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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
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Classification into Two Types Based on the Morphological Characteristics of the Marine Diatom Ditylum brightwellii (West) Grunow in Yellow Sea, Korea
Lee, Jin-Hwan ; Youn, Seok-Jea ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.253
This study deals with the taxonomy of the marine diatom Ditylum brightwellii (West) Grunow: shape, size and ratio, marginal ridge, labiate process, areolation, and seasonal distribution are all considered. Ditylum brightwellii were divided into two type; prism- and cylinder-shaped. Comparisons between specimens from the Yellow Sea were made on, (1) shape- prism types are prismatic-shaped and/or regular square or right-angled tetragon, cylinder types are cylinder-shaped and/or long right-angled tetragon in the girdle view, respectively; (2) size and ratiodiameters of prism types are 82.1 ± 2 μm, while those of cylinder types are 21.2 ± 5 μm and ratio of pervalvar axis/diameter- prism types cells are 1.0-1.5, but cylinder types are 3.9-5.5; (3) marginal ridges- prism types have dotted, while those of the cylinder-type cells have piece, slotted or fimbriated on the marginal ridge; (4) labiate process- both prism- and cylinder-types are central part in valve face, but length of labiate processes of prism types are longer than those of cylinder types; (5) cell margin- the girdle margin show many shallow furrows in prism type and smooth in cylinder type; (6) areolation- both prism- and cylinder-types are a radial pattern in the valve center, but areolae of prism types are larger than those of cylinder types; (7) seasonal distribution- cylinder types are dominated in summer and prism types in the other seasons.
Changes of Dominant Species of Phytoplanktons and Hydrological Causes of Water Bloom in the Lake Unmun, Cheongdo-gun, Gyeonsangbuk-do
Kim, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Soon-Hwa ; Lee, Chul-Hwee ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 261~271
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.261
The variations of species compositions, standing crops and seasonal succession of phytoplanktons including Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae were investigated with physico-chemical elements of water to clarify the causes of water bloom according to the water depth in the Lake Unmun. The increased amounts of turbidity, T-N, T-P and SS originated from heavy rain and typhoon in the middle of June provoked to produce phytoplanktons. In July and August, the dominant species was Peridinium sp., while the subdominant species was Microcystis aeruginosa. In October, Aulacoseira distans was dominant and Asterionella formosa was subdominant. During the period of water shortage, the concentrated pollutants caused the decrease of precipitation, the long stagnation time of water body and the mixed pollutants by upwelling as decreasing water temperature could accelerate the water bloom. The preventives to decrease microalgal generation should be controled by the stagnation time of water body by increasing outflow to intercept water bloom such as ulacoseira sp. in October as well as summer.
Gymnodinioid Dinoflagellates (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) in the Open Pacific Ocean
Gomez, Fernando ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 273~286
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.273
Records of selected gymnodinioid dinoflagellates from the open waters in the vicinity of the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents, the Philippine, Celebes, Sulu and South China Seas, western and central equatorial and southeast Pacific Ocean are described and illustrated. The species Gymnodinium fusus Schütt, Gyrodinium falcatum Kofoid et Swezy, G. caudatum Kofoid et Swezy, G. sugashimanii J. Cachon et al. and Pseliodinium vaubanii Sournia are considered to be morphotypes of a single species, that until further studies can establish the correct genus, are named G. falcatum. This study is the first to record individuals of G. falcatum with very long curly extensions. Other gymnodinioid dinoflagellates that showed bifurcated hyposomes may be related to Gyrodinium bifurcatum Kofoid et Swezy or cells of thecate dinoflagellates exuviated from their thecae. Some specimens showed a rigid cover, although no discernible thecal plates. In this group, the most common species was Ptychodiscus noctiluca Stein and, for the first time, a micrograph of a tentative specimen of the genus Berghiella Kofoid et Michener is reported. The validity of the genera Berghiella and Balechina Loeblich Jr. et Loeblich III with thick cell covers is discussed. Several species with apical extensions, other unknown taxa with distinctive shapes, and colonial forms are illustrated. The diversity of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates is underinvestigated in the open ocean.
Ecological Characteristics of the Endoparasitic Dinoflagellate, Amoebophrya sp. ex Heterocapsa triquetra Isolated from Jinhae Bay, Korea
Park , Jong-Gyu ; Hur, Hyun-Jung ; Coats, D.Wayne ; Yih, Won-Ho ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 287~295
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.287
Infection of free-living dinoflagellates by endoparasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Amoebophrya are thought to have significant impacts on host population dynamics and have long been proposed to be a potential biological agent for controlling harmful algal bloom (HAB). To understand the impact of Amoebophrya on particular host species, however, it is necessary to quantify aspects the parasites life cycle. Here we used cultures of Amoebophryahost systems from Jinhae Bay, Korea to determine, parasite generation time, and dinospore survival and infectivity. The proportion of host cells infected by Amoebophrya sp. changed sharply from 5% to 87% with increasing dinospore:host inoculation ratios. In the absence of H. triquetra, most free-living dinospores died within 72 hours and their ability to infect host cells decreased remarkably in a day. The relatively short free-living phase of Amoebophrya suggests that the spread of infections is most likely to occur during seasons of high host abundance, as that is when dinospores have the greatest chance of encountering host cells. Infection of host cells inoculated with dinospores during the day was higher than when inoculated during the night, suggesting that infection rates might be related to environmental light conditions and/or diurnal biological rhythm of host species. Total generation times of parasite strains from a thecate dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra were nearly the same regardless of dinospore:host inoculation ratios, representing 54 ± 0.5 h in a 1:1 ratio and 55 ± 1.2 h in a 20:1 ratio. Dinospore production of Amoebophrya sp. infecting Heterocapsa triquetra was estimated to be 125 dinospores per a strain of Amoebophrya sp. There is a growing need to maintain a variety of host-parasite systems in culture and to examine their autecology under various environmental conditions. Such studies would be very helpful in understanding ecological role of these parasites, their overlooked importance in the flow of material and energy in marine ecosystem, and their practical use as biological control agents applied directly to areas affected by HAB.
Effects of Heated Effluents on the Intertidal Macroalgal Community Near Gori Nuclear Power Plant
Kim, Young-Hwan ; Ahn, Jung-Kwan ; Yoon, Hee-Dong ; Jang, Min-A ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 297~304
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.297
This study is intended to clarify the effects of heated effluents on intertidal benthic marine algal community in Korea. The species composition and biomass of marine algae at the discharge canal of Gori nuclear power plant on the southeastern coast of Korea were investigated seasonally from February 2001 to October 2006. As a result, 54 species (7 blue-green, 12 green, 9 brown and 26 red algae) of marine algae were found at the discharge canal during the past six years. In general, the number of species observed was abundant during winter to spring and less in autumn. Enteromorpha compressa, E. intestinalis, E. prolifera and Caulacanthus ustulatus were common species found more than 80% frequency during the study period. Seasonal fluctuations of mean biomass were 1-440 g dry wt m–2 and dominant species in biomass were Enteromorpha spp. (contribution to a total biomass proportion 28%), Sargassum horneri (14%) and Amphiroa beauvoisii (14%). It is evident from the floristic composition and biomass data that unique micro-environment of the discharge canal support different communities from those on the intake or control area. Results from the large numbers of surveys before and during plant operation showed that, in the regions influenced by thermal effluents such as the discharge canal of power plants, the process of ecological succession has been proceeded. It is assumed that the uni-directional water flow and the time of overhaul largely affect the development and succession of benthic marine algal communities of the discharge canal.
Summer Algal Flora of Uninhabited Islands in Dochodo, Southwestern Coast of Korea
Park, Chan-Sun ; Wee, Mi-Young ; Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 305~311
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.305
The summer algal flora and community of 15 uninhabited islands in Dochodo, southwestern coast of Korea, were investigated from 9 June to 16 September 2007. A total 53 species (10 green, 14 brown and 29 red algae) of marine algae were identified. Among 15 uninhabited islands, the number of species observed was the highest as 33 species at Jeongdo and Gyeongchido the least as 24 species at Hugdo and Mido. The dominant species were Enteromorpha compressa, Ishige okamurae, Gloiopeltis furcata, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum thunbergii. The algal zonation of intertidal zone was figured out by Gloiopeltis furcata, Caulacanthus okamurae – Ulva pertusa, Sargassum thungergii – Gelidium amansii, Sargassum horneri from upper to lower zone. The flora investigated could be classified into six functional groups such as coarsely branched form (39.6%), filamentous form (25.8%), sheet form (14.1%), thick leathery form (9.9%), jointed calcarious form (5.6%) and crustose form algae (4.9%).
Algal Flora and Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura (Laminariaceae) Population of Youngdo in Busan, Korea
Choi, Chang-Geun ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 313~318
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.313
Studies have been made of the species composition and community structure of benthic marine algae at intertidal zone and subtidal zone of Youngdo at Busan. In this area, a total of 69 marine algal species including 10 Chlorophyta, 17 Phaeophyta and 42 Rhodophyta was identified. Dominant species in coverage were Enteromorpha linza, Ulva pertusa, Gelidium divaricatum, Hildenbrandtia rubra and Chondrus ocellatus throughout the year. Enteromorpha linza, Ulva pertusa, Porphyra yezoensis, Gelidium divaricatum, Corallina pilulifera, Grateloupia elliptica and Chondrus ocellatus vertically distributed in intertidal zone, while Ecklonia stolonifera, Gelidium amansii, Prionitis cornea, Gracilaria textorii, Acrosorium polyneurum and Phycodrys fimbriata in subtidal zone. The vertical distribution of subtidal zone were characterized by Ecklonia stolonifera at 1 to 5 m depths. During a year, biomass and length of Ecklonia stolonifera gradually decreased from March to January, but increased from February. Zoosporangial sori were observed from September to December. In conclusion, number of species in this area was remarkably reduced as compared to the previous data at Busan and it’s vicinity.
Photosynthetic Responses of the Benthic Diatom Nitzschia sp. to Selected Heavy Metals and Herbicides
Kang, Eun-Ju ; Choi, Tae-Seob ; Kim, Kwang-Young ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 319~323
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.319
This study was conducted with using chlorophyll a fluorescence (indicated as photosynthetic activity) to examine the toxic effect of 96 h exposure of heavy metals and herbicides on the benthic diatom Nitzschia sp. which was isolated from pristine sediment in Pamquat Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada. Samples of benthic diatom were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L–1 of copper, 0, 1, 10 and 100 mg L–1 of chrome (VI), 0, 2.45, 24.5 and 245 mg L–1 of paraquat dichloride, and 0, 4.37, 43.7 and 437 mg L–1 of alachlor during 96 hours. The effective quantum yield of photochemistry (ΔF/Fm’) was evaluated by subjecting light acclimated samples to saturating pulses of light using a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer. The impact of heavy metals on Nitzschia sp. photosynthesis was not severe in < 1 mg L–1 but in the high concentrations (> 1 mg L–1) clearly increased toxic stress during 96 h. Herbicides had a limited impact during the exposure period but clearly increased stress on the benthic diatom with increasing concentrations. Acute response of Nitzschia sp. to selected heavy metals and herbicides was characterized, and the capacity of a benthic diatom to tolerate and recover from toxic stress was assessed.
Uitrastructure of Cryptoglena pigra from Korea
Kim, Jong-Im ; Shin, Woong-Ghi ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.325
Immunomodulating Activity of a Fucoidan Isolated from Korean Undaria pinnatifida Sporophyll
Yoo, Yung-Choon ; Kim, Woo-Jung ; Kim, So-Yeon ; Kim, Sung-Min ; Chung, Mi-Kyung ; Park, Joo-Woong ; Suh, Hyun-Hyo ; Lee, Kyung-Bok ; Park, Yong-Il ;
ALGAE, volume 22, issue 4, 2007, Pages 333~338
DOI : 10.4490/ALGAE.2007.22.4.333
A fucoidan, isolated from Korean Undaria pinnatifida spoprophyll (UP-F), was investigated for its immunomodulating activity on murine macrophages and splenocytes, and its activity was compared with that of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus (FV-F). Treatment of UP-F resulted in inhibition of the growth of murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, but its cytotoxicity was not observed in normal murine splenocytes. FV-F was shown to be highly cytotoxic to both immune cells, and its cytotoxic activity was higher than that of UP-F. Treatment of UP-F induced TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner from two types of macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. The TNF-α-inducing activity of UP-F was higher than that of FV-F. UP-F also actively induced chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1α) from RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, treatment of UP-F gave rise to activation of murine splenocytes to produce cytokine (IL-6) and chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1α), showing significantly higher activity than that of FV-F. These results indicate that UP-F is less cytotoxic to immune cells than FV-F, and possesses immunomodulating activity to produce cytokines and chemokines from macrophages and splenocytes.