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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
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Mineralogical Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) at Daero-ri, Seosan, Chungnam, Korea
Jung, Haemin ; Shin, Joodo ; Kim, Yumi ; Park, Jaebong ; Roh, Yul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 467~477
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.467
Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on NOA were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos in Korea. But, studies on carbonatehosted asbestos are relatively rare. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to investigate mineralogical characteristics of carbonate-hosted and metapelite-hosted NOA and to examine genesis of NOA occurred in the both rocks. The study area was Daerori, Seosan, Chungnam Province, Korea. The major rock formation consisted of limestone and schist which have been known to contain asbestos. Sampling was performed at outcrop which contained carbonate rock showing acicular asbestos crystals as well as pegmatitic intrusion that contacted with carbonate rock. PLM, XRD, EPMA, and EDS analyses were used to characterize mineral assemblages, mineralogical characteristics, and crystal habits of amphiboles and other minerals. BSEM images were also used to examine the genesis of asbestos minerals. The amphibole group was observed in all of the carbonate rocks, and actinolite and tremolite were identified in all rocks. These mineral habits were mainly micro-acicular crystals or secondary asbestiform minerals on the surface of non-asbestiform minerals appearing split end of columnar crystals produced by weathering. BSEM images showed residual textures of samples. The residual textures of carbonate rocks showed dolomite-tremolite-diopside mineral assemblages that formed during prograde metasomatism stage. Some carbonate rock also showed diopside-tremolite-talc mineral assemblages which were formed during retrograde metasomatism stage, as the residual textures. In result the presence of asbestos actinolite-tremolite in the carbonate rocks were confirmed in the areas where actinolite-tremolite asbestos was influenced by low temperature hydrothermal solution during metasomatism stage. These asbestos minerals showed the acicular asbestiform minerals, but even non-asbestiform minerals, a bundle or columnar shape, could transform to asbestiform minerals as potential NOA by weathering because the end of columnar shape of non-asbestiform minerals appeared as multiple acicular shaped fibers.
Mineralogical Characterization of Asbestos in Soil at Daero-ri, Seosan, Chungnam, Korea
Kim, Jaepil ; Jung, Haemin ; Song, Suckwhan ; Lim, HoJu ; Lee, WooSeok ; Roh, Yul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 479~488
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.479
Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) from disturbance of rocks and soils has been overlooked as a source of exposure that could potentially have a detrimental impact on human health. But, few researches on mineralogical characteristics of NOA occurred in soils have been reported in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the mineralogical characteristics of NOA occurred in soils at Daero-ri area, Seosan, Chungnam Province, Korea. Sedimentation method was used for particle size separation of the asbestos-containing soils. XRD and PLM analyses were used to characterize mineralogical characteristics and mineral assemblages in soils. SEM-EDS and TEM-EDS analyses were used to characterize mineral morphology and chemical composition. Particle size analyses of the asbestos-containing soils showed they were composed of 26-93% sand, 4-23% silt and 3-70% clay. Soil texture of the soils was mainly sand, sandy loam, sandy clay, and clay. PLM analyses of the soil showed that most of the soil contained asbestiform tremolite and actinolite. The average content of asbestos in the soil was 1.5 wt. %. Therefore, the soil can be classified into asbestos-contaminated soils based on U. S. Environmental Protection Agency classification (content of asbestos in contaminated soil > 1%). Morphologically different types of tremolite such as long fibrous, needle-like, fiber bundle, bladed and prismatic forms co-existed. Prismatic tremolite was dominant in sand fraction and asbestiform tremolite was dominant in silt fraction. This study indicates that the prismatic form of tremolite transform gradually into a fibrous form of tremolite due to soil weathering because tremolite asbestos was mainly existed in silt fraction rather than sand fraction.
Occurrence and Mineralogical Characteristics of Asbestos in Dolostone at Ungdo, Seosan
Kim, Seon-Ok ; Lee, Minhee ; Jung, Hyunjung ; Shin, Wonji ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 489~496
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.489
The occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of asbestos in dolostone at Ungdo, Seosan were investigated by analyses of PLM, XRD, and SEM/EDS. Representative outcrops of dolostone at Ungdo were examined and four dolostone samples were collected according the occurrence type to identify the shape of asbestos in dolostone samples. The host rock of dolostone had been produced from the hydrothermal alteration and/or thermal metamorphism of which main source was assumed as the acidic granite. Tremolites were observed near the cracks or fractures of the dolostone as tamping or gob types. From the mineralogical analyses, main minerals of dolostone were dolomite with calcite, quartz, talc, amphibole, and pyroxene. From SEM/EDS analyses, tremolite-actinolite asbestoses were observed in dolostone and their shapes were prismatic and fibrous (less than
in width). Non-asbestos prismatic forms were also found and they would transfer to asbestos particles resulting from the cleavage and fracture of the prismatic particles. Overall results suggest that asbestoses in Ungdo dolosotnes were mainly tremolite-actinolite and they were originated from the hydrothermal alteration of Ca-Mg rich dolostone.
Size Distributions of Amphiboles in Soils from a Closed Asbestos Mine, Jecheon, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea
Kwon, Jiwoon ; Choi, Sung Won ; Kim, Hyunwook ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 497~505
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.497
This study is for discrimination between asbestiform and non-asbestiform based on size characteristics of tremolite-actinolite fibers in soils from a closed asbestos mine, Jecheon, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. Soils and tremolite asbestos rocks were collected from a closed asbestos mine area. The dimensions of fibers with minimum
in length and 3:1 in aspect ratio were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compared to the known tremolite populations ranging from asbestiform to non-asbestiform. The geometric means of width of soils, asbestos rocks and National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) and Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) reference samples were
, respectively. The geometric means of aspect ratio of soils, asbestos rocks and NIST and HSL reference samples were 7.3, 13.7-30.1, 7.2 and 37.8, respectively. The population of tremolite-actinolite fibers from soils compared to known asbestiform and non-asbestiform tremolite was lack of thin and high aspect ratio fibers. Upper results suggest that tremolite-actinolite fibers in soils cannot be classified into a commercial grade asbestos. The tremolite-actinolite fibers do not mainly appear to be the result of contamination from distance asbestos sources by wind. For the management and control of asbestos in soils, size distributions of amphiboles should be incorporated into asbestos survey results of soils.
Changes of Mineralogical Characteristics of Asbestos by Heat Treatment
Jeong, Hyeonyi ; Moon, Wonjin ; Yoon, Sungjun ; Kim, Yumi ; Roh, Yul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 507~515
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.507
Asbestos is designated as carcinogen minerals. Detoxification of asbestos is being conducted by physical and chemical treatments that lead the formation of non-fibrous mineral particles or phase transitions. Major researches have been performed on mineralogical properties of asbestos and possibilities of detoxification in Korea. More specific studies are needed to prove the form and crystal structure changes during the detoxification of asbestos via heat treatment. Therefore, we studied thermal effects on mineralogical characteristics of chrysotile and asbestiform tremolite using electron microscopy investigation. Electron microscopy investigation showed chrysotile fibers were fully transformed into rod-shaped forsterite at
in 2 hours, and asbestiform tremolite fibers were converted into non-fibrous diopside at
in 2 hours. Fibrous asbestos were converted into rod-shaped minerals, which are non-asbestiform. However, compositions of both minerals were not changed before and after heat treatment. These results indicate that thermal treatment of asbestos completely broke down asbestos structure due to dehydroxylation and recrystallization. Thus, electron microscopy investigation can provide the useful information of shapes, crystal structure, and chemistries of the asbestos for the detoxification.
A Study on Sedimentology of the Mesozoic Munamdong Formation, Northeastern Gyeonggi Massif, Korea
Choi, Young-Gi ; Ryu, In-Chang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 517~532
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.517
The Munamdong Formation is a small scale sedimentary deposit which is located in Yuljeonri, Naemyeon, Hongcheon Gangwon-do. In order to understand the depositional environment and its sequential change in the formation, sedimentary facies analysis was conducted. The result indicates that the Munamdong Formation began to be deposited in alluvial fan system accompanying volcanic activity and gradually deposited in lake system. As well, U-Pb, K-Ar and
ages are determined from the Munamdong Formation. The SHRIMP U-Pb Phanerozoic Eon age of the detrital zircons in the middle part of the Munamdong formation yields
. The K-Ar and
ages of the volcanic rock in the lowermost part of the Munamdong formation are
respectively. These results confirm that the Munamdong Formation was deposited during the Late Triassic, indicating that the basin might be formed due to post-collisional rifting or collapsing.
Detailed Bathymetry and Seabed Characteristics of Wangdol-cho, Hupo Bank in the East Sea
Kim, Chang Hwan ; Park, Chan Hong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 533~540
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.533
The Wangdol-cho area, in the Hupo Bank, plays a very important role in main fishing grounds, leisure tourism and marine environmental researches of the East Sea. We analyzed the detailed bathymetry and classified the seabed characteristics of the Wangdol-cho area, based on seafloor backscattering images and sediment grain size. The Hupo Bank is developed in parallel with the eastern coastal line of Korean peninsula, and the shallowest area (Wangdol-cho) of the Hupo Bank is located along the eastern part of Hupo Port. The Wangdol-cho comprises three summits; north summit, middle summit, and south summit. The middle summit area among the three summits has the most shallow water depth with minimum about 6 m. The north summit shows about 8 m minimum depth and the south summit about 9 m. The bathymetry data around three summits represent undulating seabeds with many scattered underwater reefs and shallow water depth. The area between the underwater reefs, the flat seafloor in the northeastern part of the survey site, and the western steep slope area have relatively coarse sediments such as sandy gravel and gravelly sand. The bathymetry in the western side of the Wangdol-cho shows steep slope seabed, extending to the Hupo Basin. Fine sediments including mud and silty sand occur in the Hupo Basin area of the survey site. The submarine detailed topography and the analysis of the seafloor characteristics of the survey area are expected to contribute to management for marine environmental researches and sustainable use of ecosystems in the Wangdol-cho.
Occurrence and Formation Environment of Boron Deposits in Turkey
Koh, Sang-Mo ; Lee, Bum Han ; Lee, Gilljae ; Cicek, Murat ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 541~549
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.541
The annual borate production in Turkey is about 3 million tons, which occupies approximately 61 percent of total annual world production. Turkey has five boron deposits including Bigadic, Emet, Kestelek, Kirka, and Sultancayir. At present, Bigadic, Emet, and Kirka deposits are operating. Kirka boron deposit is distributed within volcanoclatic sedimentary group as mainly layered, rarely brecciated and massive types. Major borate is borax associated with colemanite and ulexite. They show a horizontal symmetrical zonation from Na borate (borax) in the center of deposit to Na-Ca borate (ulexite) and Ca-borate (colemanite) in margin. Bigadic boron deposit is known as the largest colemanite deposit in the world. This deposit occurs as two borate bearing horizons in Miocene volcanoclastic sedimentary group. Thickness ranges from several meters to 100 meter with a length of several hundreds meters. Borate ore bodies which are mainly composed of colemanite and ulexite are alternated with claystone, mudstone, tuff and layered limestone as lenticular shape. Sultancayir boron deposit is mainly distributed within gray limestone. Main borate minerals of this deposit are pandermite and ulexite. Pandermite and ulexite occur as colloform aggregate and small veinlet, respectively. Turkish boron deposits are evaporite deposit which were formed in Miocene playa-lake environment. Boron was supplied to the deposits by the volcanic and hydrothermal activities.
Scientometric Analysis for Unconventional Tight Gas
Lee, Su-Jin ; Kil, Sang-Cheol ; Kim, Young-In ; Oh, Mihn-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 551~561
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2014.47.5.551
Natural gas is the world`s fastest-growing fossil fuel, with consumption increasing from 113 trillion cubic feet(Tcf) in 2010 to 185Tcf in 2040. While conventional natural gas streams from the earth relatively easily, unconventional gas finds are more difficult to develop and more costly to produce. Right now, there are six main types of unconventional gas, including deep gas, gas-containing shale, coalbed methane(CBM), geopressurized zones, Arctic and subsea hydrates, and tight gas. Tight gas refers to natural gas reservoirs locked in extraordinarily impermeable, hard rocks(sandstone, siltstone or carbonate sedimentary rocks). In this study, we analyzed total 375 papers(2000-2014) of tight gas by country, institution, international cooperation etc.