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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
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Diel Vertical Distribution of Phytoflagellates in a Small Artificial Pond
Kim, Han-Soon ; Takamura, Noriko ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.001
Diel vertical distribution of phytoflagellates and interactions between the phytoplankton components and environmental and biological factors were studied in a small artificial pond for three days on the December 18, 1998 and April 9 to 10, 1999. The phytoplankton population was dominated by Mallomonas akrokomos of chrysophytes and Cryptomonas marssonii and Chroomonas sp. of cryptophytes. The vertical distribution of these phytoflagellates taxa exhibited clear diel migration pattern. Moreover their migration patterns are showed differential fluctuation between M. akrokomos, C. marssonii and Chroomonas sp. The later two species upward migrated in the evening as well as night, whereas the former species migrated downward. Their distinctive migration pattern was found during the night but was not observed in the morning. During daytime C. marssonii and Chroomonas sp. showed maximum density above 2 m depth but M. akrokomos below 2 m depth. The diel vertical distribution of the dominant phytoflagellates did not show significant correlation between physical, chemical and biotic factors.
Morphological Observation of Alexandrium tanarense (Lebour) Balech, A. catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Balech and One Related Morphotype (Dinophyceae) in Korea
Kim, Keun-Yong ; Matoko Yoshida ; Yasuwo Fukuyo ; Kim, Chang-Hoon ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 11~19
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.011
Twenty-nine culture strains belonging to the genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinophyceae) were established from water column or sediments in Korea. Seventeen isolates were identified as A. tamarense (Lebour) Balech, eight isolates as A. sp. cf. catenella and one as A. catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Balech according to the presence or absence of a ventral pore, the shape of the posterior sulcal plate and the sulcal width. Three isolates were unable to be identified due to considerable distortion of thecal plates and lack of enough materials, but typical of A. tamarense and/or A. catenella. The overall cell shape of A. tamarense was usually longer than wide. The posterior sulcal plate was definitely longer than wide dorsoventrally, and sulcus extended posteriorly without apparent widening. They were distributed in three major coasts of Korea. In contrast, the cell shape of A. sp.cf. catenella was generally anterior-posteriorly flattened. The transversal axis of the posterior sulcal plate was always longer than the longitudinal, or both axes were nearly equal in length. Its sulcus was broader than that of A. tamarense and widened in the direction of antapex about 1.5 times. This morphotype existed in nearshore and offshore waters of the southern Korea sea. One of A. catenella isolates from Jinhae Bay showed no conspicuous differences with A. sp. cf. catenella except for the consistent absence of a ventral pore.
Taxonomy of Hypoglossum (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from Korea
Oak, Jung-Hyun ; Park, Mi-Ra ; Lee, In-Kyu ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 21~31
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.021
Five species of Hypoglossum from the coasts of Korea were described. They were distinguished each other by vegetative morphology as well as reproductive structures. H. barbatum Okamura and H. simulans Wynne, Price et Ballantine were similar in their subalternate branchings but they were clearly different by developmental mode of 3rd-order cell rows. H. simulans is distinguished from H. barbatum as well as from the other three species in that only innermost cells of 2nd-order rows cut off 3rd-order cell rows. H. geminatum Okamura and H. caloglossoides Wynne et Kraft are oppositely branched but the latter is characterized by regular constrictions at branching points. H. minimum Yamada developed simple blades. Among them, H. simulans, H. caloglossoides, and H. minimum are newly recorded from Korean waters.
Mechanisms of Competition betxeen Canopy-Forming and Turf-Forming Intertidal Algae
Kim, Jeong-Ha ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.033
Mechanisms of competition between two canopy algae and an understory alga were investigated by a field manipulative experiment using artificial thalli. The study was carried out in the upper intertidal zone at Nudibranch Point in Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, where two fucoids, Fucus gardneri and Pelvetiopsis limitata, and a turf red alga, Mazzaella cornucopiae, were dominant in the algal community. The experiment was designed to test three hypotheses, shading, whiplash, and allelopathy, imposed by potential fucoid effects on M. cornucopiae. Only the shading effect was significant, indicating that adult fucoid thalli reduced. M. cornucopiae biomass underneath the fucoids. Results indicated that reversal of competitive dominance existed between F. gardneri and M. cornucopiae depending on the life history stage of the competitors. By including the turf alga's effects on the fucoids, the well-balanced and non-hierarchical interaction networks among the major macroalgae support the high likelihood of species coexistence in the community.
Patterns of Interactions among Neighbor species in a High Intertidal Algal Community
Kim, Jeong-Ha ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 41~51
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.041
Three dominant rocky intertidal macroalgae, the fucoids Fucus gardneri and Pelvetiopsis limitata (Phaeophyta) and the red alga Mazzaella cornucopiae (= Iridaea cornucopiae) on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada were used in a series of field experiments to examine interspecific interactions. These experiments showed complex patterns which included an interchange of negative (inhibition) and positive (facilitation) interactions depending on neighbor distance. Less fucoid recruitment occurred in the plots with greater percent cover of a turfforming red alga, M. cornucopiae. However, experimentally removing Mazzaella turf (the turf was considered to be "blocking" fucoid recruits or "shading" growing recruits) did not increase recruitment. This result indicated that there may be another factor(s) involved in the survivorship of juvenile fucoids in the turf-removed plots. Morphological differences in adult plants between Mazzaella and the two fucoids resulted in another type of interaction; these began when fucoids successfully settled and grew nearby or within the red algal turf. By monitoring microhabitat at the individual plant level for two years, I found that survivorship of fucoid recruits showed different species-specific patterns. The patterns also varied as the microhabitat changed from Mazzaella turf edge to open space. For F. gardneri, longevity of P.limitata at all distances tested was similar. A reason for greater longevity of F. gardneri individuals at edge microhabitats may be that these sites have one side open to light and nutrients and another site that buffers them from desiccation and wave impact. In the Mazzaella-Fucus interaction, neighbor distance was a key factor in determining whether the outcome of the interaction would be competition or facilitation (or protection). This study provides experimental evidence that detectable biological interactions occur in this upper intertidal algal community where physical conditions are usually severe, and also indicates the importance of small scale examination in understanding macroalgal interactions in intertidal habitats.
Four Embryophyte Introns and psbB Operon Indicate Chlorokybus as a Basal Streptophyte Lineage
Lee, Jung-Ho ; James R. Manhart ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 53~58
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.053
The transition of plant life from aquatic algae to land to land plants was one of the major events in the history of life. However, in hypothesizing the exact evolutionary path of the transition, limited shared phenotypic characters in aquatic algae and land plants (embryophytes) have been a major hinderance. Chloroplast genomes contain characters useful in tracing evolutionary histories. Embryophyte chloroplast genomes are distinguished from algal cpDNAs by having over 20 group Ⅱ introns, some of which were gained during the transition from algae to embryophytes (Manhart and Palmer 1990; Lew and Manhart 1993;Lee and Manhart 2002). Here we examine a gene cluster that, in land plants, contains psbB, psbT, psbH, petB and petD with introns found in petB and petD (petB.i and petD.i). In addition the presence/absence of introns in trnA and trnI (trnA.i and trnI.i) were determined in all five major lineages of charophytes. We found that the psbB gene cluster occurs in most surveyed charophytes and embryophytes except Spirogyra (Zygnematales) which lacks it due to intra-genomic rearrangement. All four introns are absent in Chlorokybus but present in some or all of the other four charophyte lineages (Klebsormidiales, Zygnematales, Coleochaetales, and Charales). In addition, Chlorokybus is distinguished from other charophytes and embryophytes by having an unusually long spacer (over 2 kb) between psbH-petB. The results indicate that Chlorokybus diverged before the intron gains but after psbB gene cluster formation, placing the other charophyte lineages closer to embryophytes.
The Chloroplast rpl23 Gene Cluster of Spirogyra maxima (Charophyceae) Shares Many Similarities with the Angiosperm rpl23 Operon
Lee, Jung-Ho ; James R. Manhart ;
ALGAE, volume 17, issue 1, 2002, Pages 59~68
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2002.17.1.059
A phylogenetic affinity between charophytes and embryophytes (land plants) has been explained by a few chloroplast genomic characters including gene and intron (Manhart and Palmer 1990; Baldauf et al. 1990; Lew and Manhart 1993). Here we show that a charophyte, Spirogyra maxima, has the largest operon of angiosperm chloroplast genomes, rpl23 operon (trnⅠ-rpl23-rpl2-rps19-rpl22-rps3-rpl16-rpl14-rps8-infA-rpl36-rps11-rpoA) containing both embryophyte introns, rpl16.i and rpl2.i. The rpl23 gene cluster of Spirogyra contains a distinct eubacterial promoter sequence upstream of rpl23, which is the first gene of the green algal rpl23 gene cluster. This sequence is completely absent in angiosperms but is present in non-flowering plants. The results imply that, in the rpl23 gene cluster, early charophytes had at least two promoters, one upstream of trnⅠ and and another upstream of rpl23, which partially or completely lost its function in land plants. A comparison of gene clusters of prokaryotes, algal chloroplast DNAs and land plant cpDNAs indicated a loss of numerous genes in chlorophyll a+b eukaryotes. A phylogenetic analysis using presence/absence of genes and introns as characters produced trees with a strongly supported clade containing chlorophyll a+b eukaryotes. Spirogyra and embryophytes formed a clade characterized by the loss of rpl5 and rps9 and the gain of trnⅠ (CAU) and introns in rpl2 and rpl16. The analyses support the hypothesis that the rpl23 gene cluster and the rpl2 and rpl16 introns of land plants originated from a common ancestor of Spirogyra and land plants.