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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Revaluation of Ore Deposits within the Yeongam District, Cheollanamdo-Province: The Eunjeok and Sangeun Mines
Heo, Chul-Ho ; Park, Sung-Won ; Lee, Jae-Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 73~84
Gold and silver deposits within the Eunjeok and Sangeun mines are located in Yeongam district, Cheollanamdo-province. They are composed of vein ore bodies infilling the fractures of Cretaceous rhyolitic tuff. The Eunjeok mine have three gold and silver bearing hydrothermal veins which is infilling the fracture of rhyolitic tuff. Major ore minerals within the Eunjeok and Sangeun mines are arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena and minor ores are electrum, native silver and argentite. Sericitization is dominant in alteration zone and chloritization and dickitization is minor. Quartz veins in the Eunjeok and Sangeun mine have the similar paragenesis and vein textures such like breccia, crustiform, comb and vuggy morphology indicating the formation of typical epithermal environment. In order to carry out the preliminary feasibility study of mine according to the commodity and elucidate the occurrence features of mineral resources from Eunjeok and Sangeun mine, common commodity (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mo, W, Au and U), and industrial commodity (In, Re, Ga, Ge, Se, Te, Y, Eu and Sm) for 17 ore specimen were analyzed. It is tentatively thought that there is no exploitable mine for iron, lead, zinc, copper, tungsten and uranium based on the preliminary result. If the reserves are secured through the detailed prospecting in case of molybdenum and silver, it is tentatively thought that there will be exploitable deposits depending on international metal price. If we assume the vein width from 0.25 m to 2 m including alteration zone with the gold grade of 80g/t, it is inferred that the resources amount of the Eunjeok-Sangeun mines range from 6.5 to 65ton. However, as the vein structure of the Eunjeok and Sangeun mines is developed together with alteration zone, it should be estimated to include potential alteration zone in order to yield the average grade. It is needed to carry out more exploration in the near future because the reserves can be flexibly estimated according to the change of average grade considering the alteration zone.
Geochemical Characteristics of Devonian Cairn Formation in Alberta, Canada
Park, Myong-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Lee, Sung-Dong ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Kil, Yong-Woo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 85~100
Devonian Cairn Formation is one of the important hydrocarbon reservoirs in Alberta, Canada. However, the Cairn Formation, outcropped in the study area, is not prospective reservoir with poor porosity and permeability by some late diagenetic processes. In this study, geochemical characteristics of the Cairn Formation were studied to use these preliminary results for advanced geological and geophysical petroleum explorations in the near future. Rock-Eval pyrolysis showed that total organic carbon content is less than 0.3 wt.%, indicating a minor amount of bitumen and/or other hydrocarbons. The carbonates in the Cairn Formation are mainly composed of subhedral and anhedral dolomites. Pore sizes in the carbonate are various, ranging from nanometer to micrometer. Clastic sediments increase in the upper and lower parts of the Cairn Formation, probably due to changing its depositional conditions. The Cairn Formation can also be divided into several intervals based on Ca/Mg ratio in dolomite and degree of amount of calcite. These could be formed by different sedimentary environment, degree of cementation and recrystallization, different saline/fresh water, etc.
Enhanced Phytoremediation by Echinochloa crus-galli in Arsenic Contaminated Soil in the Vicinity of the Abandoned Mine
Park, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Ju-Yong ; Lee, Byung-Tae ; Kim, Kyoung-Woong ; Lee, Jin-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 101~107
In order to deal with the problem that phytoremediation takes long time in achieving the practical effect, the enhanced phytoremediation by Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) was conducted. In addition, we examined the synergistic effect by adding PSM (phosphate -solubilizing microbes) and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) to the arsenic contaminated soil in the vicinity of the abandoned mine. The removal efficiency of arsenic in the site with PSM application increased about 16% when compared to control site, which was due to increase of plant biomass. The EDTA has been successfully utilized in respect of enhanced mobility and solubility of arsenic in the soil. As a result, BF (bioaccumulation factor) significantly increased but the inhibition of plant growth resulted in 20% reduction of arsenic removal efficiency. The application of PSM and EDTA may enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation. However, the time and method of EDTA application should be further examined to reach the maximum removal efficiency.
The Characteristic of Selective Attachment and Bioleaching for Pyrite Using Indigenous Acidophilic Bacteria at
Park, Cheon-Young ; Kim, Soon-Oh ; Kim, Bong-Ju ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 109~121
The bioleaching experiment under
was effectively carried out to leach the more valuable element ions from the pyrite in the Gangyang mine waste. Bacteria can survive at this temperature, as indigenous acidophilic bacteria were collected in the Hatchobaru acidic hot spring, in Japan. To enhance the bacterial activity, yeast extract was added to the pyrite-leaching medium. The indigenous acidophilic bacteria appeared to be rod-shaped in the growth-medium which contained elemental sulfur and yeast extract. The rod-shaped bacteria (
) were attached to the pyrite surface. The colonies of the rod-shaped bacteria were selectively attached to the surroundings of a hexagonal cavity and the inner wall of the hexagonal cavity, which developed on a pyrite surface. Filament-shaped bacteria ranging from
in length were subsequently attached to the surrounding cracks and inner wall of the cracks on the pyrite surface. In the XRD analysis, the intensity of (111), (311), (222) and (320) plane on the bacteria pyrite sample relatively decreased in plane on the control pyrite sample, whereas the intensity of (200), (210) and (211) increased in these samples. The microbiological leaching content of Fe ions was found to be 3.4 times higher than that of the chemical leaching content. As for the Zn, microbiological leaching content, it was 2 times higher than the chemical leaching content. The results of XRD analysis for the bioleaching of pyrite indicated that the indigenous acidophilic bacteria are selectively attacked on the pyrite specific plane. It is expected that the more valuable element ions can be leached out from the mine waste, if the temperature is increased in future bioleaching experiments.
Comparison of Soil Washing for Heavy Metal Contaminated Shooting Range Using Various Extracts
Lee, Jun-Ho ; Park, Kap-Song ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 123~136
In order to remediate heavy metal contaminated Nong island, Maehyang-ri shooting range soils through the batch reactor scale washing were evaluated. The experiment texture soil of N3 in the Nong island at north side incline was (g)mS containing 12.9% gravel, 47.0% sand, 35.1% silt and 5.0% clay. And the N3 soil area was contaminated with Cd(
ppm) and Zn(
ppm). The EDTA(ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid,
) in the N3 soil was observed as most effective extractants among the 5 extractants(citric acid, EDTA, phosphoric acid, potassium phosphate and oxalic acid) tested. And chemical partitioning of heavy metals after washing N3 soil with EDTA was evaluated. Removal efficiency of residual fractions was higher than that of non-residual fractions. To choose EDTA extractant which is the most effective in soil washing technology using batch reactor process cleaning Pb and Zn contaminated sits; Pb and Zn removal rates were investigated 92.4%, 94.0% removal(1,000 mM, soil:solution=5,
, 24 hour shaking, pH=2, 200 RPM), respectively. The results of the batch test showed that the removal efficiency curve was logarithmic in soil was removal. Thus, EDTA washing process can be applied to remediate the Pb and Zn contaminated soil used in this study.
Characterization of Arsenic Immobilization in the Myungbong Mine Tailing
Lee, Woo-Chun ; Jeong, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Ju-Yong ; Kim, Soon-Oh ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 137~148
The Myoungbong mine located in Boseong-gun, Jellanamdo consists of Au-Ag bearing quartz veins which filled the fissures of Bulguksa granitic rocks of Cretaceous. The tailings obtained from the Myungbong mine were used to investigate the effects of various processes, such as oxidation of primary sulfides and formation(alteration) of secondary and/or tertiary minerals, on arsenic immobilization in tailings. This study was conducted via both mineralogical and chemical methods. Mineralogical methods used included gravity and magnetic separation, ultrasonic cleaning, and instrumental analyses(X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalyzer) and aqua regia extraction technique for soils was applied to determine the elemental concentrations in the tailings. Iron (oxy)hydroxides formed as a result of oxidation of tailings were identified as three specific forms. The first form filled in rims and fissures of primary pyrites. The second one precipitated and coated the surfaces of gangue minerals and the final form was altered into yukonites. Initially, large amounts of acid-generating minerals, such as pyrite and arsenopyrite, might make the rapid progress of oxidation reactions, and lots of secondary minerals including iron (oxy)hydroxides and scorodite were formed. The rate of pH decrease in tailings diminished, in addition, as the exposure time of tailings to oxidation environments was prolonged and the acid-generating minerals were depleted. Rather, it is speculated that the pH of tailings increased, as the contribution of pH neutralization reactions by calcite contained in surrounding parental rocks became larger. The stability of secondary minerals, such as scorodite, were deteriorated due to the increase in pH, and finally arsenic might be leached out. Subsequently, calcimn and arsenic ions dissociated from calcites and scorodites were locally concentrated, and yukonite could be grown tertiarily. It is confirmed that this tertiary yukonite which is one of arsenate minerals and contains arsenic in high level plays a crucial role in immobilizing arsenic in tailings. In addition to immobilization of arsenic in yukonites, the results indicate that a huge amount of iron (oxy)hydroxides formed by weathering of pyrite which is one of typical primary minerals in tailings can strongly control arsenic behavior as well. Consequently, this study elucidates that through a sequence of various processes, arsenic which was leached out as a result of weathering of primary minerals, such as arsenopyrite, and/or redissolved from secondary minerals, such as scorodite, might be immobilized by various sorption reactions including adsorption, coprecipiation, and absorption.
Geological Structures and Their Relation to Groundwater System around K-1 Oil Stockpile
Moon, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Young-Seog ; Ha, Kyoo-Chul ; Won, Chong-Ho ; Lee, Jin-Yong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 149~162
The most serious problem in oil stockpiles with artificial underground cavern is maintaining the stability of ground water system. In order to understand the ground water system around K-1 site, we determined the regional flow direction and level distribution of groundwater, and investigated the major geologic factors influencing their flow system. Reactivated surface along the contact between granite and gneiss, and fractures and faults along the long acidic dyke may contribute as important pathways for groundwater flow. Within K-1 site, groundwater level fluctuation is closely related to the rainfall events and injection from surface or influx water. In this project, the effect of groundwater pumping from the southern wells was examined. Based on equations relating water level drawdown to pumping rate at those wells, their pumped outflow of groundwater ranged from
/day to less than
/day. The modeling results with MODFLOW imply that the previous groundwater pumping at distance of 1.2 km may not affect the groundwater level variations of the K-1 site. However, continuous pumping work at quantity over
/day in this area will be able to affect the groundwater system of the K-1 site, particularly along the acidic dyke.
The Study on Geology and Volcanism in Jeju Island (III): Early Lava Effusion Records in Jeju Island on the Basis of
Absolute Ages of Lava Samples
Koh, Gi-Won ; Park, Jun-Beom ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 163~176
We report twenty data for early lavas erupted during the initial period of formation of Jeju Island on the basis of review on 539 data of whole-rock greochemistry and
age dating out of mainly core samples from 69 boreholes drilled in the lower land since 2001 and 66 outcrop sites. Out of 69 boreholes, the early lava flow units are identified from samples collected from Beophocheon (EL 235 m, 210 m deep), Donnaeko (EL 240 m, 230 deep), Donghong-S (EL 187 m, 340 m deep), 05Donghong (EL. 187.6 m, 340 m deep), Dosoon (EL 305 m, 287 m deep), Sangye (EL 230 m, 260 m deep), Mureung-1 (EL 10.2 m, 160 m deep), and Gapa (EL 17.5 m, 92 m deep), which are located in the southern and southwestern portion of Jeju Island. While, the well-known outcrops from Sanbangsan, Wolrabong, Wonmansa, and Kagsubawi are also reconfirmed.
age dating results of these lavas range from 1 Ma to 0.7 Ma, indicating that the data can be useful to constrain on age and geochemical characteristics of early lava effusion period in the formation of Jeju Island. Especially, samples with trachybasalt in composition collected from 143 m to 137 m, and from 135 m to 123 m below ground surface at 05Donghong hole have the oldest ages,
Ka, respectively. This study suggests that in Jeju Island the first lava with trachybasalt in composition may have effused around 1 Ma ago, and the effusion style and chemical compositions of lavas must have changed to the formation of lava domes with trachyte-trachyandesite-basaltic trachyandesite and the eruption of lavas with alkali basalt and trachybasalt intermittently during the period from 0.9 Ma to 0.7 Ma ago. It also indicates that the initial lava flows below the ground are intercalated with or underlain by the Seoguipo Formation except for several exposed domal structure areas such as Sanbangsan and Kagsubawi, implying that the early lava effusion may have intermittently and sporadically occurred with nearby hydrovolcanism and sedimentation.
Analysis of Injection Efficiency for Cement Grouts by Model Test of Permeation in Soil
Song, Young-Su ; Lim, Heui-Dae ; Choi, Dong-Nam ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 177~184
When cement grout is used for waterproofing of grounds, important roles are played by fluidity, particle size and bleeding. The most important element which determines their characteristics is the water/cement ratio of grout. Moreover in order to improve the efficiency of soil permeation, micro cement with a smaller average diameter is used in addition to ordinary portland cement. Besides the mixing ratio and cement diameter, the condition of ground is also of fundamental importance in the efficiency of permeation. In order to evaluate grout in terms of permeation ability into ground, we need a field test of grounting, which is cost and time consuming. In this paper we present a laboratory test method in which the suitability and efficiency of grouts are simply and more practically tested. In Korea neither a test standard nor devices are available to simulate grouting in a laboratory. We devised a grout injection equipment in which grouting was reproduced in the same condition with different materials, and suggested a standard for the production of specimens. Our tests revealed that the efficiency of injection increases with the water/cement ratio. We also found that more efficiently injected is the grout with the order of decreasing size; MS8000, micro cement, and ultra fine cements, and colloidal super cement.
Modeling Study for Effects of Hydrothermal Clay Vein on Slope Stability
Jo, Hwan-Ju ; Jo, Ho-Young ; Jeong, Kyung-Mun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 185~196
Clay veins that occurred in a slope by hydrothermal alteration, can significantly affect its slope stability. The effect of clay veins on the slope stability was investigated by numerical modeling study. Various parameters such as cohesion, internal friction angle, orientation, groundwater level, rainfall intensity and duration, have been modelled. As shear strength increased, factor of safety increased. As groundwater level developed, factor of safety decreased. For the case of slip surface developed on interface, factor of safety was lower than that for case of slip surface developed on either weathered soil or clay vein. The effect of various soil types of the slope stability was also investigated by simulating seepage through the slopes with various soils. The groundwater level significantly increased on the slopes with silty and generic soils. For the slope with sandy soil, almost no change in groundwater level was observed due to rapid drainage.
Status of Underground Thermal Energy Storage as Shallow Geothermal Energy
Shim, Byoung-Ohan ; Lee, Chol-Woo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 197~205
Recently abrupt climate changes have been occurred in global and regional scales and
reduction technologies became an important solution for global warming. As a method of the solution shallow underground thermal energy storage (UTES) has been applied as a reliable technology in most countries developing renewable energy. The geothermal energy system using thermal source of soil, rock, and ground water in aquifer or cavern located in shallow ground is designed based on the concept of thermal energy recovery and storage. UTES technology of Korea is in early stage and consistent researches are demanded to develop environmental friendly, economical and efficient UTES systems. Aquifers in Korea are suitable for various type of ground water source heat pump system. However due to poor understanding and regulations on various UTES high efficient geothermal systems have not been developed. Therefore simple closed U-tube type geothermal heat pump systems account for more than 90% of the total geothermal system installation in Korea. To prevent becoming wide-spread of inefficient systems, UTES systems considering to the hydrogeothemal properties of the ground should be developed and installed. Also international collaboration is necessary, and continuous UTES researches can improve the efficiency of shallow geothermal systems.
Mineral Resources in Timor-Leste
Kim, In-Joon ; Lee, Jae-Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 207~210