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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - 00 2000
Volume 15, Issue 4 - 00 2000
Volume 15, Issue 3 - 00 2000
Volume 15, Issue 2 - 00 2000
Volume 15, Issue 1 - 00 2000
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A Molecular Phylogenetic Perspective on the Primary and Secondary Endosymbiotic Origins of Algal Plastids
Debashish Bhattacharya ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~1
Algae include all photosynthetic eukaryotes excluding land plants. The algae are of a polyphyletic origin and have gained their photosynthetic organelles (plastids) through symbiosis. In this review I "proto-alga" that was the common ancestor of the three primary algal lineages (Chorophyta, Rhodophyta, Glaucocystophyta). Members of the Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta then gave rise to all other algal plastids through secondary symbioses. All secondary symbioses appear to be independent events involving different algal symbionts. This hypothesis is supported by analyses of plastid-encoded small subunit rDNA sequences which provide strong evidence for the independent origins of the secondary plastids of the Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Heterokonta.
Systematic Relationship of Unicellular Red Algae: from the Phenetics to the Phylogeny
Yoshiaki Hara ; Akiko Yokoyama ; 김지희 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 7~7
The systematic relationship of the unicellular red algae based on their morphological, physiological and habitual characteristics was discussed by referring to the results of their molecular phylogenetic analyses, using 18S rRNA and psbA genes. Five groups (named as one ancestral stock; Porphyridium Group (-G) and other four groups; Rhodospora-Rhodella-, Rhodosorus-and Cyanidium-G) previously reported were partially supported by the molecular phylogeny which showed four phylogenetic groups. However, two of them made a clade with multicellular ones. In the basic framework of the systematic relationship of uncellular reds has to be reconstructed, after taking new findings of molecular information into consideration. The correspondence with the phenetics and phylogentic relationships of unicellular reds is the center of the present Mini-review.
Molecular Relationships of Giant Kelp (Phaeophyceae)
부성민 ; 윤환수 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 13~13
Giant kelp, despite the economic and ecological value, is much confused in taxonomy. To discuss possible changes of the current classification system, we introduce published results and newly analysed sequences of both nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid-encoded RuBisCo spacer. All members of the Alariaceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae are grouped into a single monophyletic clade, while each family is not monophyletic. Eight groups are recognized: I) Egregia group, ii) Alaria group, iii) Laminaria group, iv) Hedophyllum group, v) Ecklonis group, vi) Agarum group, vii) Lessonia group, and viii) Macrocystis group. This results appear not to support the current familial system of advanced kelp, and rather suggest that a single family or eight varied families should be established covering the kelp genera. Taxonomic revisions of some genera like Laminaria and Kjellmaniella are necessary because of their paraphyly.
Morphology and Habitat Conditions of Phacus trypanon (Euglenophyceae) from Korea
김준태 ; 신웅기 ; 부성민 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 17~17
Morphology and habitat conditions of Phacus trypanon were studied using 20 samples collected in 16 fresh eaters of Korea. The chloroplasts are parietal disc-shaped. The paramylon bodies are dimorphic with two parietal dish-like plates and many rod-like grains. The SEM micrographs show that the pellicular strip consists of thick and thin rib and the ridges slope slightly from the thick to thin, rib, forming the deeply depressed furrow. The Korean populations of P. trypanon inhabit the freshwater microhabitats of high concentration of nitrogens originated from animal excretion, organic, debris, and other agricultural interference. The habitat conditions indicate that P. trypanon may prefer eutrophicated waters and also compete with other euglenoid species in nutrients.
Screening for Antioxidant Activity in Some Red Tide Dinoflagellates
김창숙 ; 조용철 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 23~23
Antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts obtained from 11 red tide dinoflagellates was evaluated by determination of radical scavenging effects and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Lipoxygenase activity was depressed in the presence of algal extracts of following sequence; Alexandrium tamarense？cochlodinium polykrikoides>Prorocentrium minimum？Gyodinium impudicum>Prorocentium micans？Gymnodinium sanguineum？Pyraminonas sp.？Heterocapsa triquetra？Heterosigma akashiwo？Eutreptiella gymnastica.？Scrippsiella trochoidea The inhibition of lipoxygenase by C. Polykrikoides and A. tamarense extracts resemble that seaweed, Porphyra sp. The extracts of A. tamarense and C. polykrikoides also had the highest antioxidant activity, when measured by the decolorization of ？,？-diphenyl-？-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (RNO)-imidazole method, respectively. The same species also displayed a very strong antioxidant activity on lipid peroxidation of a multilayer liposome system. These results suggested the possibility of the existence of effective antioxidative compounds in A. tamarense and C. polykrikoides.
Seasonal Succession of Toxic Cyanobacteria and Microcystins Concentration in Paldang Reservoir
박혜경 ; 정원화 ; 권오상 ; 류재근 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 29~29
The seasonal succession of algal growth and dominant species were investigated from 1996 to 1997 in Paldang Reservoir, which is a man-made dam lake for drinking water source. Cyanobacterial species grew dominantly during summer and autumn, and diatoms in the winter and spring. Microcystis was a dominant genus during summer time. It was revealed that water temperature was a major limiting factor to cyanobacterial production and that precipitation followed by dam gate operation also affected the abundance and dominance of cyanobacterial genera in Paldang reservoir. The temporal variation of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins concentration in Paldang dam site was monitored from July to December in 1997. The cyanobacterial biomass ranged to ∼11,243 cells/ml and the dominant genus was Microcystis until September and changed to Aphanizomenon from October when water temperature dropped below 15℃. The total concentrations of microcystins in lake water were 0.057∼0.488㎍/l. Highest concentration of microcystins in lake water was found during the exponential growth phase of Microcystis bloom. The dissolved microcystins in the lake water were detected at the end of cyanobacterial bloom, having range of 0.054∼0.076㎍/l.
Bioecological Characteristics of Coral Habitats around Moonsom, Cheju Island, Korea: Ⅱ. Community Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Primary Productivity
이준백 ; 좌종헌 ; 강동우 ; 고유봉 ; 오봉철 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 37~37
Community dynamics of phytoplankton and primary productivity have been investigated bimonthly from February 1997 to December 1997 in the coastal area around Moonsom of the southern Cheju Island, which is well-known for soft coral habitats in Korea. Auerage water temperature was 18.5℃, being stratified from May to September by the seasonal thermocline, while vertically homogeneous in the winter. Euphotic depths ranged seasonally from 18.9 m to 45.9 m (average 33.7m). Chlorophyll a concentrations varied from 0.02 to 0.92㎍·
. Standing crops of phytoplankton ranged from 2×10₃to 3.9×
, showing a peak only in the spring. Diatims occupied 67.5% of the total standing crops, while phytoflagellates, dinoflagellates and others 24.3%, 7.1% and 1%, respectively. However phytoflagellates and dinoflagellates were prediminated with 36.6% and 38.7% in June, respectively. There was four dominant species in the study area. Chaetoceros socialis Lauder was dominant species from December to April, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg in June. In August, Chaetoceros socialis Lauder dominated in inshore but Paralia sulcata (Ehrenberg) Cleve in offshore. In October, Skeletonema costatum (Greville)Gran dominated the whole area. Daily primary productivity varied from 32.2 to 364.9 mgC·
). Contribution of nanoplankton (<20 ㎛) to daily primary priductivity was very high, accounting for 28.0-82.8%. Annual primary productivity is estimated 65.97 gC·
, which is lower than those of the coast of Yellow Sea and the southern Korean waters. Nanoplankton seemed to adapt to higher irradiances with
values of 190-1,000 μE·
) than total phytoplankton with 140-850 μE·
(mean 466.7 μE·
Studies on the Ecosystem in the Yeong-Ⅱ Gulf of Korea:Ⅰ. Species Composition and Diversity of Phytoplankton Communities
조은영 ; 차재훈 ; 김미경 ; 김기태 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 49~49
In order to clarify the capacity of productivity, distribution and dynamics of phytoplanktons which play an improtant role as the primary producer, we tried to analyze their species composition and community along the coast of Yeoung-II Gulf from May 1998 to May 1999. The taxa of phytoplanktons observed in this coast were classified as 4 divisions, 6 classes, 10 orders, 3 suborders, 26 families, 200 species (182 species, 1 subspecies, 12 varieties, 5 forms). The 149 species of diatoms were recognized with 31 species of dinoflagellates, 4 species of silicoflagellates, 11 species of chlorophytes, 1 species of euglenophytes and 4 species of cyanophytes, The number of species was the highest in August when 66 species were observed. The most frequent speies were Licmophora abbreviata AGARDH (51%), Thalassionema nitzschioides HUSTEDT (39%) and Ceratium fura (EHRENBERG) CLAPAREDE et LACHMANN(29%). The cell density of phytoplanktons was the highest (1,218×
on the downstream area of Hyeung-San River in May 1998 and was the lowest (70×
at Hwanho dong in February 1999. The highest concentration of chlorophyll a occurred in May 1998 (4.6 ㎍
, while the lowest value was in February 1999 (0.4 ㎍
. The standing crops of phytoplanktons were remarkably high in spring, summer and autumn. This examination of phytoplankton study will be continued for the fundamental databases of ecosystem study in the Yeong-II Gulf.
Comparison of HPLC Analysis and a Chaanel Biosensor in the Detection of PSP Toxin in Natural Alexandrium tamarense Population
이해옥 ; 전병수 ; Etuo Watanabe ; 한명수 ;
ALGAE, volume 15, issue 1, 2000, Pages 61~61
The PSP(Paralytic Shellfish Posioning)toxin of natural A. tamarense population collected at Masan (Sth M) and Chilchundo (Stn C) in Chinhae Bay, Korea was determined by the biosensor and HPLC.F. From these results, it was recognized the a good relationship was shown between toxicity obtained by the biosensor and HPLC, and that the biosenor was simple, powerful and useful system to monitor the changes of very low PSP toxin in natural A. tamarense population. therefore, the proposed biosensor could be used for monitoring the STX in the toxic phytoplankton and shellfish in near future.