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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Journal DOI :
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
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An Output Feedback Controller for a Ball and Beam System under Measurement Noise of Feedback Sensor
Kim, Hyun-Do ; Choi, Ho-Lim ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 955~959
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.955
In this paper, we assume that an output sensor of a ball and beam system is coupled with AC measurement noise. We propose an output feedback controller for a ball and beam system under measurement noise of feedback sensor. Measurement noise makes feedback signals distorted, and results in performance degradation or even system failure. Therefore, we need to design a robust controller to accommodate the possible measurement noise in the feedback information. Our controller is equipped with a gain-scaling factor to minimize the effect of measurement noise in output feedback information. We give an analysis of the controlled system and illustrate the improved control performance via simulation and experiment for a ball and beam system.
Fault Detection and Isolation for Discrete-Time Delayed Systems
Jee, Sung-Chul ; Lee, Ho-Jae ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 960~966
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.960
In this paper, an
fault detection and isolation (FDI) observer design problem is investigated for discrete-time delayed systems. To that end, a bank consisting of the sensor`s number of observers is introduced. Each residual should be sensitive to a certain partial group of faults, but robust against the disturbance as far as possible. We formulate this multiobjective FDI problem as
observers design problem. Sufficient design condition is expressed as iterative linear matrix inequalities. The fault is then detected and isolated by evaluating the residuals through an FDI decision logic. A computer simulation is provided for verification of the proposed technique.
Fault-Tolerant Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Smart Actuators and Control Allocation
Yang, In-Seok ; Kim, Ji-Yeon ; Lee, Dong-Ik ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 967~982
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.967
This paper presents a FTNCS (Fault-Tolerant Networked Control System) that can tolerate control surface failure and packet delay/loss in an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The proposed method utilizes the benefits of self-diagnosis by smart actuators along with the control allocation technique. A smart actuator is an intelligent actuation system combined with microprocessors to perform self-diagnosis and bi-directional communications. In the event of failure, the smart actuator provides the system supervisor with a set of actuator condition data. The system supervisor then compensate for the effect of faulty actuators by re-allocating redundant control surfaces based on the provided actuator condition data. In addition to the compensation of faulty actuators, the proposed FTNCS also includes an efficient algorithm to deal with network induced delay/packet loss. The proposed algorithm is based on a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method without any mathematical model of the system. Computer simulations with an UAV show that the proposed FTNCS can achieve a fast and accurate tracking performance even in the presence of actuator faults and network induced delays.
Ground Plane Detection Using Homography Matrix
Lee, Ki-Yong ; Lee, Joon-Woong ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 983~988
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.983
This paper presents a robust method for ground plane detection in vision-based applications based on a monocular sequence of images with a non-stationary camera. The proposed method, which is based on the reliable estimation of the homography between two frames taken from the sequence, aims at designing a practical system to detect road surface from traffic scenes. The homography is computed using a feature matching approach, which often gives rise to inaccurate matches or undesirable matches from out of the ground plane. Hence, the proposed homography estimation minimizes the effects from erroneous feature matching by the evaluation of the difference between the predicted and the observed matrices. The method is successfully demonstrated for the detection of road surface performed on experiments to fill an information void area taken place from geometric transformation applied to captured images by an in-vehicle camera system.
Visual Servoing-Based Paired Structured Light Robot System for Estimation of 6-DOF Structural Displacement
Jeon, Hae-Min ; Bang, Yu-Seok ; Kim, Han-Geun ; Myung, Hyun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 989~994
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.989
This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a visual servoing-based paired structured light (SL) robot for estimating structural displacement under various external loads. The former paired SL robot, which was proposed in the previous study, was composed of two screens facing with each other, each with one or two lasers and a camera. It was found that the paired SL robot could estimate the translational and rotational displacement each in 3-DOF with high accuracy and low cost. However, the measurable range is fairly limited due to the limited screen size. In this paper, therefore, a visual servoing-based 2-DOF manipulator which controls the pose of lasers is introduced. By controlling the positions of the projected laser points to be on the screen, the proposed robot can estimate the displacement regardless of the screen size. We performed various simulations and experimental tests to verify the performance of the newly proposed robot. The results show that the proposed system overcomes the range limitation of the former system and it can be utilized to accurately estimate the structural displacement.
An Efficient Outdoor Localization Method Using Multi-Sensor Fusion for Car-Like Robots
Bae, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Byung-Kook ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 995~1005
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.995
An efficient outdoor local localization method is suggested using multi-sensor fusion with MU-EKF (Multi-Update Extended Kalman Filter) for car-like mobile robots. In outdoor environments, where mobile robots are used for explorations or military services, accurate localization with multiple sensors is indispensable. In this paper, multi-sensor fusion outdoor local localization algorithm is proposed, which fuses sensor data from LRF (Laser Range Finder), Encoder, and GPS. First, encoder data is used for the prediction stage of MU-EKF. Then the LRF data obtained by scanning the environment is used to extract objects, and estimates the robot position and orientation by mapping with map objects, as the first update stage of MU-EKF. This estimation is finally fused with GPS as the second update stage of MU-EKF. This MU-EKF algorithm can also fuse more than three sensor data efficiently even with different sensor data sampling periods, and ensures high accuracy in localization. The validity of the proposed algorithm is revealed via experiments.
Optimal Posture Control for Unmanned Bicycle
Yang, Ji-Hyuk ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Seuk-Yun ; Lee, Young-Sam ; Kwon, Oh-Kyu ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1006~1013
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1006
In this paper, we propose an optimal posture control law for an unmanned bicycle by deriving linear bicycle model from fully nonlinear differential equations. We calculate each equilibrium point of a bicycle under any given turning radius and angular speed of rear wheel. There is only one equilibrium point when a bicycle goes straight, while there are a lot of equilibrium points in case of turning. We present an optimal equilibrium point which makes the leaning input minimum when a bicycle is turning. As human riders give rolling torque by moving center of gravity of a body, many previous studies use a movable mass to move center of gravity like humans do. Instead we propose a propeller as a new leaning input which generates rolling torque. The propeller thrust input makes bicycle model simpler and removes input magnitude constraint unlike a movable mass. The proposed controller can hold optimal equilibrium points using both steering input and leaning input. The simulation results on linear control for circular motion are demonstrated to show the validity of the proposed approach.
Motion and Force Estimation System of Human Fingers
Lee, Dong-Chul ; Choi, Young-Jin ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1014~1020
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1014
This presents a motion and force estimation system of human fingers by using an Electromyography (EMG) sensor module and a data glove system to be proposed in this paper. Both EMG sensor module and data glove system are developed in such a way to minimize the number of hardware filters in acquiring the signals as well as to reduce their sizes for the wearable. Since the onset of EMG precedes the onset of actual finger movement by dozens to hundreds milliseconds, we show that it is possible to predict the pattern of finger movement before actual movement by using the suggested system. Also, we are to suggest how to estimate the grasping force of hand based on the relationship between RMS taken EMG signal and the applied load. Finally we show the effectiveness of the suggested estimation system through several experiments.
Optimal Design of a Novel Knee Orthosis using a Genetic Algorism
Pyo, Sang-Hun ; Yoon, Jung-Won ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1021~1028
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1021
The objective of this paper is to optimize the design parameters of a novel mechanism for a robotic knee orthosis. The feature of the proposed knee othosis is to drive a knee joint with independent actuation during swing and stance phases, which can allow an actuator with fast rotation to control swing motions and an actuator with high torque to control stance motions, respectively. The quadriceps device operates in five-bar links with 2-DOF motions during swing phase and is changed to six-bar links during stance phase by the contact motion to the patella device. The hamstring device operates in a slider-crank mechanism for entire gait cycle. The suggested kinematic model will allow a robotic knee orthosis to use compact and light actuators with full support during walking. However, the proposed orthosis must use additional linkages than a simple four-bar mechanism. To maximize the benefit of reducing the actuators power by using the developed kinematic design, it is necessary to minimize total weight of the device, while keeping necessary actuator performances of torques and angular velocities for support. In this paper, we use a SGA (Simple Genetic Algorithm) to minimize sum of total link lengths and motor power by reducing the weight of the novel knee orthosis. To find feasible parameters, kinematic constraints of the hamstring and quadriceps mechanisms have been applied to the algorithm. The proposed optimization scheme could reduce sum of total link lengths to half of the initial value. The proposed optimization scheme can be applied to reduce total weight of general multi-linkages while keeping necessary actuator specifications.
Energy-Efficient Reference Walking Trajectory Generation Using Allowable ZMP (Zero Moment Point) Region for Biped Robots
Shin, Hyeok-Ki ; Kim, Byung-Kook ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1029~1036
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1029
An energy-efficient reference walking trajectory generation algorithm is suggested utilizing allowable ZMP (Zero-Moment-Point) region, which maxmizes the energy efficiency for cyclic gaits, based on three-dimensional LIPM (Linear Inverted Pendulum Model) for biped robots. As observed in natural human walking, variable ZMP manipulation is suggested, in which ZMP moves within the allowable region to reduce the joint stress (i.e., rapid acceleration and deceleration of body), and hence to reduce the consumed energy. In addition, opimization of footstep planning is conducted to decide the optimal step-length and body height for a given forward mean velocity to minimize a suitable energy performance - amount of energy required to carry a unit weight a unit distance. In this planning, in order to ensure physically realizable walking trajectory, we also considered geometrical constraints, ZMP stability condition, friction constraint, and yawing moment constraint. Simulations are performed with a 12-DOF 3D biped robot model to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
SDRE Based Nonlinear Optimal Control of a Two-Wheeled Balancing Robot
Kim, Sang-Tae ; Kwon, Sang-Joo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1037~1043
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1037
Two-wheeled balancing mobile robots are currently controlled in terms of linear control methods without considering the nonlinear dynamical characteristics. However, in the high maneuvering situations such as fast turn and abrupt start and stop, such neglected terms become dominant and greatly influence the overall driving performance. This paper addresses the SDRE nonlinear optimal control method to take advantage of the exact nonlinear dynamics of the balancing robot. Simulation results indicate that the SDRE control outperforms LQR in the respect of transient performance and required wheel torques. A design example is suggested for the state matrix that provides design flexibility in the SDRE control. It is shown that a well-planned state matrix by reflecting the physics of a balancing robot greatly contributes to the driving performance and stability.
Defect Detection of Brazing Joint in Heat Exchanger Using X-ray Image
Kim, Jin-Young ; Seo, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1044~1050
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1044
The quality of brazing joints is one of the most important factors that have an effect on the performance of the brazing joint-based heat exchangers with the growing use in industry recently. Therefore, it is necessary to inspect the brazing joints in order to guarantee the performance of the heat exchangers. This paper presents a non-destructive method to inspect the brazing joints of the heat exchangers using X-ray. Firstly, X-ray cross-sectional images of the brazing joints are obtained by using CT (Computerized Tomography) technology. Cross-sectional image from CT is more useful to detect the inner defects than the traditional transmitted X-ray image. Secondly, the acquired images are processed by an algorithm proposed for the defect detection of brazing joint. Finally, two types of brazing joint are examined in a series of experiments to detect the defects in brazing joints. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for defect detection of the brazing joints in heat exchangers.
Development of Autonomous Loading and Unloading for Network-based Unmanned Forklift
Park, Jee-Hun ; Kim, Min-Hwan ; Lee, Suk ; Lee, Kyung-Chang ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1051~1058
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1051
Unmanned autonomous forklifts have a great potential to enhance the productivity of material handling in various applications because these forklifts can pick up and deliver loads without an operator and any fixed guide. Especially, automation of pallet loading and unloading technique is useful for enhancing performance of logistics and reducing cost for automation system. There are, however, many technical difficulties in developing such forklifts including localization, map building, sensor fusion, control, and so on. This is because the system requires numerous sensors, actuators, and controllers that need to be connected with each other, and the number of connections grows very rapidly as the number of devices grows. This paper presents a vision sensorbased autonomous loading and unloading for network-based unmanned forklift where system components are connected to a shared CAN network. Functions such as image processing and control algorithm are divided into small tasks that are distributed over a number of microcontrollers with a limited computing capacity. And the experimental results show that proposed architecture can be an appropriate choice for autonomous loading in the unmanned forklift.
Local Minimum Problem of the ILS Method for Localizing the Nodes in the Wireless Sensor Network and the Clue
Cho, Seong-Yun ;
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, volume 17, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1059~1066
DOI : 10.5302/J.ICROS.2011.17.10.1059
This paper makes a close inquiry into ill-conditioning that may be occurred in wireless localization of the sensor nodes based on network signals in the wireless sensor network and provides the clue for solving the problem. In order to estimate the location of a node based on the range information calculated using the signal propagation time, LS (Least Squares) method is usually used. The LS method estimates the solution that makes the squared estimation error minimal. When a nonlinear function is used for the wireless localization, ILS (Iterative Least Squares) method is used. The ILS method process the LS method iteratively after linearizing the nonlinear function at the initial nominal point. This method, however, has a problem that the final solution may converge into a LM (Local Minimum) instead of a GM (Global Minimum) according to the deployment of the fixed nodes and the initial nominal point. The conditions that cause the problem are explained and an adaptive method is presented to solve it, in this paper. It can be expected that the stable location solution can be provided in implementation of the wireless localization methods based on the results of this paper.