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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Journal DOI :
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Aug 2006
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Jul 2006
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
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An Extended Kalman Filter Robust to Linearization Error
Hong, Hyun-Su ; Lee, Jang-Gyu ; Park, Chan-Gook ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 93~100
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.093
In this paper, a new-type Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is proposed as a robust nonlinear filter for a stochastic nonlinear system. The original EKF is widely used for various nonlinear system applications. But it is fragile to its estimation errors because they give rise to linearization errors that affect the system mode1 as the modeling errors. The linearization errors are nonlinear functions of the estimation errors therefore it is very difficult to obtain the accurate error covariance of the EKF using the linear form. The inaccurately estimated error covariance hinders the EKF from being a sub-optimal estimator. The proposed filter tries to obtain the upper bound of the error covariance tolerating the uncertainty of the error covariance instead of trying to obtain the accurate one. It treats the linearization errors as uncertain modeling errors that can be handled by the robust linear filtering. In order to be more robust to the estimation errors than the original EKF, the proposed filter minimizes the upper bound like the robust linear filter that is applied to the linear model with uncertainty. The in-flight alignment problem of the inertial navigation system with GPS position measurements is a good example that the proposed robust filter is applicable to. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed filter in the robustness to initial estimation errors of the filter.
A Method for Reducing the Effect of Disk Radial Runout for a High-Speed Optical Disk Drive
Ryoo Jung Rae ; Moon Jung-Ho ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 101~105
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.101
Disk radial runout creates a periodic relative motion between the laser beam spot and tracks formed on an optical disk. While only focus control is activated, the periodic relative motion yields sinusoid-like waves in the tracking error signal, where one cycle of the sinusoid-like waves corresponds to one track. The frequency of the sinusoid-like waves varies depending on the disk rotational speed and the amount of the disk radial runout. If the frequency of the tracking error signal in the off-track state is too high due to large radial runout of the disk, it is not a simple matter to begin track-following control stably. It might take a long time to reach a steady state or tracking control might fail to reach a stable steady state in the worst case. This article proposes a simple method for reducing the relative motion caused by the disk radial runout in the off-track state. The relative motion in the off-track state is effectively reduced by a drive input obtained through measurements of the tracking error signal and simple calculations based on the measurements, which helps reduce the transient response time of the track-following control. The validity of the proposed method is verified through an experiment using an optical disk drive.
Hybrid Car Navigation System using GPS and Dual Electric Compass
Kim Yang-Hwan ; Choi Byoung-Suk ; Lee Jang-Myung ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.106
A new model for the continuous-magnetic interferences has been proposed in this paper to remove external interferes of magnetic field to the dual electric compass. By this removal, the dual electric compass can be used for proving the azimuth angle in an automobile navigation system instead of the rate gyroscope. In the navigation system with a GPS receiver, a DR sensor such as a rate gyroscope is needed to overcome the shielded areas, which is relatively expensive and requires frequent calibrations. However the dual electric compass designed by this research is cheap and provides absolute azimuth angle precisely, which is beneficiary to be used as a DR sensor. The main contribution of this paper is that the long-lasting magnetic interferences have been removed out by using the proposed model, which never be studied before. With a hybrid navigation system using a DR sensor, we demonstrated that dual electric compass is better than a rate gyroscope in terms of both economics and performances.
Three Dimensional Last Data Generation System Design Utilizing SFFD and LFFD
Kim, Si-Kyung ; Park, In-Duck ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 113~118
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.113
A new last design approach based on the Limb line FFD (LFFD) and Scale factor FFD (SFFD) is presented in this paper. The proposed last design method utilizes the dynamic trimmed parametric patches for the measured foot 3D data and last 3D data. Furthermore, the proposed last data generation system utilizes cross sectional data extracted obtained from the measured 3D foot data. First, the last design rule of the LFFD is constructed on the FFD lattice based on foot last shape analysis. Secondly, SFFD is constructed on the LFFD new lattice based on scale factor deformation. The scale factor is constructed on the boundary edges of polygonized patch and the cross section last data boundary edge of the polygon object. Suppose the two boundary curves have been preprocessed so that they run in the same direction and they forms the SF(Scale Factor). In addition, the control points of FFD lattice are derived with cross. sectional data interpolation methods from a finite set of 3D foot data.
Machine`s Determination of Main Color and Imbalance in a Drawing for Art Psychotherapy
Bae Jun ; Kim Jae Min ; Kim Seong-in ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 119~129
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.119
Art psychotherapy is widely accepted as an effective tool for diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Important factors for art psychotherapy diagnosis, based on the projection theory that the world of the inner mind appears in drawings, include main color and imbalance of a drawing. This paper develops a system for a machine to determine the main color and the imbalance of a drawing by color recognition and edge detection. Our proposed color recognition procedure adopts NBS(National Bureau of Standards) distance between colors in HVC(Hue, Value, Chroma) color space which is most similar to the human eye`s color perception. Our edge detection procedure applies blurring, clustering and transformation to a standard color in a series. Our system considers the numbers of pixels and clusters for each color as a criterion for main color and the frequency of edge coordinates for each region for imbalance. The proposed machine procedure, verified through case studies, can help overcome the subjectivity, ambiguity and uncertainty in human decision involved in art psychotherapy.
New Rectangle Feature Type Selection for Real-time Facial Expression Recognition
Kim Do Hyoung ; An Kwang Ho ; Chung Myung Jin ; Jung Sung Uk ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 130~137
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.130
In this paper, we propose a method of selecting new types of rectangle features that are suitable for facial expression recognition. The basic concept in this paper is similar to Viola`s approach, which is used for face detection. Instead of previous Haar-like features we choose rectangle features for facial expression recognition among all possible rectangle types in a 3
3 matrix form using the AdaBoost algorithm. The facial expression recognition system constituted with the proposed rectangle features is also compared to that with previous rectangle features with regard to its capacity. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in facial expression recognition.
Workspace and Force-Moment Transmission of a Parallel Manipulator with Variable Platform
Kim Byoung-Chang ; Lee Se-Han ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 138~144
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.138
Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of a Stewart platform based parallel manipulators are fixed once they are constructed. Thus parallel manipulators with various configurations are required to meet a variety of applications. In this research a parallel manipulator with variable platform (PMVP) has been developed, in which the length of the arm linking the platform center to the platform-leg contact point can be varied by an actuator. The workspace of the PMVP is larger than that of a traditional Stewart platform and especially the range in which the maximum orientation angles can be maintained is significantly expanded. Furthermore, the characteristics of force and moment transmission between the legs and platform can be adjusted to meet the requirements of various tasks. Kinematic and dynamics analysis was performed to verify the usefulness of the PMVP and the actual hardware was built to demonstrate the feasibility.
A Capturing Algorithm of Moving Object using Single Curvature Trajectory
Choi Byoung-Suk ; Lee Jang-Myung ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 145~153
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.145
An optimal capturing trajectory for a moving object is proposed in this paper based on the observation that a single-curvature path is more accurate than double-or triple-curvature paths. Moving distance, moving time, and trajectory error are major factors considered in deciding an optimal path for capturing the moving object. That is, the moving time and distance are minimized while the trajectory error is maintained as small as possible. The three major factors are compared for the single and the double curvature trajectories to show superiority of the single curvature trajectory. Based upon the single curvature trajectory, a kinematics model of a mobile robot is proposed to follow and capture the moving object, in this paper. A capturing scenario can be summarized as follows: 1. Motion of the moving object has been captured by a CCD camera., 2. Position of the moving object has been estimated using the image frames, and 3. The mobile robot tries to follow the moving object along the single curvature trajectory which matches positions and orientations of the moving object and the mobile robot at the final moment. Effectiveness of the single curvature trajectory modeling and capturing algorithm has been proved, through simulations and real experiments using a 2-DOF wheel-based mobile robot.
Implementation of Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Control Architecture for Autonomous Navigation of a Mobile Robot in Dynamic Environments
Nam Hwa-Sung ; Song Jae-Bok ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 154~160
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.154
Instantaneous reaction and intelligence are required for autonomous mobile robots to achieve multiple goals in the unpredictable and dynamic environments. Design of the appropriate control architecture and clear definitions of systems are needed to construct and control these robots. This research proposes the hybrid deliberative/reactive control architecture which consists of three layers and uses the method of software structure design. The highest layer, Deliberative Layer makes the overall run-time schedule for navigation and/or manipulation, and the middle layer, Task Execution Layer carries out various missions. The lowest layer, Reactive Layer enables a robot to react rapidly in the dynamic environment and controls the mechanical devices concurrently. This paper proposes independent system supervisors called Manager to reuse the modules so that the Manager supports common use of the system and multi-processing tasks. It is shown that the mobile robot based on the proposed control scheme can perform the basic navigation and cope with the dynamic obstacles reasonably well.
Studies of Lateral Impedance Force Control for an Autonomous Mobile Robot with Slip
Hsia T. C. ; Jung Seul ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 161~167
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.161
In this paper, lateral force control of a mobile robot with slip is presented. First, the bicycle model of a mobile robot is derived for the front steering. Second, impedance force control algorithm is applied to regulate contact force with environment. The desired distance is specified conservatively inside the environment to guarantee to make contact. Different stiffness of environment has been tested for force tracking task. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm works well to maintain desired contact force on the environment.
An Auto-Focusing Method for CCM Test Handlers
Yoon Ree-Sang ; Park Tae-Ryoung ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 168~173
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.168
This paper proposes an auto-focusing method for production of compact camera module (CCM). The CCM test handlers are mainly used in the final CCM production stage to test and adjust the lens focus of CCMs. To improve the productivity of CCM test handlers, we propose the auto-focusing method adjusting the lens focus efficiently. The max-min-difference (MMD) method is newly developed to compute the focus value efficiently, and two-stage searching method is also developed to find the best focus position quickly. Experimental results are presented to verify the usefulness of proposed method.
Improving the Performance of DR/GPS Integrated System For Land Navigation Using Sigma Point Based RHKF Filter
Choi, Wan-Sik ; Cho, Seong-Yun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 174~185
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.174
This paper describes a DR construction for land navigation and the sigma point based receding horizon Kalman FIR (SPRHKF) filter for DR/GPS hybrid navigation system. A simple DR construction is adopted to improve the performance both of the pure DR navigation and the DR/GSP hybrid navigation system. In order to overcome the flaws of the EKF, the SPKF is merged with the receding horizon strategy. This filter has several advantages over the EKF, the SPKF, and the RHKF filter. The advantages include the robustness to the system model uncertainty, the initial estimation error, temporary unknown bias, and etc. The computational burden is reduced. Especially, the proposed filter works well even in the case of exiting the unmodeled random walk of the inertial sensors, which can be occurred in the MEMS inertial sensors by temperature variation. Therefore, the SPRHKF filter can provide the navigation information with good quality in the DR/GPS hybrid navigation system for land navigation seamlessly.
Design of Internet Based DGPS Mobile Reference Station
Kim Jeong Won ; Hwang Dong-Hwan ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 186~193
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.186
This paper proposes a DGPS (Differential GPS) mobile reference station. The proposed systems can provide user with real-time correction data when the internet connention is possible. Since the GPS receiver part and network hardware are designed in a module, it can be easily moved and fixed. In order to verify the proposed system, several tersts have been carried out and the test results show the validity of the proposed system.
Implementation of a Mobile Robot Control Platform using Real-Time Embedded Linux
Choi Byoung-Wook ; Shin Eun-Cheol ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 194~200
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2006.12.2.194
The SoC and digital technology development recently enabled the emergence of information devices and control devices because the SoC presents many advantages such like lower power consumption, greater reliability, and lower cost. However, it is nearly impossible to use the SoC without operating systems because the SoC is included with many peripherals and complex architecture. It is required to use embedded operating systems and real-time operating systems may be used as an embedded operating system. So far, real-time operating systems are widely used to implement a Real-Time system since it meets developer`s requirements. However, real-time operating systems have disadvantages including a lack of standards, expensive development, and license. Embedded Linux is able to overcome their disadvantages. In this paper, the implementation of control system platform for a mobile robot using real-time Embedded Linux is described. As a control hardware system platform, XScale board is used. As the real-time Embedded Linux, RTAI is adopted which is open source and royalty free, and supports various architectures and real-time devices, such like real-time CAN and real-time COM. This paper shows the implementation of RTAI on XScale board that means the porting procedure. We also applied the control system platform to the mobile robot and compared the Real-Time serial driver with non real-time serial driver. Experimental results show that that using RTAI is useful to build real-time control system with powerful functionalities of Linux.