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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Journal DOI :
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
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State-Space Representation of Complementary Filter and Design of GPS/INS Vertical Channel Damping Loop
Park, Hae-Rhee ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 727~732
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.727
In this paper, the state-space representation of generalized complimentary filter is proposed. Complementary filter has the suitable structure to merge information from sensors whose frequency regions are complementary. First, the basic concept and structure of complementary filter is introduced. And then the structure of the generalized filter and its state-space representation are proposed. The state-space representation of complementary filter is able to design the complementary filter by applying modern filtering techniques like Kalman filter and
filter. To show the usability of the proposed state-space representation, the design of Inertial Navigation System(INS) vertical channel damping loop using Global Positioning System(GPS) is described. The proposed GPS/INS damping loop lends the structure of Baro/INS(Barometer/INS) vertical channel damping loop that is an application of complementary filter. GPS altitude error has the non-stationary statistics although GPS offers navigation information which is insensitive to time and place. Therefore,
filtering technique is selected for adding robustness to the loop. First, the state-space representation of GPS/INS damping loop is acquired. And next the weighted
norm proposed in order to suitably consider characteristics of sensor errors is used for getting filter gains. Simulation results show that the proposed filter provides better performance than the conventional vertical channel loop design schemes even when error statistics are unknown.
Track Initiation Algorithms for Multiple Maneuvering Target Tracking
Bae, Seung-Han ; Song, Taek-Lyul ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 733~739
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.733
This article proposes algorithms for the automatic initiation of the tracks of maneuvering targets in cluttered environments. These track initiation algorithms consist of IPDA-AI(Integrated Probabilistic Data Association-Amplitude Information) and MPDA(Most Probable Data Association) in an Interacting Multiple Model(IMM) configuration, and they are referred to as the IMM-IPDAF-AI and IMM-MPDA respectively. The IMM portion consists of several filters based on different dynamical models to handle target maneuvers. Each of the filters utilizes an IPDA-AI(or MPDA) algorithm to deal with the problem of track existence in the presence of clutter. Although the primary purpose of this study is to deal with the track initiation problem, the IMM-IPDAF-AI and IMM-MPDA can also be used for the maintenance of existing tracks and the termination of tracks for targets when they disappear. For illustrative purposes, simulation is used to compare the performance of the algorithms proposed to other track formation algorithms.
A Time-to-go Estimator Design for Proportional Navigation Guided Missiles using Kalman Filters
Whang, Ick-Ho ; Ra, Won-Sang ; Park, Hae-Rhee ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 740~744
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.740
In this paper, we propose a new time-to-go estimation filter for PN guided missiles. The proposed estimator is derived based on the approximation of the length of the PNG homing trajectory that we newly introduced using the special coordinate system. The coordinate system is convenient for taking the target movement into account. In addition, compared with the previous time-to-go estimation techniques, the parameters required for evaluating the length can be obtained only with the seeker measurements. Moreover, the seeker measurement error statistics can effectively be considered since our filter is derived based on the Kalman filter theory. Simulation result for a typical anti-ship see-skimming missile homing trajectory shows the excellent performance of the proposed filter.
SLAM Aided GPS/INS/Vision Navigation System for Helicopter
Kim, Jae-Hyung ; Lyou, Joon ; Kwak, Hwy-Kuen ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 745~751
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.745
This paper presents a framework for GPS/INS/Vision based navigation system of helicopters. GPS/INS coupled algorithm has weak points such as GPS blockage and jamming, while the helicopter is a speedy and high dynamical vehicle amenable to lose the GPS signal. In case of the vision sensor, it is not affected by signal jamming and also navigation error is not accumulated. So, we have implemented an GPS/INS/Vision aided navigation system providing the robust localization suitable for helicopters operating in various environments. The core algorithm is the vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technique. For the verification of the SLAM algorithm, we performed flight tests. From the tests, we confirm the developed system is robust enough under the GPS blockage. The system design, software algorithm, and flight test results are described.
Efficient Mobile Robot Localization through Position Tracking Bias Mitigation for the High Accurate Geo-location System
Kim, Gon-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Moo ; Yim, Chung-Hieog ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 752~759
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.752
In this paper, we propose a high accurate geo-location system based on a single base station, where its location is obtained by Time-of-Arrival(ToA) and Direction-of-Arrival(DoA) of the radio signal. For estimating accurate ToA and DoA information, a MUltiple SIgnal Classification(MUSIC) is adopted. However, the estimation of ToA and DoA using MUSIC algorithm is a time-consuming process. The position tracking bias is occurred by the time delay caused by the estimation process. In order to mitigate the bias error, we propose the estimation method of the position tracking bias and compensate the location error produced by the time delay using the position tracking bias mitigation. For accurate self-localization of mobile robot, the Unscented Kalman Filter(UKF) with position tracking bias is applied. The simulation results show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed geo-location system and the enhanced performance when the Unscented Kalman Filter is adopted for mobile robot application.
A Location Technique Based On Calibrated Radio Frequency Propagation Model For Wireless Local Area Networks
Kim, Hee-Sung ; Shim, Ju-Young ; Choi, Wan-Sik ; Lee, Hyung-Keun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 760~766
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.760
This paper proposes an efficient location technique to find an indoor location under the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks. The proposed method is based on the range measurements obtained from a simple radio frequency propagation model. Thus, unlike the radio frequency fingerprint correlation method, it does not suffer from the computational burden during the real-time location service period and can quickly reply the location requests of many users at the same time. To increase the location accuracy in spite of the frequent non-line-of-sight error occurrences, the proposed method calibrates the distortion of the non-line-of-sight error by a simple measurement surveying procedure that does not require the surveyor's manual interaction. Experimental results show the capability of the proposed method.
Localization System for Mobile Robot Using Electric Compass and Tracking IR Light Source
Son, Chang-Woo ; Lee, Seung-Heui ; Lee, Min-Cheol ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 767~773
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.767
This paper presents a localization system based on the use of electric compass and tracking IR light source. Digital RGB(Red, Green, Blue)signal of digital CMOS Camera is sent to CPLD which converts the color image to binary image at 30 frames per second. CMOS camera has IR filter and UV filter in front of CMOS cell. The filters cut off above 720nm light source. Binary output data of CPLD is sent to DSP that rapidly tracks the IR light source by moving Camera tilt DC motor. At a robot toward north, electric compass signals and IR light source angles which are used for calculating the data of the location system. Because geomagnetic field is linear in local position, this location system is possible. Finally, it is shown that position error is within
in this system.
Calibration of Low-cost Inertia Navigation System with Sun Line of Sight Vector
Jang, Se-Ah ; Choi, Kee-Young ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 774~778
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.774
The inaccuracy of inertial sensors used in low cost IMU's limits the usage to ARS, at best. Sensor fusion technologies are widely used to overcome this problem. GPS is the most popular secondary sensor, but GPS alone cannot fully compensate the IMU errors in the initial alignment process and rectilinear flights. This paper presents a new concept of aiding the low cost IMU with the sun line of sight vector. The simulation and experimental results in this paper proves that aiding of INS/GPS with the sun line of sight vector increases the observability and improves accuracy remarkably.
Online Dynamic Modeling of Ubiquitous Sensor based Embedded Robot Systems using Kalman Filter Algorithm
Cho, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Young-Jin ; Lee, Kwon-Soon ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 779~784
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.779
This paper presents Kalman filter based system modeling algorithm for autonomous robot systems. State of the robot system is measured using embedded sensor systems and then carried to a host computer via ubiquitous sensor network (USN). We settle a linear state-space motion equation for unknown robot system dynamics and modify a popular Kalman filter algorithm in deriving suitable parameter estimation mechanism. To represent time-delay nature due to network media in system modeling, we construct an augmented state-space model which is mainly composed of original state and estimated parameter vectors. We conduct real-time experiment to test our proposed estimation algorithm where speed state of the constructed robot is used as system observation.
Particle Filter Performance for Ultra-tightly GPS/INS integration
Park, Jin-Woo ; Yang, Cheol-Kwan ; Shim, Duk-Sun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 785~791
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.785
Ultra-tightly coupled GPS/INS integration has been reported to show better navigation performance than that of other integration methods such as loosely coupled and tightly coupled integration. This paper uses the particle filter for ultra-tightly coupled GPS/INS integration and analyzes the navigation performance according to vehicle trajectory and the number of particles. The navigation performance of particle filter is compared with those of EKF and UKF.
Motion Estimation Considering Uncertain Time Delayed Measurements for Remote Control
Choi, Min-Yong ; Chung, Wan-Kyun ; Choi, Won-Sub ; Yi, Sang-Yup ; Park, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 792~799
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.792
Motion estimation is crucial in a remote control for its convenience or accuracy. Time delays, however, can occur in the problem because data communication is required through a network. In this paper, state estimation problem with uncertain time delayed measurements is addressed. In dynamic system with noise, after taking measurements, it often requires some time until that is available in the filter algorithm. Standard filters not considering this time delays cannot be used since the current measurement is related with a past state. These delayed measurements are solved with augmented extended Kalman filter, and the uncertainty of delayed time is also resolved based on an explicit formulation. The proposed method is analyzed and verified by simulations.
Localization of Outdoor Wheeled Mobile Robots using Indirect Kalman Filter Based Sensor fusion
Kwon, Ji-Wook ; Park, Mun-Soo ; Kim, Tae-Un ; Chwa, Dong-Kyoung ; Hong, Suk-Kyo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 800~808
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.800
This paper presents a localization algorithm of the outdoor wheeled mobile robot using the sensor fusion method based on indirect Kalman filter(IKF). The wheeled mobile robot considered with in this paper is approximated to the two wheeled mobile robot. The mobile robot has the IMU and encoder sensor for inertia positioning system and GPS. Because the IMU and encoder sensor have bias errors, divergence of the estimated position from the measured data can occur when the mobile robot moves for a long time. Because of many natural and artificial conditions (i.e. atmosphere or GPS body itself), GPS has the maximum error about
when the mobile robot moves for a short time. Thus, the fusion algorithm of IMU, encoder sensor and GPS is needed. For the sensor fusion algorithm, we use IKF that estimates the errors of the position of the mobile robot. IKF proposed in this paper can be used other autonomous agents (i.e. UAV, UGV) because IKF in this paper use the position errors of the mobile robot. We can show the stability of the proposed sensor fusion method, using the fact that the covariance of error state of the IKF is bounded. To evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm, simulation and experimental results of IKF for the position(x-axis position, y-axis position, and yaw angle) of the outdoor wheeled mobile robot are presented.
Design of an Obstacle Detecting System for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Using Laser Scanner
Moon, Hee-Chang ; Son, Young-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Ha ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 809~817
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.809
This paper describes an obstacle detecting system of an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). The unmanned ground vehicle is consists of several systems such as vehicle control system, navigation system, obstacle detecting system and integration system. Among these systems, the obstacle detecting system is a driving assistance system of UGV. Through the UGV is driving, the system detects obstacles such as cars, human, tree, curb and hills and then send information of obstacles position to integration system for safety driving. In this research, the obstacle detecting system is composed of 5 laser scanners and develop algorithms of detecting obstacles, curb, uphill and downhill road.
Feature Extraction of Handwritten Numerals using Projection Runlength
Park, Joong-Jo ; Jung, Soon-Won ; Park, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Kyoung-Min ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 818~823
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.818
In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method which extracts directional features of handwritten numerals by using the projection runlength. Our directional featrures are obtained from four directional images, each of which contains horizontal, vertical, right-diagonal and left-diagonal lines in entire numeral shape respectively. A conventional method which extracts directional features by using Kirsch masks generates edge-shaped double line directional images for four directions, whereas our method uses the projections and their runlengths for four directions to produces single line directional images for four directions. To obtain the directional projections for four directions from a numeral image, some preprocessing steps such as thinning and dilation are required, but the shapes of resultant directional lines are more similar to the numeral lines of input numerals. Four [
] directional features of a numeral are obtained from four directional line images through a zoning method. By using a hybrid feature which is made by combining our feature with the conventional features of a mesh features, a kirsch directional feature and a concavity feature, higher recognition rates of the handwrittern numerals can be obtained. For recognition test with given features, we use a multi-layer perceptron neural network classifier which is trained with the back propagation algorithm. Through the experiments with the handwritten numeral database of Concordia University, we have achieved a recognition rate of 97.85%.
Flight Control System Design and Verification Process
Kim, Chong-Sup ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 824~836
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.824
Relaxed static stability(RSS) concept has been applied to improve aerodynamic performance of modern version supersonic jet fighter aircraft. Therefore, flight control systems are necessary to stabilize an unstable aircraft, and provides adequate handling qualities and achieve performance enhancements. Standard FCSDVP (Flight Control System Design and Verification Process) is provided to reduce development period of the flight control system. In addition, if this process is employed in developing flight control system, it reduces the trial and error for development and verification of flight control system. This paper addresses the flight control system design and verification process for the RSS aircraft utilizing design goal based on military specifications, linear and nonlinear system design and verification based on universal software, handling quality test based on HILS(Hardware In-the-Loop Simulator) environment, and ground and flight test results to verify aircraft dynamic flight responses.
Robust Reduced Order State Observer for Lipschitz Nonlinear Systems
Lee, Sung-Ryul ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 837~841
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.837
This paper presents a robust reduced order state observer for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with external disturbance. Sufficient conditions on the existence of the proposed observer are characterized by linear matrix inequalities. It is also shown that the proposed observer design can reduce the effect on the estimation error of external disturbance up to the prescribed level. Finally, a numerical example is provided to verify the proposed design method.
A New Sliding-Surface-Based Tracking Control of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots
Park, Bong-Seok ; Yoo, Sung-Jin ; Choi, Yoon-Ho ; Park, Jin-Bae ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 842~847
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.842
This paper proposes a new sliding-surface-based tracking control system for nonholonomic mobile robots with disturbance. To design a robust controller, we consider the kinematic model and the dynamic model of mobile robots with disturbance. We also propose a new sliding surface to solve the problem of previous study. That is, since the new sliding surface is composed of differentiable functions unlike the previous study, we can obtain the control law for arbitrary trajectories without any constraints. From the Lyapunov stability theory, we prove that the position tracking errors and the heading direction error converge to zero. Finally, we perform the computer simulations to demonstrate the performance of the proposed control system.
Multiple Camera-Based Correspondence of Ground Foot for Human Motion Tracking
Seo, Dong-Wook ; Chae, Hyun-Uk ; Jo, Kang-Hyun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 848~855
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.848
In this paper, we describe correspondence among multiple images taken by multiple cameras. The correspondence among multiple views is an interesting problem which often appears in the application like visual surveillance or gesture recognition system. We use the principal axis and the ground plane homography to estimate foot of human. The principal axis belongs to the subtracted silhouette-based region of human using subtraction of the predetermined multiple background models with current image which includes moving person. For the calculation of the ground plane homography, we use landmarks on the ground plane in 3D space. Thus the ground plane homography means the relation of two common points in different views. In the normal human being, the foot of human has an exactly same position in the 3D space and we represent it to the intersection in this paper. The intersection occurs when the principal axis in an image crosses to the transformed ground plane from other image. However the positions of the intersection are different depend on camera views. Therefore we construct the correspondence that means the relationship between the intersection in current image and the transformed intersection from other image by homography. Those correspondences should confirm within a short distance measuring in the top viewed plane. Thus, we track a person by these corresponding points on the ground plane. Experimental result shows the accuracy of the proposed algorithm has almost 90% of detecting person for tracking based on correspondence of intersections.
Design of Vehicle Low speed Drive Assistant System with Laser Scanner
Moon, Hee-Chang ; Son, Young-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Ha ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 14, issue 8, 2008, Pages 856~864
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2008.14.8.856
This paper describes a vehicle low speed driving assistant (VLDA) system that is composed of laser scanner. This vehicle is designed for following lead vehicle (LV) without driver's operation. The system is made up several component systems that are based on unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). Each component system is applied to use advanced safety vehicle developed to complete UGV system. VLDA system was divided into vehicle control system and obstacle detecting system. The obstacle detecting system calculate distance and angle of LV and transmit these data to vehicle control system using front, left and right laser scanners. Vehicle control system makes vehicle control values such as steering angle, acceleration and brake position and control vehicle's movement with steering, acceleration and brake actuators. In this research, we designed VLDA system like as low speed cruise control system and test it on real road environments.