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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Regional Variability of Manganese Nodule Facies in the KR1 Area in KODOS Area, Northeastern Equatorial Pacific
Lee, Hyun-Bok ; Kim, Wonnyon ; Ko, Young-Tak ; Kim, Jonguk ; Chi, Sang-Bum ; Park, Cheong-Kee ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 477~486
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.477
High-resolution bathymetry and physico-chemical properties of manganese nodules were explored to identify the relationship between morphological features and nodule occurrences in the KR1, one of the Korean contract nodule fields located in the NE Pacific. The high-resolution seabed mapping showed that the southwestern sector of the KR1 (KR1-1) was relatively deeper than the northeastern sector (KR1-2) which is occupied by small-scale seamounts. In terms of nodule occurrence, manganese nodules in the KR1-1 were comparatively larger (2-4 cm) with rough surface (t-type) and discoidal shapes (D-type), while those in the KR1-2 were generally small (<2 cm) with smooth surface (s-type) and irregular shapes (I-type). In addition, the nodules in the KR1-1 had higher contents of Cu, Mn and Ni. Such connections of water depths to nodule appearances and metal contents are commonly observed in the Pacific nodule fields. On the other hand, the nodules in the KR1-2 tend to be controled by morphological features. The seamounts in the KR1-2 might continuously provide rock fragments as new nuclei of manganese nodules. As a result, the nodules could not grow over than 2 cm and showed the shapes of a newbie (i.e., smooth surface and irregular shapes). As a result, our observations indicate that occurrence features of manganese nodules could be subjected to water depths and seabed morphology simultaneously.
Mineral Composition and Grain Size Distribution of Fault Rock from Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju City, Korea
Song, Su Jeong ; Choo, Chang Oh ; Chang, Chun-Joong ; Chang, Tae Woo ; Jang, Yun Deuk ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 487~502
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.487
This paper is focused on mineral compositions, microstructures and distributional characters of remained grains in the fault rocks collected from a fault developed in Yongdang-ri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju City, Korea, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope, laser grain size analysis and fractal dimension analysis methods. The exposed fault core zone is about 1.5 meter thick. On the average, the breccia zone is 1.2 meter and the gouge zone is 20cm thick, respectively. XRD results show that the breccia zone consists predominantly of rock-forming minerals including quartz and feldspar, but the gouge zone consists of abundant clay minerals such as chlorite, illite and kaolinite. Mineral vein, pyrite and altered minerals commonly observed in the fault rock support evidence of fault activity associated with hydrothermal alteration. Fractal dimensions based on box counting, image analysis and laser particle analysis suggest that mineral grains in the fault rock underwent fracturing process as well as abrasion that gave rise to diminution of grains during the fault activity. Fractal dimensions(D-values) calculated by three methods gradually increase from the breccia zone to the gouge zone which has commonly high D-values. There are no noticeable changes in D-values in the gouge zone with trend being constant. It means that the bulk-crushing process of mineral grains in the breccia zone was predominant, whereas abrasion of mineral grains in the gouge zone took place by continuous fault activity. It means that the bulk-crushing process of mineral grains in the breccia zone was predominant, whereas abrasion of mineral grains in the gouge zone took place by continuous fault activity. Mineral compositions in the fault zone and peculiar trends in grain distribution indicate that multiple fault activity had a considerable influence on the evolution of fault zones, together with hydrothermal alteration. Meanwhile, fractal dimension values(D) in the fault rock should be used with caution because there is possibility that different values are unexpectedly obtained depending on the measurement methods available even in the same sample.
Analysis of Ground Subsidence using ALOS PALSAR (2006~2010) in Taebaek, Kangwon
Cho, Min-Ji ; Kim, Sang-Wan ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 503~512
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.503
We performed DInSAR (Differential Interferometric SAR) and SBAS (Small BAseline Subset) analysis using spaceborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) in order to detect a surface subsidence in Taebaek area, Kangwon, which are suitable to the monitoring of broad and inaccessible areas. During the period from October 2006 to June 2010, we acquired twenty-three ALOS PALSAR data sets (path/frame
Acoustic Characteristics of Gas-related Structures in the Upper Sedimentary Layer of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea
Park, Hyun-Tak ; Yoo, Dong-Geun ; Han, Hyuk-Soo ; Lee, Jeong-Min ; Park, Soo-Chul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 513~523
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.513
The upper sedimentary layer of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea shows stacked mass-flow deposits such as slide/slump deposits in the upper slope, debris-flow deposits in the middle and lower slope, and turbidites in the basin plain. Shallow gases or gas hydrates are also reported in many area of the Ulleung Basin, which are very important in terms of marine resources, environmental changes, and geohazard. This paper aims at studying acoustic characteristics and distribution pattern of gas-related structures such as acoustic column, enhanced reflector, dome structure, pockmark, and gas seepage in the upper sedimentary layer, by analysing high-resolution chirp profiles. Acoustic column shows a transparent pillar shape in the sedimentary layer and mainly occurs in the basin plain. Enhanced reflector is characterized by an increased amplitude and laterally extended to several tens up kilometers. Dome structure is characterized by an upward convex feature at the seabed, and mainly occurs in the lower slope. The pockmark shows a small crater-like feature and usually occurs in the middle and lower slope. Gas seepage is commonly found in the middle slope of the southern Ulleung Basin. These gas-related structures seem to be mainly caused by gas migration and escape in the sedimentary layer. The distribution pattern of the gas-related structures indicates that formation of these structures in the Ulleung Basin is controlled not only by sedimentary facies in upper sedimentary layer but also by gas-solubility changes depending on water depth. Especially, it is interpreted that the chaotic and discontinuous sedimentary structures of debris-flow deposits cause the facilitation of gas migration, whereas the continuous sedimentary layers of turbidites restrict the vertical migration of gases.
Validations of a Numerical Model of Solute Transport in a Snowpack
Lee, Jeonghoon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 525~533
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.525
Snowmelt from seasonal snow covers can be significant in many environments of northern and alpine areas. Water flow and chemical transport resulting from snowmelt have been studied for an understanding of contributions to watersheds or catchments. A Mobile-Immobile water Model (MIM) was developed to describe the movement of ionic tracers through a snowpack by Lee et al. (2008a) and Lee et al. (2008b). To validate the model used in the studies, mass balance calculations of the model were conducted and comparisons were made between model results and analytical solutions in this work. Mass balance was calculated based on the fact that change in total mass within a snowpack with time is equal to sum of any change in the flux of water or ionic tracers into and out of the snowpack. Calculations of both water and ionic mass show almost perfect agreement between changes of two water and solute mass fluxes. Comparisons between model results and analytical solutions including wave velocity and effective saturation show almost perfect agreement.
Mineral Compositions of Granitic Rocks in the Yeongkwang-Naju Area
Park, Jae-Bong ; Kim, Yong-Jun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 535~549
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.535
Main aspect of this study are to clarify mineral compositions on granites in Youngkwang-Naju area. These granites are is divided into four rock facies based on the geologic ages, mineralogical composition and chemical constituents, and texture : hornblende-biotite granodiorite, biotite granite, porphyritic granite and two mica granite. These granites constitude an igneous complex formed by a series of differentiation from cogenetic magma. In compressive stress field between the Ogcheon folded belt and the Youngnam massif, the foliated and undeformed granites had formed owing to heterogeneous distribution of stress. The geochemical data of study area indicate magma of these rocks would had been generated by melting in lower and middle crust. The major minerals of granitic rocks in study area are plagioclase, biotite, muscovite and hornblende. Plagioclase range in composition from oligoclase (
) to andesine (
), and shows normal zoning patterns, This uniformed composition indicated slow crystallization, and it is obvious that the growth of these crystal occurred before final consolidation of the magma. The Mg content of biotite are increases with increasing of
and grade of differentiation, changing from phlogopite to siderophyllite. Its
ratios are propertional to bulk rock alumina content. Muscovite is primary in origin with high content of
, and Its composition correspond to celadonitic muscovite. Hornblende indicated calc amphibole group (
). and consolidation pressure of granitic body by geobarometer of Hammerstrume and Zen show 11.3~17.2 Km.
Stratigraphy of the BP-1 well from Sora Sub-basin
Oh, Jaeho ; Kim, Yongmi ; Yun, Hyesu ; Park, Eunju ; Yi, Songsuk ; Lee, Minwoo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 551~564
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.551
This study carried out palynological analysis and seismic interpretation to establish a stratigraphic and environmental reconstruction mainly based on fossil palynomorphs and seismic reflection data correlated with the oil exploation well (BP-1) located in the Sora Sub-basin. There were frequent environmental and floral changes due to sea level change in the Sora Sub-basin. The palynomorph assemblages found in the well sediments enabled paleoecological zonation of the well sediment sequence resulting in 4 zones: Ecozone III, Ecozone IV, Ecozone V, Ecozone VI. Index fossils among palynomorphs indicate geological ages of the units within the well ranging from Eocene to Pleistocene, and paleoenvironment varies from freshwater to inner neritic marine. Previous studies suggest that the marine deposits were slightly different in stratigraphic range from well to well. It is considered the difference is credited to geomorphological setting. This study also shows stratigraphic correlation between existing wells and BP-1 well to establishes a standard stratigraphy of the Domi Basin.
Sedimentary facies of the Cambrian Sesong Formation, Taebacksan Basin
Joo, Hyun ; Ryu, In-Chang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 565~578
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.565
Sedimentary facies of the Middle to Upper Cambrian Sesong Formation, Taebacksan Basin, are analyzed using detailed field mapping and stratigraphic section measuring. As a result, five sedimentary facies are recognized in the formation, which include lime nodule bearing shale facies, anastomosing wackestone-packstone facies, well-laminated siltstone facies, fine to medium sandstone facies and lime pebble conglomerate facies. Together with sedimentary facies analysis, study on vertical facies variation indicates that the Sesong Formation was deposited in an outer to inner shelf during relative sea-level fall. Especially, shallow marine aspects of the upper part of the Sesong Formation including 10-m-thick, fine to medium-grained sandstones appear to be very similar with the shallow marine strata accumulated during the Steptoean Stage (Dunderbergia) in Laurentia. These lithofacies comparisons of coeval strata between two continents suggest that sedimentation in the Sesong Formation reflects the influence of global sea-level fall occurred during the late Middle Cambrian to early Late Cambrian. As well, a stratigraphic discontinuity surface that may have sequence stratigraphic significance is recognized within the shallow marine sandstone beds of the uppermost Sesong Formation. This stratigraphic discontinuity surface may correspond to the Sauk II-III sequence boundary in Laurentia. Therefore, results delineated in this study will use a new stratigraphic paradigm for regional correlation of the Middle to Late Cambrian strata (e.g., the Sesong Formation) in the Taebacksan Basin, and will provide very useful information on intercontinental stratigraphic correlation in the future.
A Study on the Scope of Government R＆D Planning : Focused on the Energy and Resources Production Technology
Park, Jungkyu ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 579~587
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.579
The purpose of this study is to emphasize the necessity of extention of a government R&D planning scope. Presently, government R&D planning is focused on the selecting a R&D project. There is no R&D strategy for R&D conducting such as the composition of R&D team, collaboration and knowledge flow. Ordinarily these strategies are established by research director. This study analyzed the determinants of excellent R&D performance and proposed R&D strategy for R&D conducting using the patent bibliograpy information in energy resources production technology field. On the other hand, this study introduced the concept of technology lifecycle and showed that R&D strategy should be differentiated by technology lifecycle.
Global Trends of Bioethanol Science Information
Kil, Sang-Cheol ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Oh, Mihn-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 589~597
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2012.45.5.589
Recently, an understanding of new sources of liquid hydrocarbons such as bioethanol is economically very important. Bioethanol is actually ethyl alcohol or also referred to as ethanol, identical to drinking alcohol by its composition. There are mainly two ways of producing ethanol, namely by synthesis of hydrocarbons and from biomass. Only the second approach deserves the terminology `bioethanol`. The present dissertation is also designed with purpose of developing the energy-saving process for the separation of bioethanol. The world population is expected to grow past 8 billion by 2030 which are almost 60% in Asia Pacific. History has shown that energy use rises much faster than population expands. World wide demand for energy will increase significantly during the next 15 years driven by population growth and the transition of emerging markets into the global economy. In developing nations, a smaller increment in GDP per capita yields a higher increment in energy consumption compared to developed countries. In this study, we analised total 2,454 dissertations for the bioethanol during the 2001~2012 periods by the programs of `web of science` and `recently developped program by Korea Institute of Science Technology Information`.