Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
About Short-stacking Effect of Illite-smectite Mixed Layers
Kang, Il-Mo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.071
Illite-smectite mixed layers (I-S) occurring authigenically in diagenetic and hydrothermal environments reacts toward more illite-rich phases as temperature and potassium ion concentration increase. For that reason, I-S is often used as geothermometry and/or geochronometry at the field of hydrocarbons or ore minerals exploration. Generally, I-S shows X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of ultra-thin lamellar structures, which consist of restricted numbers of sillicate layers (normally, 5 ~ 15 layers) stacked in parallel to a-b planes. This ultra-thinness is known to decrease I-S expandability (%S) rather than theoretically expected one (short-stacking effect). We attempt here to quantify the short stacking effect of I-S using the difference of two types of expandability: one type is a maximum expandability (
) of infinite stacks of fundamental particles (physically inseparable smallest units), and the other type is an expandability of finite particle stacks normally measured using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) (
). Eleven I-S samples from the Geumseongsan volcanic complex, Uiseong, Gyeongbuk, have been analyzed for measuring
and average coherent scattering thickness (CST) after size separation under 1
. Average fundamental particle thickness (
have been determined from
and CST using inter-parameter relationships of I-S layer structures. The discrepancy between
) suggests that the maximum short-stacking effect happens approximately at 20
, of which point represents I-S layer structures consisting of ca. average 3-layered fundamental particles (
). As a result of inferring the
range of each Reichweite using the
diagram of Kang et al. (2002), we can confirms that the fundamental particle thickness is a determinant factor for I-S Reichweite, and also that the short-stacking effect shifts the
range of each Reichweite toward smaller
values than those that can be theoretically prospected using junction probability.
In-situ Phase Transition Study of Minerals using Micro-focusing Rotating-anode X-ray and 2-Dimensional Area Detector
Seoung, Dong-Hoon ; Lee, Yong-Moon ; Lee, Yong-Jae ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 79~88
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.079
The increased brightness and focused X-ray beams now available from laboratory X-ray sources facilitates a variety of powder diffraction experiments not practical using conventional in-house sources. Furthermore, the increased availability of 2-dimensional area detectors, along with implementation of improved software and customized sample environmental cells, makes possible new classes of in-situ and time-resolved diffraction experiments. These include phase transitions under variable pressure- and temperature conditions and ion-exchange reactions. Examples of in-situ and time-resolved studies which are presented here include: (1) time-resolved data to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of ion exchange in mineral natrolite; (2) in-situ dehydration and thermal expansion behaviors of ion-exchanged natrolite; and (3) observations of the phases forming under controlled hydrostatic pressure conditions in ion-exchanged natrolite. Both the quantity and quality of the in-situ diffraction data are such to allow evaluation of the reaction pathway and Rietveld analysis on selected dataset. These laboratory-based in-situ studies will increase the predictability of the follow-up experiments at more specialized beamlines at the synchrotron.
Aluminum Solubility of Andisols in Jeju Island, Korea
Lee, Gyoo-Ho ; Song, Yun-Goo ; Moon, Ji-Won ; Moon, Hi-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 89~104
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.089
The solubility of aluminum for two Andisol profiles formed on pyroclastic materials and basaltic rocks from Jeju Island, Korea was investigated. It is found that high organic carbon content and
ratios in the A horizons, suggesting the substantial amounts of reactive Al are associated with organic matter, whereas the low organic carbon content and the
ratios in the Bo horizons indicate that a major part of the reactive Al should be bound inorganically. The differential FT-IR spectra following acid-oxalate dissolution and heating up to 150 and
, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation confirm that imogolite is in the Bo horizon. Our results of equilibration experiments demonstrate that the Al solubility in the Bo horizon for Andisols can be clarified by the congruent dissolution model for imogolite-type material (ITM), rather than by the simultaneous equilibrium with both ITM and Al hydroxy-interlayered aluminosilicate. With results from dialysis and aging procedures, it is noted that the formation of a proto imogolite sol showing its transformation to imogolite, which supports the congruent dissolution of ITM primarily controlling the Al solubility of Andisols in Jeju Island, Korea.
Biogeochemical Remediation of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater using MMPH-0 (Enterobacter aerogenes)
Seo, Hyun-Hee ; Rhee, Sung-Keun ; Kim, Kang-Joo ; Park, Eun-Gyu ; Kim, Yeong-Kyoo ; Chon, Chul-Min ; Moon, Ji-Won ; Roh, Yul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 105~119
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.105
Indigenous bacteria isolated from contaminated sites play important roles to remediate contaminated groundwater. Chromium has the most stable oxidation states. Cr(VI) is toxic, carcinogenic, and mobile, but Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile. In this study, indigenous microorganism (MMPH-0) was enriched from Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater, and identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Using MMPH-0, the effect of stimulating with e-donors (glucose, lactate, acetate, and no e-donor control), respiration conditions, biomass, tolerance, and geochemical changes on Cr(VI) reduction were investigated in batch experiments for 4 weeks. The changes of Cr(VI) concentration and geochemical conditions were monitored using UV-vis-spectrophotometer and Eh-pH meter. And the morphological and chemical characteristics of MMPH-0 and precipitates in the effluents were characterized by TEM-EDS and SEM-EDS analyses. MMPH-0 (Enterobacter aerogenes) was able to tolerate up to 2000 mg/L Cr(VI) and reduce Cr(VI) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. MMPH-0 performed faster and higher efficiency of Cr(VI) reduction with electron donors (over 70% after 1 week with e-donor, 10-20% after 4 weeks without e-donor). The changes of Eh-pH in effluents showing the tendency from oxidizing to reducing condition and a bit of acidic change in pH due to microbial oxidation of organic matters donating electrons and protons suggested the roles of MMPH-0 on Cr(VI) in the contaminated water catalyzing to transit geochemical stable zone for more stable
or Cr(III) precipitates. TEM/SEM-EDS analyses of MMPH-0 and precipitates indicate direct and indirect Cr(VI) reduction: extracellular polymers capturing Cr component outside cells. These results suggested diverse indigenous bacteria and their biogeochemical reactions might enhance more effective and feasible remediation technology of redox sensitive heavy metals in metal-contaminated in groundwater.
Optimum Condition of Soil Dispersion for Remediating Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils using Wet Magnetic Separation
Chon, Chul-Min ; Park, Jeong-Sik ; Park, Sook-Hyun ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Nam, In-Hyun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 121~135
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.121
Soil dispersion and heavy metal leaching with two heavy metal-contaminated soils were studied to derive the optimal dispersion condition in the course of developing the remedial technology using magnetic separation. The dispersion solutions of pyrophosphate, hexametaphosphate, orthophosphate and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at 1 - 200 mM and the pH of solutions was adjusted to be 9 - 12 with NaOH. The clay content of suspension as an indicator of dispersion rate and the heavy metal concentration of the solution were tested at the different pHs and concentrations of the dispersion solution during the experiment. The dispersion rate increased with increasing the pH and dispersion agent concentration of the solution. The dispersion efficiency of the agents showed as follows: pyrophosphate > hexametaphosphate > SDS > orthophosphate. Arsenic leaching was sharply increased at 50 mM of phosphates and 100 mM of SDS. The adsorption of
, phosphates and dodecysulfate on the surface of Fe- and Mn-oxides and soil organic matter and the broken edge of clay mineral might decrease the surface charge and might increase the repulsion force among soil particles. The competition between arsenic and
, phosphates and dodecylsulfate for the adsorption site of soil particles might induce the arsenic leaching. The dispersion and heavy metal leaching data indicate that pH 11 and 10 mM pyrophosphate is the optimum dispersion solution for maximizing dispersion and minimizing heavy metal leaching.
Redox Characteristic and Evolution of a Fragipan of Gangreung Series Commonly Developed in Coastal Terraces
Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Moon, Yong-Hee ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Park, Chan-Won ; Yoon, Sung-Won ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 137~144
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.137
Soil pan typically presents the problems in soil water movement or in aeration which is not appropriate for a plant root growth, In this study physico-chemical characteristics of soils and micromorphological characteristic of clay accumulated zone were investigated to identify redox characteristic and evolution of a fragipan of Gangreung series commonly developed in coastal terraces. Gangreung series is classified as Aquic Fragiudalfs according to the USDA soil taxonomy. It is known that sedimentary ocean floor results in soil pan having parallel liner soil structure due to landscape evolution around 200 to 250 million years ago. it is considered that illite, kaolinite, and vermiculite are major clay minerals contained in a fragipan of Gangreung series. Mixed gray and reddish brown colored band around soil pores was found and would be the redoxmorphic features of fragipan. It is possibly due to accumulated illuvial clay and ferriargillans in soil pores and aggregates in reducing conditions eluding ferrous material. Therefore, mixed colored band around pores in soils of Gangreung series would be developed from the eluted ferrous materials which were accumulated in fragipan during the emerged land formation.
Sulfur Isotope Composition of Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents in the Convergent Plate Boundaries of the Western Pacific: A Role of Magma on Generation of Hydrothermal Fluid
Kim, Jong-Uk ; Moon, Jai-Woon ; Lee, Kyeong-Yong ; Lee, In-Sung ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 145~156
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.145
Seafloor hydrothermal system occurs along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge, back-arc spreading center, and other submarine volcanic regions. The hydrothermal system is one of the fundamental processes controlling the transfer of energy and matter between crust/mantle and ocean; it forms hydrothermal vents where various deepsea biological communities are inhabited and precipitates metal sulfide deposits. Hydrothermal systems at convergence plate boundaries show diverse geochemical properties due to recycle of subducted material compared to simple systems at mid-ocean ridges. Sulfur isotopes can be used to evaluate such diversity in generation and evolution of hydrothermal system. In this paper, we review the sulfur isotope composition and geochemistry of hydrothermal precipitates sampled from several hydrothermal vents in the divergent plate boundaries in the western Pacific region. Both sulfide and sulfate minerals of the hydrothermal vents in the arc and backarc tectonic settings commonly show low sulfur isotope compositions, which can be attributed to input of magmatic
gas. Diversity in geochemistry of hydrothermal system suggests an active role of magma in the formation of seafloor hydrothermal system.
Production Characteristics and Post-depositional Influence of Iron Age Pottery from Chipyeongdong Site in Gwangju, Korea
Jang, Sung-Yoon ; Moon, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Lee, Gi-Gil ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 157~167
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.157
This study aimed to interpret the provenance and firing temperature of pottery from Chipyeongdong site in Gwangju, Korea though mineralogical and geochemical methods and also investigated the post-depositional alteration of pottery in burial environments. It is also presumed that they were made of soils near the site because they have similar mineralogical composition and same geochemical evolution path. Based on the results of mineralogical analysis, the pottery samples are largely divided into 2 groups;
and 1,000 to
. At some pottery fired at over
, it is thought that the refinement of raw materials were processed to remove macrocrystalline fragments. However, it was found that phosphate in soil environments formed amorphous aggregates with Al and Fe within the pores and voids on pottery fired at the low temperature. It indicates the contamination of pottery after burial.
Overview of the Leading Environmental Specimen Banks in the World and Future Challenges of the National Environmental Specimen Bank in Korea
Lee, Jong-Chun ; Kim, Myung-Jin ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 169~180
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.169
The ESBs (Environmental Specimen Banks) have monitoring functions for the contemporary environmental qualities and also offer the future generation tangible information on the past environment by preserving the specimens. This entails the sampling of the representative specimen for each distinctive ecosystem, which is performed under a strict and stipulated procedure and a condition that does not allow any change in the component so that a retrospective analysis can be readily done even in the distant future. It has been more than 30 years that some developing countries started collecting a broad spectrum of specimens to vindicate the effectiveness of an environmental policy and to monitor the long-term variations of background concentrations of environmental pollutants. Though being late, the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER), Korea, has successfully launched the National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) in 2009 equipped with its state-of-the-art automated cryogenic tanks. Since then, the researchers at the NESB have been doing their best to excel the existing ESBs around the world by learning and improving the expertise. To do so, they conducted a pilot study for developing and testing their own Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) based on the analysis of the examples of the other ESBs. The problems from the pilot study had been reviewed to improve the SOP to meet the requirements for an ESB, that is to say, preserving representative environmental specimens in cryogenic condition and enhancing the analytical method. Furthermore, they also need to prepare themselves to address the future challenges by providing some additional functions, which makes it distinguishable from the other ESBs. If successful, this will be a step further to be recognized as a full-fledged member of the ESB society of the world.
Illite Polytypes: The Characteristics and the Application to the Fault Age Determination
Song, Yun-Goo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 181~188
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.181
The 1M and
stacking sequences are the most frequently encountered in the illite species among the possible 6 polytypes. The
, derived from the 1M polytype which exhibits a variable degree of disorder in the stacking sequence, is also observed in illite samples. In this paper, the author introduces and reviews the theoretical background of the quantitative analysis method of illite polytypes, and considers the possibility to determine the fault age and its reactivation age using K/Ar age-dating based on the quantification of illite polytypes in the fault system. For the increase of the accuracy and precision of the illite age analysis method, the occurrence, identification, and mineralogical characterization of illite polytypes should be defined in detail. The broadening effect of (hkl) reflections, due to disordering of 1M polytype and the presence of I/S minerals with expandability, are also considered as the main parameters controlling the quantification of illite polytypes using the WILDFIRE(C)simulation.
Quantitative Determination of Fe-oxidation State by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)
Yang, Ki-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Wook ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 189~194
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.189
The consequences of microbe-mineral interaction often resulted in the chemical, structural modification, or both in the biologically induced mineral. It is inevitable to utilize the high powered resolution of electron microscopy to investigate the mechanism of biogenic mineral transformation at nano-scale. The applications of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) capable of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to the study of microbe-mineral interaction were demonstrated for two examples: 1) biogenic illite formation associated with structural Fe(III) reduction in nontronite by Fereducing bacteria; 2) siderite phase formation induced by microbial Fe(III) reduction in magnetite. In particular, quantification of the changes in Fe-oxidation state at nanoscale is essential to understand the dynamic modification of minerals resulted from microbial Fe reduction. The procedure of EELS acquisition and advantages of EELS techniques were discussed.
Review: Magnetite Synthesis using NanoFermentation
Moon, Ji-Won ; Roh, Yul ; Phelps, Tommy J. ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 195~204
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.195
Biomineralization has been explored for geochemical cycles and microbial tolerance mechanisms to metal toxicity. Here, we are introducing NanoFermentation which enables economic, environmentally friendly, requiring low input energy, and scalable manufacturing of nano-dimensioned magnetite. We are also focusing on controlling factors of crystallite size which can determine superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Controlling factors are such as microbial species, temperature, incubation time, medium composition, substituted elements and their concentration, precursor type, reaction volume, precursor concentration density and their combinations. Crystallite size distribution of biomagnetite depends on the balance between nuclei generation and crystal growth. Biomineralization will elucidate elemental cycles on earth crust and microbial ecology as well as it will be applied to material sciences and devices via massive production of nanomaterials.
Chemical Properties of Mineral Surfaces and Metal Ion Sorption: A Review
Yoon, Soh-Joung ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 2, 2012, Pages 205~215
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.2.205
Metal ions, toxic or potentially toxic to biota and human beings, can be immobilized by sorption onto the mineral surfaces in soils and sediments. This article briefly explains theories regarding the chemical properties of mineral surfaces to sorb metal ions and processes of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis for sorption study, and reviews atomic-scale findings on metal sorption on mineral surfaces. The theoretical understanding on the chemistry of mineral surfaces and metal sorption is fundamental to the proper analysis of the atomic-scale spectroscopy to determine the sorption phases. Atomic-scale findings on metal sorption phases discussed here include co-precipitation, ternary complexation, aging effects, and desorption possibilities, as well as outer-sphere complexation, inner-sphere complexation, and surface precipitation.