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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Journal DOI :
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
A Method to Improve the Performance of Adaboost Algorithm by Using Mixed Weak Classifier
Kim, Jeong-Hyun ; Teng, Zhu ; Kim, Jin-Young ; Kang, Dong-Joong ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 457~464
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.457
The weak classifier of AdaBoost algorithm is a central classification element that uses a single criterion separating positive and negative learning candidates. Finding the best criterion to separate two feature distributions influences learning capacity of the algorithm. A common way to classify the distributions is to use the mean value of the features. However, positive and negative distributions of Haar-like feature as an image descriptor are hard to classify by a single threshold. The poor classification ability of the single threshold also increases the number of boosting operations, and finally results in a poor classifier. This paper proposes a weak classifier that uses multiple criterions by adding a probabilistic criterion of the positive candidate distribution with the conventional mean classifier: the positive distribution has low variation and the values are closer to the mean while the negative distribution has large variation and values are widely spread. The difference in the variance for the positive and negative distributions is used as an additional criterion. In the learning procedure, we use a new classifier that provides a better classifier between them by selective switching between the mean and standard deviation. We call this new type of combined classifier the "Mixed Weak Classifier". The proposed weak classifier is more robust than the mean classifier alone and decreases the number of boosting operations to be converged.
Walking Assistance System for Sight Impaired People Based on a Multimodal Information Transformation Technique
Yu, Jae-Hyoung ; Han, Young-Joon ; Hahn, Hern-Soo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 465~472
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.465
This paper proposes a multimodal information transformation system that converts the image information to the voice information to provide the sight impaired people with walking area and obstacles, which are extracted by an acquired image from a single CCD camera. Using a chain-code line detection algorithm, the walking area is found from the vanishing point and boundary of a sidewalk on the edge image. And obstacles are detected by Gabor filter of extracting vertical lines on the walking area. The proposed system expresses the voice information of pre-defined sentences, consisting of template words which mean walking area and obstacles. The multi-modal information transformation system serves the useful voice information to the sight impaired that intend to reach their destination. The experiments of the proposed algorithm has been implemented on the indoor and outdoor environments, and verified its superiority to exactly provide walking parameters sentences.
Vision-based AGV Parking System
Park, Young-Su ; Park, Jee-Hoon ; Lee, Je-Won ; Kim, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 473~479
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.473
This paper proposes an efficient method to locate the automated guided vehicle (AGV) into a specific parking position using artificial visual landmark and vision-based algorithm. The landmark has comer features and a HSI color arrangement for robustness against illuminant variation. The landmark is attached to left of a parking spot under a crane. For parking, an AGV detects the landmark with CCD camera fixed to the AGV using Harris comer detector and matching descriptors of the comer features. After detecting the landmark, the AGV tracks the landmark using pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracker and a refinement process. Then, the AGV decreases its speed and aligns its longitudinal position with the center of the landmark. The experiments showed the AGV parked accurately at the parking spot with small standard deviation of error under bright illumination and dark illumination.
Experiments of Urban Autonomous Navigation using Lane Tracking Control with Monocular Vision
Suh, Seung-Beum ; Kang, Yeon-Sik ; Roh, Chi-Won ; Kang, Sung-Chul ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 480~487
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.480
Autonomous Lane detection with vision is a difficult problem because of various road conditions, such as shadowy road surface, various light conditions, and the signs on the road. In this paper we propose a robust lane detection algorithm to overcome shadowy road problem using a statistical method. The algorithm is applied to the vision-based mobile robot system and the robot followed the lane with the lane following controller. In parallel with the lane following controller, the global position of the robot is estimated by the developed localization method to specify the locations where the lane is discontinued. The results of experiments, done in the region where the GPS measurement is unreliable, show good performance to detect and to follow the lane in complex conditions with shades, water marks, and so on.
The Implementation of Fast Object Recognition Using Parallel Processing on CPU and GPU
Kim, Jun-Chul ; Jung, Young-Han ; Park, Eun-Soo ; Cui, Xue-Nan ; Kim, Hak-Il ; Huh, Uk-Youl ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 488~495
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.488
This paper presents a fast feature extraction method for autonomous mobile robots utilizing parallel processing and based on OpenMP, SSE (Streaming SIMD Extension) and CUDA programming. In the first step on CPU version, the algorithms and codes are optimized and then implemented by parallel processing. The parallel algorithms are debugged to maintain the same level of performance and the process for extracting key points and obtaining dominant orientation with respect to key points is parallelized. After extraction, a parallel descriptor via SSE instructions is constructed. And the GPU version also implemented by parallel processing using CUDA based on the SIFT. The GPU-Parallel descriptor achieves an acceleration up to five times compared with the CPU-Parallel descriptor, but it shows the lower performance than CPU version. CPU version also speed-up the four and half times compared with the original SIFT while maintaining robust performance.
Recognition Performance of Vestibular-Ocular Reflex Based Vision Tracking System for Mobile Robot
Park, Jae-Hong ; Bhan, Wook ; Choi, Tae-Young ; Kwon, Hyun-Il ; Cho, Dong-Il ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 496~504
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.496
This paper presents a recognition performance of VOR (Vestibular-Ocular Reflex) based vision tracking system for mobile robot. The VOR is a reflex eye movement which, during head movements, produces an eye movement in the direction opposite to the head movement, thus maintaining the image of interested objects placed on the center of retina. We applied this physiological concept to the vision tracking system for high recognition performance in mobile environments. The proposed method was implemented in a vision tracking system consisting of a motion sensor module and an actuation module with vision sensor. We tested the developed system on an x/y stage and a rate table for linear motion and angular motion, respectively. The experimental results show that the recognition rates of the VOR-based method are three times more than non-VOR conventional vision system, which is mainly due to the fact that VOR-based vision tracking system has the line of sight of vision system to be fixed to the object, eventually reducing the blurring effect of images under the dynamic environment. It suggests that the VOR concept proposed in this paper can be applied efficiently to the vision tracking system for mobile robot.
Dividing Occluded Humans Based on an Artificial Neural Network for the Vision of a Surveillance Robot
Do, Yong-Tae ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 505~510
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.505
In recent years the space where a robot works has been expanding to the human space unlike traditional industrial robots that work only at fixed positions apart from humans. A human in the recent situation may be the owner of a robot or the target in a robotic application. This paper deals with the latter case; when a robot vision system is employed to monitor humans for a surveillance application, each person in a scene needs to be identified. Humans, however, often move together, and occlusions between them occur frequently. Although this problem has not been seriously tackled in relevant literature, it brings difficulty into later image analysis steps such as tracking and scene understanding. In this paper, a probabilistic neural network is employed to learn the patterns of the best dividing position along the top pixels of an image region of partly occlude people. As this method uses only shape information from an image, it is simple and can be implemented in real time.
Gait Recognition and Person Identification for Surveillance Robots
Park, Jin-Il ; Lee, Wook-Jae ; Cho, Jae-Hoon ; Song, Chang-Kyu ; Chun, Myung-Geun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 511~518
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.511
The surveillance robot has been an important component in the field of service robot industry. In the surveillance robot technology, one of the most important technology is to identify a person. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition method based on contourlet and fuzzy LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) for surveillance robots. After decomposing a gait image into directional subband images by contourlet, features are obtained in each subband by the fuzzy LDA. The final gait recognition is performed by a fusion technique that effectively combines similarities calculated respectively in each local subband. To show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, various experiments are performed for CBNU and NLPR DB datasets. From these, we obtained better classification rates in comparison with the result produced by previous methods.
3D Environment Perception using Stereo Infrared Light Sources and a Camera
Lee, Soo-Yong ; Song, Jae-Bok ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 519~524
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.519
This paper describes a new sensor system for 3D environment perception using stereo structured infrared light sources and a camera. Environment and obstacle sensing is the key issue for mobile robot localization and navigation. Laser scanners and infrared scanners cover
and are accurate but too expensive. Those sensors use rotating light beams so that the range measurements are constrained on a plane. 3D measurements are much more useful in many ways for obstacle detection, map building and localization. Stereo vision is very common way of getting the depth information of 3D environment. However, it requires that the correspondence should be clearly identified and it also heavily depends on the light condition of the environment. Instead of using stereo camera, monocular camera and two projected infrared light sources are used in order to reduce the effects of the ambient light while getting 3D depth map. Modeling of the projected light pattern enabled precise estimation of the range. Two successive captures of the image with left and right infrared light projection provide several benefits, which include wider area of depth measurement, higher spatial resolution and the visibility perception.
Consideration to the Stability of FLC using The Circle Criterion
Lee, Kyoung-Woong ; Choi, Han-Soo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 525~529
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.525
Most of FLC received input data from error e and change-of-error e' with no relation with system complexity. Basic scheme follows typical PD and PI or PID Controller and that has been developed through fixed ME In this paper, We studied the relationship between MF and system response and system response through changing Fuzzy variable of consequence MF and propose the simple FLC using this relationship. The response of FLC is changed according to the width of Fuzzy variable of consequence MF. As changing the Fuzzy variable of consequence MF shows various nonlinear characteristic, we studied the relation between response and MF using analytical method. We designed the effective FLC using three-variable MF and nine rules and took simulation for verification. In this study, we propose the method to design system with FLC in stability point which is an impotent characteristic of designing system. The circle criterion which is adapted to analysis the nonlinear system is put to use for proposed method. Since SISO FLC has a time-invariant and odd characteristic we can use the critical point not disk which is generally used to determine the stability in the circle criterion, to determine the stability. Using this, we can get the maximum critical point plot of SISO FLC with changing the consequence fuzzy variables. The predetermined critical point plot of FLC can be used to decide the region of the system to be stable. This method is effectively used to design the SISO FLC.
Pet Robot Simulator Coordinated over Network
Lee, Sung-Hun ; Yi, Soo-Yeong ; Choi, Byoung-Wook ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 530~537
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.530
A graphic simulator can be a useful tool for planning gaits or dynamic behaviors to a walking pet robot. Microsoft describes robotics developer studio (MSRDS) as an end-to-end robotics development platform including simulation engine based on dynamics. In this paper, we propose a pet robot simulator (PRS), based on MSRDS, which supports interactively controlled two walking robots connected over network. To be pet robot simulator, modeling a commercial pet robot is performed and gait planning is also implemented. By using concurrency and coordination runtime (CCR) and decentralized software services (DSS) of MSRDS software platform, we connect two robots which are displayed together but controlled separately over network. The two walking pet robots can be simulated interactively by joysticks. It seems to be an internet game for pet robots.
Direct Teaching and Playback Algorithm for Peg-in-Hole Task using Impedance Control
Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Back, Ju-Hoon ; Song, Jae-Bok ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 538~542
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.538
Industrial manipulators have been mostly used in large companies such as automakers and electronics companies. In recent years, however, demands for industrial manipulators from small and medium-sized enterprises are on the increase because of shortage of manpower and high wages. Since these companies cannot hire robot engineers for operation and programming of a robot, intuitive teaching and playback techniques of a robot manipulator should replace the robot programming which requires substantial knowledge of a robot. This paper proposes an intuitive teaching and playback algorithm used in assembly tasks. An operator can directly teach the robot by grasping the end-effector and moving it to the desired point in the teaching phase. The 6 axis force/torque sensor attached to the manipulator end-effector is used to sense the human intention in teaching the robot. After this teaching phase, a robot can track the target position or trajectory accurately in the playback phase. When the robot contacts the environment during the teaching and playback phases, impedance control is conducted to make the contact task stable. Peg-in-hole experiments are selected to validate the proposed algorithm since this task can describe the important features of various assembly tasks which require both accurate position and force control. It is shown that the proposed teaching and playback algorithm provides high positioning accuracy and stable contact tasks.
Development and Experiment of a Micropositioning Parallel Manipulator
Cha, Young-Youp ; Yoon, Kwon-Ha ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 543~547
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.543
This paper describes the design, simulation, development, and experiment of a six degree-of-freedom micropositioning parallel manipulator. A movable stage was supported with six links, each of which extends with a dc-servo micropositioning actuator. In case of parallel manipulator, while the solution of the inverse kinematics is easily found by the vectors of the links which are composed of the joint coordinates in base and platform, but forward kinematic is not easily solved because of the nonlinearity and complexity of the parallel manipulator's kinematic output equation with the multi-solutions. The movable range of the prototype was
in the x- and y-directions and
in the z-direction. The minimum incremental motion of the prototype was
in the x- and y-directions and
in the z-direction. The repeatability of the prototype was
in the x- and y-directions and
in the z-direction. The motion performance was also evaluated by not only the computer simulation of CAD model but also the experiment using a capacitive sensor system.
Automatic Optical Inspection System for Holograms with Multiple Patterns
Kwon, Hyuk-Joong ; Park, Tae-Hyoung ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 548~554
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.548
We propose an automatic inspection system for hologram with multiple patterns. The system hardware consists of illuminations, camera, and vision processor. Multiple illuminations using LEDs are arranged in different directions to acquire each image of patterns. The system software consists of pre-processing, pattern generation, and pattern matching. The acquired images of input hologram are compared with their reference patterns by developed matching algorithm. To compensate for the positioning error of input hologram, reference patterns of hologram for different position should be generated in on-line. We apply a frequency transformation based CGH(computer-generated hologram) method to generate reference images. For the fast pattern matching, we also apply the matching method in the frequency domain. Experimental results for hologram of Korean currency are then presented to verify the usefulness of proposed system.
Artificial Neural Network Modeling and Prediction Based on Hydraulic Characteristics in a Full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant
Kim, Min-Han ; Yoo, Chang-Kyoo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 15, issue 5, 2009, Pages 555~561
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2009.15.5.555
The established mathematical modeling methods have limitation to know the hydraulic characteristics at the wastewater treatment plant which are complex and nonlinear systems. So, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on hydraulic characteristics is applied for modeling wastewater quality of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant using DNR (Daewoo nutrient removal) process. ANN was trained using data which are influents (TSS, BOD, COD, TN, TP) and effluents (COD, TN, TP) components in a year, and predicted the effluent results based on the training. To raise the efficiency of prediction, inputs of ANN are added the influent and effluent information that are in yesterday and the day before yesterday. The results of training data tend to have high accuracy between real value and predicted value, but test data tend to have lower accuracy. However, the more hydraulic characteristics are considered, the results become more accuracy.