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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume 16, Issue 4 - 00 2001
Volume 16, Issue 3 - 00 2001
Volume 16, Issue 2 - 00 2001
Volume 16, Issue 1 - 00 2001
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Eukaryotic Algal Genes and progress in Molecular Biology of Eukaryotic Algae
이유경 ; 이홍금 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~1
Molecular biology has provided new tools to explore and expose the genetic basis of taxonomy, biochemistry, physiology, cellular differentiation and developmental biology of eukaryotic algae. In this article we provide a list of previously published eukaryotic algal genes encoded in nuclear genome. The algal groups highlighted are Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, Haptophyta, Dinophyta, Cryptophyta and Euglenophyta. We also focus on five areas where molecular research has provided major insights: cell structure, metabolism, sexual differentiation, photosynthetic apparatus and expressed sequence tags (EST). This paper demonstrates the importance of molecular biological research in algal systems. We also suggest areas where molecular biology will lead to new understanding of algal biology and its applications.
Potential Utilization of Various Molecules from Mocro-and Macro-Algae: Goals and Procedures
Jean-Pascal Berge ; Kiet Pham-Quoc ; Patrick Durand ; Jean-Paul Dubacq ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 21~21
Recent advances have been done in the identification, isolation and biological evaluation of use of several kinds of molecules from various algal sources. We aim to give the state of some of the current research done in this domains on both polysaccharides from the cell wall and lipids which are both known as possible sources for valuable molecules with therapeutic effects.
Morphology and rbcL sequences of Caulacanthus okamurae Yamada (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Korea
이해복 ; 이재완 ; 최한구 ; 이욱재 ; 김종인 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 25~25
The red alga, Caulacanthus okamurae Yamada, which Yoshida et al. (1995, 2000) recently proposed to be synonymized with C. ustulatus (Turner) Ku¨tzing described in southern Spain, was collected in the upper intertidal zone along the coast of Korea. We investigated morphology and rbcL sequences of the plants to assess the taxonomic criteria of the species. This species is very similar to C. ustulatus in plant height, branching pattern, shape of axial cell, number of pericentral cells, and reproductive structure. The former, however, is different from the latter in thickness of branches. There is no nucleotide difference of rbcL sequences among three isolations of C. okamurae from Korea, but there are 8 and 115 by differences between Korean isolations and two of C. ustulatus from Brittany, France and Swakopmund, Namibia. Our morphological and rbcL sequence data suggested that the populations of C. okamurae from Korea and C. ustulatus from Brittany, France could be different ones of the same species. Therefore, we postpone taxonomic judgement for C. okamurae from Korea, China and Japan until such a time as molecular data of C. ustulatus from the type locality are available and the origin of the Brittany isolation is elucidated.
The Circumscription of the Genus halothrix Reinke (Chordariales, Phaeophyceae)
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 35~35
The entity of the genus Halothrix was reappraised based on the descriptions and figures of authentic references. Halothrix is characterized try a tuft of simple erect filament and fortnirig dense girdles of producing plurilocular sporangial sori around the erect filaments, absence of parenchymatous medullary core, absence of paraphysis (short assimilator), and absence of phaeophycean hairs. Consequently, those species with paraphyses and medullary cores, H. ambigua Yamada, H. tortuosa Takamatsu, and H. ephemeralis Skinner, should be excluded from the genus Halothrix. Haldthrix rectiuscula sp, nov. is characteristic in erect filaments tapering much slowly toward apex, continuous covering of plurilocular sporangial sori on erect filament, and simultaneous formation of plurilocular sporangia on the cells of erect filament.
The Decelopmental Morphology of Ceramium procumbens (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) from the Gulf of California, Mexico
T.O. Cho ; Riosmena-Rodriguez ; S.M. Boo ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 45~45
Developmental morphology of a previously little-known ceramiaceous red alga, Ceramium procumbens, was studied in details based on recent collections from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Thalli consist of prostrate axes with erect adventitious branches, and are incompletely corticated along axis. Four periaxial cells are produced in an alternating sequence from each axial cell. Spermatangia are completely covering terminal adventitious branches. Cystocarps are terminally situated on pedicel of adventitious branch and surrounded by two to three finger-like involucral branches. Tetrasporangia are produced on erect adventitious branches, being clavate in shape. Single tetrasporangium is produced in an alternating sequence per each periaxial cell and immersed in cortical node. Developmental morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures is described for the first time, which conforms to the previous descriptions of the genus.
Molecular Analysis of Morphologically Similar Dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gyrodinium impudicum and Gymnodinium catenatum Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer and 5.8S rDNA Regions
조은섭 ; 김기영 ; 조용철 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 53~53
The Internal Transcribed Spacers (TTS) of rDNA were sequenced for three dinoflagellates, having morphologically similar features, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gyrodinium impudicum and Gymnodinium catenatum to provide characters for phylogenetic analysis and predicted secondary structure. In C. polykrikoides, the length of ITSl was longest than that any other of Gyrodinium impudicum and Gymnodinium catenatum, whereas Gymnodinium catenatum was longest in the length of ITS2 than that any other of C. polykrikoides and Gyrodinium impudicum. In ITS1 and ITS2 regions there were variation and 5.SS was a little. In particular the ITS1 was more variable than ITS2 from these species. The inferred phylogeny using by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) method indicated that Gyrodinium impudicum was more closely related to Gymnodinium catenatum rather than C. polykrikoides. Based on secondary structure analysis, the conserved sequences were found at the loop of domain 1 in Gymnodinium catenatum and Gyrodinium impudicum, while C. polykrikoides did not show the sequence between the stem and loop. These results suggested that ITS regions might play an important role in differentiating C. polykrikoides from Gyrodinium impudicum and Gymnodinium catenatum.
Characterization of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Purified from Anabaena cylindrica
이인철 ; 유순애 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 59~59
A 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD, E.C.220.127.116.11) was purified and characterized from Anabaena cylindrica (IAM-1). The enzyme was purified about 140 fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and Toyo-pearl LC chromatography. The native size of the enzyme was approximate 420 kDa as judge by gel filtration and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By the SDS-PAGE, the protein was found to be composed with identical subunits of molecular weight of 43 kDa. The Km for 5-aminolevulinic acid was 1.2 mM in the presence of 5 mM MgCl₂ and 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol. ALAD activity was reduced significantly by the dialysis against buffer containing EDTA or by the treatment of chelex cation exchanger. The chelex-treated ALAD activity was recovered by the addition of magnesium ion. On the contrast, the addition of 3 mM ZnCl₂ to the chelex treated ALAD caused the inhibition of enzyme activity by 90%. The inhibition, however, was partially overcome by 10 mM MgCl₂. These results suggested the Mg-dependent ALAD be the prominent one in A. cylindrica.
Control of Harmful Algal Blooms by Clay via Photochemical Reactions
김창숙 ; 배헌민 ; 조용철 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 67~67
In an attempt to improve the removal efficiency of natural clay to red tide dinoflagellates, Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Prorocentrum micans, the synergistic effect of clay plus light was investigated. The removal capacity of dinoflagellates by clay via photochemical reactions was increased to about 20% of the dark control values. Lightinduced effect began to be occurred when the light intensities above about 2,300 μ㏖·m^(-2)·s^(-1). The capacity of clay plus light to removal the C. polykrikoides was related to the concentration of TiO₂ in caly: the higher the content of TiO₂, the higher the removal rates. Particularly, when the C. polykrikoides treated with TiO₂ or rose bengal were subjected to UV-A (600 μ㏖·m^(-2)·s^(-1)) or white light (λ$gt;320 ㎚; 1,400 μ㏖·m^(-2)·s^(-1)) for 10 min under aerobic conditions, the algal cell was severely damaged with the membrane lysis. The suspension of clay, when exposed to white light, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (¹O₂), as measured by the imidazole plus RNO method. These data show that the ROS, photogenerated from clay, -mediated oxidative damages are enhanced the original effect of clay to algal species. These results suggest that the removal efficiency of red tide dinoflagellates by clay under bright sunlight is higher than that of a cloudy day.
Planktonic and Periphytic Diatom Flora of the Freshwaters of the Kumho District and Its Vicinity in North Korea
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 75~75
Planktonic and non-planktonic (periphytic or benthic) diatom taxa of the lakes and river around the Kumho District in North Korea were categorized to compare among and between four communities (planktonic, epilithic, epipsammic and epiphytic). Two hundred and seventy-one diatom taxa were recorded through 22 samples and the important taxa were classified and ordinated according to their living media or substrata. The important taxa were almost saproxenous, mesosaprobic or relatively sensitive to pollution tolerance. Forty-five diatom taxa were first recorded in Korea.
Ecological Characteristics of Phytoplankton Communities in the Coastal Waters of Gori, Wulseong, Uljin and Youngkwang I. Species Compostion and Distribution(1992~1996)
강연식 ; 최중기 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 85~85
In order to find out the ecological characteristics of phytoplankton communities around the nuclear power plant, the composition and distribution of phytoplankton species were studied in the coastal waters of Gori, Wulseong, Uljin and Youngkwang during 1992-1996. Water temperature varied from 4.0 to 31.0℃ and salinity varied from 30.5 to 36.5‰ in the study area.All species found in these study areas were 440 and were composed of 338 diatoms, 92 dinoflagellates and 10 others (silicoflagellates, cyanophyceans, chlorophyceans), constituting 76.8%, 20.9% and 2.3%, respectively.Total numbers of species were 328, 356, 352 and 354 in Gori, Wulseong, Uljin and Youngkwang, respectively. The numbers of diatoms were 253, 272, 272 and 283 and those of dinoflagellates were 68, 77, 72 and 63 in Gori, Wulseong, Uljin and Youngkwang, respectively. The highest number of diatoms occurred in Youngkwang and that of dinoflagellates was found in Wulseong.The seasonal mean numbers of diatom species were similar ranged from 126 to 131 species, but dinoflagellates were higher in Summer and Autumn than in Winter and Spring in all study areas. Annual variations of species numbers were large in all study area ranged from 188 species in 1992 to 274 species in 1995. Species numbers of diatom were higher in 1994 than in 1992 and 1996, while recently dinoflagellates were higher in 1994, 1995 and 1996 than those in 1992 and 1993.Among all phytoplankton species observed 68 diatoms, 9 dinoflagellates and 2 silicoflagellates appeared frequently in four study areas. The species ubiquitous to the study area during 1992-1996 were Chaetoceros compressus, C. curvisetus, C. debilis, C. lorenzianus, Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Ditylum brightwellii, Leptocylindrus danicus, Navicula radiosa, Nitzschia longissima, Pseudo-nitzschia seriata, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii and T. nitzschioides.Genera of high occurrence were genus Chaetoceros (56), Nitzschia (21), Coscinodiscus (20) and Navicula (18) in diatoms and genus Ceratium (23) and Protoperidinium (23) in dinoflagellates.
The Community Structure of Interidal Marine Benthic Algae in the East Coast of Korea II. Sokcho
이재완 ; 김영환 ; 이해복 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 113~113
Seasonal changes of the intertidal marine algal flora and community structure at Sokcho in the east coast of Korea were investigated seasonally from June, 1999 to April, 2000. A total of 67 algal species including 7 greens, 19 browns and 41 reds was identified. The marine algal flora was classified as the temperate flora based on the species composition. The dominant species were Corallina pilulifera in spring and autumn, Sargassum yezoense in summer, and Bangia atropurpurea in winter. The vertical distribution pattern of intertidal marine algae represented three distinct zones; Bangia atropurpurea, Porphyra spp. Gloiopeltis furcata, Chaetomorpha moniligera, Caulacanthus okamurae Chondria crassicaulis, Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia sinuosa, Corallina pilulifera - Corallina pilulifera, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, Sargassum thunbergii, S. yezoense from upper to lower zones. In comparison with the result from the previous survey in 1990, the floristic status in species composition and the dominance were markedly changed.
Floristics and Biogeography of Marine Benthic Algae on the Coast of Kamchatka and Commander Islands
Nina G. Klochkova ; Tatiana A. Klochkova ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 1, 2001, Pages 119~119
The floristics and biogeography of algal flora of the western coast of the Bering Sea, the western and eastern Kamchatka, and the Commander Islands were investigated. The list of algae analysed in this study includes 271 species. The flora was characterised by a diverse taxonomic and phytogeographic composition. There were rich monotypic genera and families, and species distributed only in the Pacific Ocean (60% species, of which 38% occur only on the Asian coast). 35 species were endemics of the Russian Far East. 'The peculiarities of spatial variation of species composition and the phykogeographic structure of flora were investigated by comparing 13 floristic areas. On north of the Bering Sea, Arctic-temperate and wide-temperate species were most abundant. Flora of the Commander Islands contained numerous cold-temperate amphipacific species. Species of Ceramiales were most abundant. Their number decreased from the Commander Islands to the north of Kamchatka. On western Kamchatka, most abundant were species with Arctic-Atlanthic distribution. The role of the Commander Islands and southeast Kamchatka in process of the species migration and formation of floras, as well as and the phenomenon of biological asymetry are discussed.