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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Standardization Studies for the Oriental Mineral Medicine
Kim, Seon-Ok ; Park, Maeng-Eon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 187~197
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.187
Oriental mineral medicines are single or mixture of more than one mineral species or rock/fossil which are used to treat disease. Mineral medicines remove harmful or useless substances to decrease toxicity and secondary effects, and cause the manufacture of medical compounds with increased efficacy. The extraction test is an accepted in vitro system to predict the bioaccessibility of major and minor elements from mineral medicine. It incorporates gastrointerstinal tract parameters representative of a human body that including stomach and small intestinal pH which are the same as digestion condition. The bioaccessibility of a mineral medicine is the fraction that is soluble in the gastrointestinal environment and is available for absorption. Reaction path modeling in the human body can predict digestion with gastric fluid as well as absorption in the small intestine, existence in body fluids and reaction progress of the exhaust process according to pH conditions in body. Also reaction path modeling can predict bioavailability, which is equal to existence rate in the body and the form and amount of a medicine in the body after intake. The study results from predicating the existence form mineral medicines in the body, and proving the effective ingredient using bioaccessibitily and human risk assessment, suggest these that should be necessary data for new medicine development.
Development of Antibiotic-intercalated Smectite Composites and Its Drug Delivery Potential in Gastric System
Song, Yungoo ; Chung, Donghoon ; Song, Young Goo ; Choi, Woohyun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 199~204
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.199
In this study, we aimed to make antibiotic-intercalated smectite composites using amoxicillin and clarithromycin as hygroscopic antibiotics, and gentamicin, tobramycin and netilmicin as non-hygroscopic aminoglucosides, and to check their drug delivery potential in gastric system using preliminary in-situ column release test for clarithromycinsmectite composite. All antibiotics were successfully intercalated into the interlayer of smectite by cation-exchange reaction in the batch experiment. Equilibrium batch test showed that clarithromycin-intercalation followed Langmuir isotherm and the possible maximum amount was calculated as 1.811 mmole/g. Clarithromycin was continuously released by the solutions of pH=2, 3, and 4 and the amount was decreased with pH increase.
Construction of Precise Digital Terrain Model for Nonmetal Open-pit Mine by Using Unmanned Aerial Photograph
Cho, Seong-Jun ; Bang, Eun-Seok ; Kang, Il-Mo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 205~212
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.205
We have verified applicability of UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry to a mining engineering. The test mine is a smectite mine located at Gyeongju city in Gyeongnam province, Koera. 448 photos over area of
were taken with overlapped manner using Cannon Mark VI equipped to multicopter DJI S1000, which were processed with AgiSoft Photoscan software to generate orthophoto and DEM model of the study area. photogrammetry data with 10 cm resolution were generated using 6 ground control positions, which were exported to the 3D geological modeling software to make a topographic surface object. Monitoring of amount of ore production and landsliding could be done with less than 1 hours photographing as well as low cost. A direct link between UAV photogrammetry and 3D geological modeling technology might increase productivity of a mine due to appling the topographical surface change immediately according to the mining operation.
Characterization of Selenium (Se) Distribution in Soils and Crops at Moi-san, Haenam
Kim, Seon-Ok ; Cheon, Se Weon ; Park, Gyu-Ryeong ; Wang, Sookyun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 213~219
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.213
Samples from soils and crops were collected and analyzed in order to investigate the interactions of selenium among rocks, soils, and crops by hydrothermal alteration near epithermal mines in the region of Mio-san, Haenam. Soil samples included 6 samples each from mountain and farm area and compositional minerals and their contents were analyzed by water content, pH, ICP, XRD, XRF. Crop samples from onion and scallion were analyzed for chemical composition to elucidate the relationship with soils. Results from XRD analysis for soil samples showed that major compositional minerals are qualtz and feldspar, and illite, chlorite, hematite formed by hydrothermal alteration were included on a small scale. The pH ranges of soil samples from mountain and farm were measured at 4.6~4.9 and 5.2~6.7, respectively. The higher pH in farm soils may result from fertilization during agricultural activities. Results from ICP analysis showed that, compared to soil samples from mountain area with no potassium and calcium, significant amount of K and Ca were detected in soil samples from farms which is affected by fertilization. In a similar manner, potassium and calcium were absorbed and detected in crop samples at relatively high concentrations (116.89~169.79 ppm for K and 20.18~32.29 ppm for Ca). While the selenium contents in soil samples ranged from 18.35 ppb to 70.31 ppb which showed no significant difference, high concentrations of selenium were detected in onion (119.48~179.50 ppb) and scallion (146.65 ppb). These difference in enrichment for each element may result from the distinctive adsorption characteristics depending on crops.
Case Study of Pharmaceutical Ingredients Derived from Clay Minerals
Jin, Su-Eon ; Lee, Jangik Ike ; Hwang, Sung-Joo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 221~229
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.221
Clay minerals have been used in pharmaceutical industries as active ingredients and excipients without pharmacological activity such as diluents, emulsifying agents, viscosity-increasing agents, and lubricants. For example, bentonite, kaolin, magnesium aluminum silicate, and talc are generally and extensively used pharmaceutical ingredients, which are restrictedly regulated by Pharmacopoeias. We discuss the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of clay minerals. In addition, we introduce the cases of pharmaceutical applications of clay minerals. From this review, pharmaceutical applications of clay minerals can be one of strategies for the development of high value-added products from clay minerals.
Mineral Medicine Described in the Oriental Medicine Book and Mineral Medicines Applicable to Atopic Dermatitis Treatment
Bak, Jiwon ; Kim, Donghee ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 231~240
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.231
A total of 93 mineral medicines are mentioned in the Chinese Bonchodogam(本草圖鑑). In Donguibogam(東醫寶鑑), 77 mineral medicines are listed, where 18 are from soil origin, 4 from gem origin, and 55 mineral medicines were originated from stone. In the Herblogy(本草學), which is the textbook used in most oriental medicine colleges in Korea, a total of 23 mineral medicines are listed. Of those, Cinnabaris, Alumen, Melanteritum, Realgar, Orpimentum, Sulfur, Lime from Donguibogam, additional eight which are Talcum, Calomelas, Minium, Calamina, Stannum, Hydrargyrum, Lithargyrum, Hydrargyrum Chloratum from Bonchodogam and Gypsum, Natrii Sulfas, Talcum, Cinnabaris, Sulfur, Arsenicum Sublimatum, Realgar, Calomelas, Minium, Calamina, Borax, Aurum, Glauberitum from Herblogy were selected as the mineral medicine applicable as external atopic dermatitis treatment. Most of the mineral medicines were generally regarded as toxic materials, and therefore, they were elaborately processed to remove toxicity before use. In accordance, it is necessary to discuss how to effectively remove toxicity from toxic mineral medicines. In addition, detoxification can be applied to those mineral medicines classified based on the index material or high content compounds, and if efficacy can be evaluated through various analytical methods, this can be applied to diverse inflammatory diseases as well as atopic dermatitis.
Overview of Helicobacter pylori and Treatment Options
Song, Young Goo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 241~246
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.241
Helicobacter pylori is an important transmissible human pathogen found on the luminal surface of the gastric epithelium. The organism can persist in the stomach indefinitely and causes gastroduodenal inflammation that may proceed to atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Standard triple therapy which consists of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) plus two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) is now generally used in Korea, however, eradication rates of H. pylori has been decreasing due to increasing antibiotic resistance. In this review, current second-line treatment regimens, difficult problems on treatment, necessity of local target therapy, applicability of clay minerals as a drug delivery system (DDS), and a new therapeutic strategy and its study plans will be discussed.
Use of Natural Halloysite as a Functional Cosmetics Carrier
Suh, Yong Jae ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 247~253
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.247
Natural halloysite is mostly found in the form of a tubular structure with a 15-125 nm internal lumen. This kaolin clay can be used for encapsulating a liquid ingredient of cosmetics and for immobilizing an inorganic solid-phase ingredient. In this paper, the encapsulation and immobilization procedures are introduced and two example applications are reviewed to demonstrate the usefulness of halloysite as a cosmetics substrate. It may help attract more interest in cosmetic applications of halloysite and thus spur more research on the utilization of natural clays.
Application of Clay Minerals in the Food Industry
Park, So-Lim ; Lee, So-Young ; Kim, Hyo Jin ; Lim, Seong-Il ; Nam, Young-Do ; Kang, Il-Mo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 255~260
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.255
There are more than 2000 minerals on earth, and it has been implemented in various fields such as environment, architecture, livestock, chemistry, pharmaceuticals. Clay minerals are considered that they can change the physical and chemical properties through the adsorption and release of metal ions. Although domestic deposit of non-metallic mineral resources is approximately ninety-six billion tons, its application is limited and has hardly been used in high value-added industries involved in medicine, medical supplies, and functional food materials. Bentonite and zeolite are already used for cosmetic purposes and also used in living goods and packing materials. However, direct application to the food industry is relatively very rare. Since records regarding the intake of minerals for foods and medicines are found in the old literatures, the utilization of non-metallic minerals as food materials appears to be highly profitable. According to the trends in patent research for food and mineral resources, the company plays a main role for the development of the food containing non-metallic minerals in USA, and the trends confirms that this industry is emerging. Here, we provided the information about domestic and foreign patent trend for food industries involved in mineral resources and the application of mineral resources in the food industries. We also covered the domestic regulation regarding usage of mineral resources in food, and proposed domestic application plan for food production using mineral resources in the future.
Bioassessment of Heavy Metals, Nanoparticles, and Soils Contaminated with Metals using Various Bioassays
Kong, In Chul ; Shi, Yu Tal ; Lee, Min Kyung ; Kang, Il Mo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 48, issue 3, 2015, Pages 261~271
DOI : 10.9719/EEG.2015.48.3.261
Toxicity results of metals, nanoparticles (NPs), and soils contaminated with metals were introduced on this review. Following methods were used: seed germination, bioluminescence, enzyme activity, and mutation. In general, different sensitivities were observed, depending on types of bioassays and pollutants. Among tested seeds, sensitivities of Lactucus and Raphanus were greater than others. Of single metal exposure, effect by As(III) was greater than others, and high revertant mutation ratio (5.1) was observed at 1 mg/L arsenite, indicating high mutagenicity. No general pattern was observed on the effect of metal mixture, but synergistic effect was observed with seeds. In case of soils, no correlation was observed between total metal contents and toxicity. Toxicity of NPs was observed as follows: CuO > ZnO > NiO >
. Especially, no considerable effects were observed by
under tested concentration (max. 1,000 mg/L). The evaluation results of interactive toxic effects using various bioassays may comprise a useful tool for the bioassessment of various environmental pollutants.