significant influence on bioleaching efficiency.
Removal Characteristics of Dissolved Uranium by Shewanella p. and Application to Radioactive Waste Disposal
Lee, Seung-Yeop ; Baik, Min-Hoon ; Song, Jun-Kyu ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 471~477
An experimental removal of dissolved uranium (U) exsiting as uranyl ion (
) was carried out using Shewanella p., iron-reducing bacterium. By the microbial reductive reaction, initial U concentration (
) was constantly decreased, and most U were removed from solution after 2 weeks. Major mechanism that U was removed from the solution was adsorption, precipitation and mineralization on the microbe surface. Under the transmission electron microscopy, the U adsorbed on the microbe was observed as being crystallized and eventually enlarged to several
sizes of minerals by combining with individual microbes and organic exudates. It seems that such U growth and mineralization on the microbial surface could affect the U behavior in a radioactive waste disposal site. Thus, the biogechemical reaction of metal-reducing bacteria observed in this experiment could give an affirmative measure that the microbial activity may retard U movement in subsurface environment.
Determination of Mn Oxidation State in Mn-(hydr)oxides using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS)
Song, Kyung-Sun ; Bae, Jong-Seong ; Lee, Gie-Hyeon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 479~486
In natural environments, manganese (Mn) exists in the valence of +2, +3, and +4 and plays a pivotal role as a strong oxidant or reductant in the geochemical cycles of elements. Especially, Mn forms varying (oxyhydr)oxides. The oxidation state of structural Mn is characteristic to each oxide and is one of the most important factors controlling its geochemical behaviors such as solubility, sorption capacity, and redox potential. Therefore, it is important to elucidate processes governing Mn oxidation state in predicting the fate and transport of many redox sensitive elements in the environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a very useful method to determine the oxidation state of various elements in solid phases. In this study, the oxidation states of structural Mn in MnO,
were assessed based on the binding energy spectra of
and Mn3s using XPS and were compared with those reported elsewhere.
binding energies were determined as 640.9, 641.5, 641.8 eV for MnO,
, respectively, which indicates that the binding energy increased with increasing Mn oxidation state. It was also noted that Ar etching may cause changes in electronic structure configuration on surface of the original sample.
Reactions of As(V) with Fe(II) under the Anoxic Conditions
Jung, Woo-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Hun ; Chung, Hyung-Keun ; Kim, Sun-Joon ; Choi, Jae-Young ; Jeon, Byong-Hun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 487~494
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of As(V) reduction by aqueous Fe(II), and subsequent As(III) immobilization by the precipitation of As(III) incorporated magnetite-like material [i.e., co-precipitation of As(III) with Fe(II) and Fe(III)]. Experimental results showed that homogeneous As(V) reduction did not occur by dissolved Fe(II) at various pH values although the thermodynamic calculation was in favor of the redox reaction between As(V) and Fe(II) under the given chemical conditions. Similarly, no heterogeneous reduction of sorbed As(V) by sorbed Fe(II) was observed using synthetic iron (oxy)hydroxide (Goethite,
-FeOOH) at pH 7. Experimental results for the effect of As(V) on the oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen showed that As(V) inhibited the oxidation of Fe(II). These results indicate that As(V) could be stable in the presence of Fe(II) under the anoxic or subsurface environments.
Phosphate Sorption on Boehmite with Eu(III): P K-edge EXAFS Fingerprinting
Yoon, Soh-Joung ; Bleam, William F. ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 495~500
Actinide sorption to the geological materials can reduce the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides released to the environment through the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Under circumneutral pH conditions, actinide sorption can be enhanced by phosphate anions sorbed on oxide mineral surfaces as indicated by the sorption of trivalent lanthanide ions (
), the chemical analog for trivalent actinide ions (
). In this paper, we examined a ternary sorption system of trivalent europium ions (
) sorbed onto boehmite (
-AlOOH) surfaces pre-sorbed with phosphate anions (
), using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In the Eu-
-boehmite ternary sorption system,
surface precipitates were formed as implicated by Eu
-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. Phosphorus K-edge EXAFS fingerprinting indicated a bidentate mononuclear surface complex formation of phosphate sorbed on boehmite surfaces as well as
surface precipitate formation.
Single-walled Hollow Nano-tubes and Nano-balls Assembled from the Aluminogermanante Precursors
Song, Yun-Goo ; Bac, Bui Hoang ; Lee, Young-Boo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 501~507
Ordered single-walled hollow aluminogermanate (ALGE) nano-balls(NBs) and nano-tubes(NTs) have been self-assembled from the ALGE precursors having an Al/Ge ratio of 1.33 using simple pH-control. The hollow ALGE NBs with average monodisperse diameters of 5 nm and chemistry of Al/Ge=1.5~1.6 were formed through structural assembly in the ALGE solution (Al/Ge=1.33) highly basified to pH=13(Na/Al=28~30) and followed by immediate acidification to pH=9. When the basified solution(pH=13) were acidified to pH=4, ALGE S-NTs (Short-fiber nano-tubes) with diameters of 3.3 nm, 15~20 nm in length, and chemistry of Al/Ge=2.6~2.8 were successfully synthesized. Whereas the solution was basified to pH=9, and subsequently acidified to pH=4, L-NTs(Long-fiber nano-tubes) with >100 nm in length were synthesized for the first time. The self-assembly of the hollow NBs, S-NTs, and L-NTs form the ALGE precursors can be explained by the degree of
-dissociation of the -Ge-OH inner surfaces, which was controlled by amount of
and pH conditions of ALGE precursor solutions. This results indicate that target forms of ALGE nanomaterials can be synthesized by simple pH controls.
Elastic Behavior of Zeolite Mesolite under Hydrostatic Pressure
Lee, Yong-Jae ; Lee, Yong-Moon ; Seoung, Dong-Hoon ; Jang, Young-Nam ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 42, issue 5, 2009, Pages 509~512
Powder diffraction patterns of the zeolite mesolite (
), with a natrolite framework topology were measured as a function of pressure up to 5.0 GPa using a diamond-anvil cell and a
-focused monochromatic synchrotron X-ray. Under the hydrostatic conditions mediated by pore-penetrating alcohol and water mixture, the elastic behavior of mesolite is characterized by continuous volume expansion between ca. 0.5 and 1.5 GPa, which results from expansion in the ab-plane and contraction along the c-axis. Subsequent to this anomalous behavior, changes in the powder diffraction patterns suggest possible reentrant order-disorder transition. The ordered layers of sodium- and calcium-containing channels in a 1:2 ratio along the b-axis attribute to the
cell below 1.5 GPa. When the volume expansion is completed above 1.5 GPa, such characteristic ordering reflections disappear and the
cell persists with marginal volume contraction up to ca. 2.5 GPa. Further increase in pressure leads to progressive volume contraction and appears to generate another set of superlattice reflections in the
cell. This suggests that mesolite in the pressure-induced hydration state experiences order-disorder-order transition involving the motions of sodium and calcium cations either through cross-channel diffusion or within the respective channels.