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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume 16, Issue 4 - 00 2001
Volume 16, Issue 3 - 00 2001
Volume 16, Issue 2 - 00 2001
Volume 16, Issue 1 - 00 2001
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Umbraulva, a New Genus Based on Ulva japonica (Holmes) Papenfuss (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta)
배은희 ; 이인규 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 217~217
Ulva japonica (Holmes) Papenfuss and U. amamiensis Tanaka are distinguished from the other Ulva species by olive-green color and deep-water habitat. They are very similar to U. olivascens Dangeard having siphonaxanthin as an accessory pigment. Ulva japonica and U. amamiensis are reported from Korea and Japan, and U. olivascens from the Atlantic coast. Pairwise divergences of ITS sequences were 6.5-6.7% among these three species and ranged from 17-27% in comparing them to other Ulva and Enteromorpha species. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequences strongly supported that U. japonica, U. amamiensis, and U. olivascens were clearly separated from the other ulvacean members. The analusis of partial SSU rDNA sequences showed that Ulva japonica and U. amamiensis were apart from Ulva/Enteromorpha complex, revealing 3.0-3.3% of sequence divergences. Based on distinct olive-green colored blade, compared to other Ulva plants, we establish a new genus Umbraulva. Three members are placed in this new genus; Umbraulva japonica (Holmes) com. nov. as type species, U. amamiensis (Tanaka) and U. olivascens (Dangeard).
Taxonomy of the Genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from Korea
황미숙 ; 이인규 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 233~233
Twelve species and two forms of the genus Porphyra from Korea were examined for morphology, geographical distribution and taxonomic delimitation: P. dentate Kjellman, P. ishigecola Miura, P. katadae Miura, P. koreana Hwang et Lee, P. kuniedae Kurogi, P. lacerate Miura, P. okamurae Ueda, P. pseudolinearis Ueda, P. seriata Kjellman, P. suborbicrlata Kjellman f. suborbiculata, P. suborbiculara Kjellman f. latifolia Tanaka, P. tenera Kjellman and P. yezoensis Ueda. Sexuality, features of sepermatangial area, presence or absence of microscopic denticulation at margin, discernible prototrichogyne in carpogonium and oblique division in carposporangium, and thickness of thallus were important characters for the discrimination and determination of taxa. The evidences were not enough for P. suborbiculata f. latifolia as an independent form and P. okamurae and P. suborbiculata as separated taxonomic species.
The Comparison between Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle and Non-toxic P. pungens (Grunow) Hasle Isolated from Jinhae Bay, Korea
조은섭 ; Yuichi Kotaki ; 박종규 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 275~275
We studied the ecological characteristics of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pungens, comparing the morphology, toxin production, growth and ITS sequences. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that P. pungens had 9-12 fibulae in 10㎛, 2 rows of poroids, 3-4 poroids in 1 ㎛ and 9-11 striae in 10 ㎛, while in P. multiseries 13-14 fibulae in 10 ㎛, 3-4 rows of poroids, 4-6 poroids in 1 ㎛ and 13-14 striae in 10 ㎛. Domoic acid (DA) production by P. multiseries was determined by HPLC with UV or fluorometric detection, and resulted in 221.8 ng·
, 196.4 ng·
and 25.4 ng·
in the whole culture, cell-free medium and cell fraction, respectively, for 20 days at 20℃ under light intensity of 100 μmol·
with 16:8 LD cycle, while values for P. pungens were negative. Both P.multiseries and P. pungens showed a higher growth rate at higher temperature with the highest growth rate at 20℃. Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries had a wide range of salinity (20-40 psu) for optimal growth, but at 40 psu and 50 psu, the growth rate of P. pungens was lower than that of P. multiseries. In particular, 10 psu did not allow any growth of P. mutiseries. For nitrate, ammonium and urea-grown cultures, nutrient concentration contributed to a variation of growth, in which the best growth was obtained at 100 μM.However, P. multiseries grew well even in a medium without urea, while the growth rate of P. pungens was significantly different (p<0.05). The influence on growth rate was less in cultures grown with phosphorus than with nitrogen sources. However, under a wide range of pH and depleted conditions of trace metals and vitamins, P. multiseries and P. pungens had similar growth rates. The alignment of nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions showed that there were considerable conserved sites of 290 bp, 68 variable sites (19%) in P. multiseries and 119 (29%) in P. pungens. In the predicted secondary structures, P. multiseries and P. pungens had a similar free energy, conformation and structural stabilization, but stem structures were different.
Characterization of Natural Plasmid and Construction of Putative Transformation Vector Using the Plasmid in Korean Red Alga, Porphyra tenera
최학선 ; 최경희 ; 김태훈 ; 이준환 ; 류태형 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 287~287
Four circular DNA plasmids which were designated as PT1, PT2, PT3, and PT4, respectively, were isolated from marine red macroaiga, Porphyra teenera. Among them, the PT4 was cloned by introducing Eco RV digested-linear PT4 into the pBluescript II KS+ vector. The complete DNA sequence of the circular PT4 plasmid was characterized. It contained 1808 bp and had two inverted repeat (20 nucleotides) along with short tandem reoeat (12 nucleotides). The plasmid had one open reading frame that could encode a 134 amino acid polypeptide. In an attempt to construct a transformation and expression vector for a marine macroalgae, a plasmid pPTH-smGFP was constructed with the cloned recombinant plasmid, pPT4. The non-destructiveness of the assay method for the green fluorescence protein could allow the privilege of the constructed vector as an efficient and economical expression vector, which may provide an affirmative way of visual selection of transgenic cells.
Photoadaptation of Photosynthesis in Red-Tide Causative Algae
곽승국 ; 이옥희 ; 조경제 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 295~295
Photosynthesis rate and photoadaptation of red-tide causative algae blooming off the southern coast of Korea were evaluated over 25-800 μmol·
irradiances. Saturation in carbon assimilation of algae occurred at irradiances approximately 100 μmol·
or less and saturation points of dinoflagellates were higher than diatom or raphidophyceaen algae. Photoadaptation in low irradiance and photoprotection in high irradiance were observed in these algal group. Three types of photoadapation strategies have been observed based on P-I curves of chlorophyll a and cell normalized photosynthetic rate (
, respectively). Photoadaptation of dinoflagellates was accomplished by increase in celluar pigment and
to suggest the increase of photosynthetic unit (PSU) numbers per cell. In Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, photoadaptation by decrease of
under low irradiance were higher than those under the high irradiance. It suggested that the species may have another photoapatation type. In the high irradiance(800 μmol·
), light-dependant and biochemical conversion of xanthophylls pigments were observed. In Chlamydomonas sp. And Heterosigma akashiwo, zeaxanthin increased rapidly from vioxanthin in excessive irradiance (zeaxanthin cycle). However, dinoflagellates had diatoxanthin cycle to form diatoxanthin from diadinoxanthin.
Effects of the Antarctic Ozone Depletion on the Marine Phytoplankton
강성호 ; 강재신 ; 이상훈 ; 이윤호 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 303~303
The Antarctic ecosystem has been affected by continuous ozone depletion. Increase of UV radiation due to the ozone depletion in the Antarctic has changed growth environment for the marine organisms, resulting in various effects on the Antarctic marine ecosystem whether adverse or not. Especially, fast growing primary producers, phytoplankton which use solar light as senergy source are the most sensitively affected organisms against the UV increase. The UV radiation increase may result in change of the productivity, biomass, and species composition of phytoplankton, In addition, UV radiation could cause physiological, genetic, and ecological changes of phytoplankton cells. It is necessary to accumulate baseline data which will be compared with the future data to estimate the degree of changes in the Antarctic marine ecosystem. The Antarctic phytoplankton which have adapted for a long time to the extreme environment can be used as continuous biological indicator to detect and monitor the environmental changes. We have reviewed recent research papers about effects of the ozone depletion on the Anarctic marine phytoplankton.
Distribution and Occurrence Frequency of Red-Tide Causing Flagellates in the Masan-Jinhae Bay
곽승국 ; 최만영 ; 조경제 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 315~315
Population dynamics of red-tide causing algae were investigated in Masan-Jinhae Bay from January 1996 to August 1998. Duration and frequency of occurrence, magnitude and duration of maximal abundance would be the characteristics of the algal niche. The appearance of flagellates (Heterocapsa triquetra, Eutreptiella gymnastica etc.) during early spring were followed by eurythermal or wide-niche algae (Prorocentrum minimum, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Ceratium fusus, C. furca etc.)in Masan-Jinhae Bay. The seasonality or succession of flagellate algae in the Masan-Jinhae Bay were clear and showed the interspecific variability.
Community Structures of Phytoplanktons According to Environmental Factors in the Coastal Waters of Ullungdo and Tokdo Islands
정지안 ; 조은영 ; 차재훈 ; 김미경 ; 김기태 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 325~325
To investigate the correlations between the seasonal variations of environmental factors and communities of phytoplankton, we examined 5 stations of Ullungdo Island on May, June, August and November 1999 and 3 stations in Tokdo Island on June, August and November 1999. The phytoplanktons of Ulungdo Island were a total of 139 species, while the ones of Tokdo Island were a total of 139 species, while the ones of Tokdo Island were a total of 90 species. The most frequent species were Proboscia alata f. gracillima, Rhizosolenia hebetate f. semispina, Ceratium fusus and Protoperidinium pellucidum in the coastal waters of Ullungdo and Pseudosolenia calcar-avis in Tokdo Island. The standing crops of phytoplanktons represented a maximum on june (7.8 × 10⁴ cell·
) in Ullungdo, while a maximum on August and November (4.4 × 10³ cell·
) in Tokdo Island. The correlations between standing crops and species number showed inversely. However, the environmental factors (seston, NO₃-N, NO₂-N and SiO₂-Si) represented a high affinity with the species compositions and communities of phytoplankton.
Seasonal Changes in the Abundance of Ulva Mats on a Rocky Intertidal Zone of the Southern Coast of Korea
최태섭 ; 김정하 ; 김광영 ;
ALGAE, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 337~337
Seasonal dynamics in surface percent cover and dry weight biomass were determined for Ulva mats (mainly Ulva pertusa Kjellman) on the rocky intertidal zone of the southern coast of Korea. Methods including monitoring of permanent intact quadrats using photography and a modified point-contact quadrat technique, and harvesting adjacent quadrats, were employed to sample Ulva mats at approximately every two weeks intervals for fifteen months. Surface percent cover of Ulva mats showed relatively constant during the study period, excluding the summer months when surface cover decreased to 13%. After the summer, there was a gradual increase and subsequent recovery of Ulva mats during the cold months. Biomass of Ulva mats showed a clear seasonal trend during the study period. Maximum biomass was recorded in May (ca. 720 g dry weight·
), which corresponded to a maximum dsurface percent cover (ca. 95-100%). The biomass decreased to ca. 17g dry weight·
. These field observations indicate that Ulva mats exhibit a monomodal pattern of seasonal growth with peak biomass occurring in spring. Water temperature was identified as the environmental variable contributing most significantly to the seasonal variation in abundance of Ulva mats. Abundance of Ulva was also correlated with rainfall events. In summer daylight exposure resulted in a considerable loss of plant biomass through desiccation.