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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Ancient Field Soil in Jeongdongri as Ceramic Raw Materials of the Baekje Kingdom
Jang, Sung-Yoon ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 543~553
This study was focused on the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of field soil of the Baekje Kingdom from K wongbawigol site in Jeongdongri, Buyeo and whether the bricks from Songsanri Tombs and Muryung's Royal Tomb were made of soil from this site. Soil samples show the similar size fraction as a silt loam and acidic soil, whereas some samples have the enrichment of organic matter, P and S. Also, they have similar geochemical behavior of elements and similar mineral phases consisting of quartz, plagioclase, orthoclase, vermiculite, mica and kaolinite. The enrichment of iron oxide is found in some soil layer, including the iron oxide mottling and precipitation along plant roots and they are attributed to repeat oxidation and reduction environments due to flooding and drainage of field soil. It's anthropogenic alteration by human activity. Especially, it is assumed that the concentration of the iron oxides found in bricks from Muryung's Royal Tomb and Songsanri Tombs is the additional evidence that soil in this study is probably the raw materials of those bricks.
Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Groundwater by Using the Biocarrier with Dead Bacillus sp. B1 and Polysulfone
Lee, Min-Hee ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Wang, Soo-Kyun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 555~564
Remediation process by using the bio-carrier (beads) with dead Bacillus sp. B1 and polysulfone was investigated for heavy metal contaminated groundwater. Sorption batch experiments using the bio-carrier were performed to quantify the heavy metal removal efficiencies from the contaminated solution. The analyses using SEM/EDS and TEM for the structure and the characteristic of precipitates on/inside the beads were also conducted to understand the sorption mechanism by the bio-carrier. Various amounts of freeze-dried dead Bacillus sp. B1 were mixed with polysulfone + DMF(N,N-dimethylformamide) solution to produce the bio-carrier (beads; less than 2mm in diameter) and 5% of Bacillus sp. B1 in the bio-carrier was optimal for Pb removal in the solution. The removal efficiency ratings of the bio-carrier for Pb, Cu and Cd were greater than 80% after adding 2g of bio-carrier in 50ml of aqueous solution (<10mg/L of each heavy metal concentration). Reaction time of the bio-carrier was very fast and most of the sorption reaction for heavy metals were completed within few hours. Batch experiments were duplicated at various pH conditions of aqueous solutions and Cu and Pb removal efficiencies highly maintained at wide pH ranges (pH 2-12), suggesting that the bio-carrier can be useful to clean up the acidic waste water such as AMD. From SEM/EDS and TEM analyses, it was observed that the bio-carrier was spherical shape and was overlapped by many porous layers. During the sorption experiment, Pb was crystallized on the surface of porous layers and also was mainly concentrated at the boundary of Bacillus sp. B1 stroma and polysulfone substrate, showing that the main mechanism of the bio-carrier to remove heavy metals is the sorption on/inside of the bio-carriers and the bio-carriers are excellent biosorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from groundwater.
Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminant(toluene) from Specific Depth in Aquifer Using Selective Surfactant-Enhanced Air Sparging
Song, Young-Su ; Kwon, Han-Joon ; Yang, Su-Kyeong ; Kim, Heon-Ki ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 565~571
An innovative application of surfactant-enhanced air sparging(SEAS) technique was developed in this study. Using a laboratory-scale physical model packed with water-saturated sand, air sparging was implemented to remove water-dissolved toluene that was introduced into a specific depth of the system with finite vertical width prior to sparging. An anionic surfactant(Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) was introduced into the contaminated layer as in dissolved form in the toluene-contaminated solution for SEAS, whereas no surfactant was applied in the control experiment. Due to the suppressed surface tension of water in the surfactant(and toluene)-containing region, the toluene removal rate increased significantly compared to those without surfactant. More than 70% of the dissolved toluene was removed from the contaminated layer for SEAS application while less than 20% of toluene was removed for the experiment without surfactant. Air intrusion into the contaminated layer during sparging was found to be more effective than that without surfactant, enhancing air contact with toluene-contaminated water, which resulted in improved volatilization of contaminant. This new method is expected to open a new option for remediation of VOC(volatile organic compound)-contaminated aquifer.
The Bioleaching of Sphalerite by Moderately Thermophilic Bacteria
Park, Cbeon-Young ; Cheong, Kyung-Hoon ; Kim, Bong-Ju ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 573~587
Bioleaching experiments were effectively carried out at
to leach the more valuable metal ions from sphalerite using bacteria. The pH values of the bioleaching solution were constantly maintained for 10 days in the range of 2.40 to 2.55. In these bioleaching experiments, rod-shaped bacteria attached to the sphalerite surface were continuously observed in the sample. Along with the increase in the leaching temperatures, the concentration of Zn and Pb increased in the control sample of leachates, whereas the concentration of Fe increased in the sample containing bacteria. At
the biological leaching content of Zn was found to be 9.5, 2.8 and 2.9 times higher than that in the chemical leaching content, respectively. At these temperatures, the content of Pb in the bacterial sample of the leachate was detected to be 14.8, 7.4 and 3.8 times higher than that of the control sample of the leachate, respectively.
Arsenic Removal Using Iron-impregnated Ganular Activated Carbon (Fe-GAC) of Groundwater
Yoon, Ji-Young ; Ko, Kyung-Seok ; Yu, Yong-Jae ; Chon, Chul-Min ; Kim, Gyoo-Bum ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 589~601
Recently it has been frequently reported arsenic contamination of geologic origin in groundwater. The iron-impregnated ranular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) was developed for effective removal of arsenic from groundwater n the study. Fe-GACs were prepared by impregnating iron compounds into a supporting medium (GAC) with 0.05 M iron nitrate solution. The materials were used in arsenic adsorption isotherm tests to know the effect of iron impregnation time, batch kinetic tests to understand the influence of pH, and column tests to evaluate for the preliminary operation of water treatment system. The results showed that the minimum twelve hours of impregnation time were required for making the Fe-GAC with sufficient iron content for arsenic removal, confirmed by a high arsenic adsorption capacity evaluated in the isotherm tests. Most of the impregnated iron compounds were iron hydroxynitrate
but a mall quantity of hematite was also identified in X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis. The batch isotherms of Fe-GAC for arsenic adsorption were well explained by Langmuir than Freundlich model and the iron contents of Fe-GAC have positive linear correlations on logarithmic plots with Freundlich distribution coefficients (
and Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities (
. The results of kinetic experiments suggested hat Fe-GAC had he excellent arsenic adsorption capacities regardless of all pH conditions except for pH 11 and could be used a promising adsorbents for groundwater arsenic removal considering the general groundwater pH range of 6-8. The pseudo-second order model, based on the assumption that the ate-limiting step might be chemisorption, provided the best correlation of the kinetic experimental data and explained the arsenic adsorption system f Fe-GAC. The column test was conducted to valuate the feasibility of Fe-GAC use and the operation parameters in arsenic groundwater treatment system. The parameters obtained from the column test were the retardation actor of 482.4 and the distribution coefficient of 581.1 L/mg which were similar values of 511.5-592.5 L/mg acquired from Freundlich batch isotherm model. The results of this study suggested that Fe-GAC could be used as promising adsorbent of arsenic removal in a small groundwater supply system with water treatment facility.
Seismic Data Processing Suited for Stratigraphic Interpretation in the Domi Basin, South Sea, Korea
Cheong, Snons ; Kim, Won-Sik ; Koo, Nam-Hyung ; Lee, Ho-Young ; Shin, Won-Chul ; Park, Keun-Pil ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 603~613
The Domi Basin in the South Sea of Korea is located between the Jeju Basin and Ulleung Basins, and is characterized by several sediment sags that are interested to have formed by crustal extension. This paper aims to derive an optimized seismic data processing procedure which helps stratigraphic interpretation of the Domi Basin. In particular, our data processing flow incorporated horizon velocity analysis (HVA) and surface-relative wave equation multiple rejection (SRWEMR) to improve the quality of stack section by enhancing the continuity of reflection events and suppressing peg-leg multiples respectively. As a result of processing procedures in this study, unconformities were recognized in the stack section that defines the early and middle Miocene, Eocene-Oligocene sequences. In addition, the overall quality of the stack section was increased as essential data to investigate the evolution of the basin. The suppression of multiple resulted in the identification of the Cretaceous basement. The data processing scheme evaluated through this study is expected to improve the standardization of processing sequences for seismic data from the Domi and adjacent Sora and north-Sora Basins.
Fast Delineation of the Depth to Bedrock using the GRM during the Seismic Refaction Survey in Cheongju Granite Area
Lee, Sun-Joong ; Kim, Ji-Soo ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ; Moon, Yoon-Sup ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 615~623
Seismic refraction survey is a geophysical method that delineates subsurface velocity structure using direct wave and critically refracted wave. The generalized reciprocal method(GRM) is an inversion technique which uses travel-time data from several forward and reverse shots and which can provide the geometry of irregular inclined refractors and structures underlain by hidden layer such as low velocity zone and thin layer. In this study, a simple Excel-GRM routine was tested for fast mapping of the interface between weathering layer and bedrock during the survey, with employing a pair of forward and reverse shots. This routine was proved to control the maximum dip of approximately
and maximum velocity contrast of 0.6, based on the panel tests in terms of dipping angle and velocity contrast for the two-layer inclined models. In contrast with conventional operation of five to seven shots with sufficient offset distance and indoor data analysis thereafter, this routine was performed in the field shortly after data acquisition. Depth to the bedrock provided by Excel-GRM, during the field survey for Cheongju granite area, correlates well with the elevation of the surface of soft rock from the drill core and SPS logging data. This cost-effective routine developed for quickly delineating the bedrock surface in the field survey will be readily applicable to mapping of weathering zone in narrow zone with small variation of elevation of bedrock.
A Study on the Geophysical Characteristics and Geological Structure of the Northeastern Part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea
Kim, Chang-Hwan ; Park, Chan-Hong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 625~636
The geophysical characteristics and geological structure of the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin were investigated from interpretation of geophysical data including gravity, magnetic, bathymetry data, and seismic data. Relative correction was applied to reduce errors between sets of gravity and magnetic data, obtained at different times and by different equipments. The northeastern margin of the Ulleung Basin is characterized by complicated morphology consisting of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), the Dokdo seamounts, and a deep pathway (Korea Gap) with the maximum depth of -2500 m. Free-air anomalies generally reflect the topography effect. There are high anomalies over the volcanic islands and the Dokdo seamounts. Except local anomalous zones of volcanic edifices, the gradual increasing of the Bouguer anomalies from the Oki Bank toward the Ulleung Basin and the Korea Gap is related to higher mantle level and denser crust in the central of the Ulleung Basin. Complicated magnetic anomalies in the study area occur over volcanic islands and seamounts. The power spectrum analysis of the Bouguer anomalies indicates that the depth to the averaged Moho discontinuity is -16.1 km. The inversion of the Bouguer anomaly shows that the Moho depth under the Korea Gap is about -16~17 km and the Moho depths towards the Oki Bank and the northwestern part of Ulleung Island are gradually deeper. The inversion result suggests that the crust of the Ulleung Basin is thicker than normal oceanic crusts. The result of 20 gravity modeling is in good agreement with the results of the power spectrum analysis and the inversion of the Bouguer anomaly. Except the volcanic edifices, the main pattern of magnetization distribution shows lineation in NE-SW. The inversion results, the 2D gravity modeling, and the magnetization distribution support possible NE-SW spreading of the Ulleung Basin proposed by other papers.
Geological Structures of Jucheon Area, Contact Area between Ogcheon Belt and Gyeonggi Massif
Kihm, You-Hong ; Kee, Won-Seo ; Jin, Gwang-Min ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 637~648
The Songbong Formation (so-called Bangrim Group), correated to the lower part of Choseon Supergroup, unconformably overlies the Precambrian Gyeonggi massif at northeastem tip of the Ogcheon belt The contact relationship between the Choseon Supergroup and the Yeongnam massif is also known as an unconformity at northeastem part of the Ogcheon belt. lt implies that the Gyeonggi and Yeongnam massifs were probably connected each other before the Early Paleozoic. Three deformational phases are recognized in the study area, The first phase is the north-northeastward ductile thrusting, which places Precambrian granite of the Gyeonggi massif over the Paleozoic rocks of the Ogcheon belt. The second phase is characterized by the southeastward thrusting and deformation partitioning along the Nuruhaji compartment fault. The third phase is the reactivation of the Nuruhaji Fault into dextral strike-slip fault with over a few kilometers displacement.
Digital Mapping and 3D Visualization of Tunnel Face Information under Construction
Kwon, Young-Ju ; Lee, Cheong ; Kim, Jin-Woung ; Kim, Kwang-Yeom ; Yim, Sung-Bin ; Choi, Jai-Won ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 649~659
In this study, a tunnel information database system was developed to optimize the process of assessing and analyzing geological information from the life cycle of tunnel construction. All data from every stage in tunnel construction can be put into the system and be utilized for the decision making. In the system, tunnel face mapping information can be managed by digital format which can be easily transformed into 3D visualization module and thus help analyzing geological discontinuities. The system was applied to waterway and road tunnel in domestic area to verify its effectiveness.
Current Status of Mineral Resources in Zirabulak Mineralized Zone of Uzbekistan
Park, Sung-Won ; Chi, Se-Jung ; Pinazarov, Majeed M. ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 661~670