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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
A new Korean red algal species, Haraldiophyllum udoensis sp. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta)
Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kang, Jeong-Chan ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 211~219
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.211
The genus Haraldiophyllum comprises seven species worldwide. Six of these are endemics with limited distributions, whereas the type species H. bonnemaisonii has been reported from the Atlantic Ocean. In Korea, H. bonnemaisonii has been previously recorded from the southern coast. During a red algal collection at Udo, Jeju Island, Korea, we found a potentially undescribed Haraldiophyllum species and analyzed its morphology and rbcL sequences. Herein we describe a new species, H. udoensis sp. nov., and compare our Udo specimen to similar congeners. This new species is characterized by one or several elliptical blades on a short cylindrical stipe with fibrous roots, blades that are monostromatic except at the base and on reproductive structures, a lack of network and microscopic veins, entire margins, lack of proliferations, growth through many marginal initials, and two distinct tetrasporangia layers. A phylogenetic rbcL sequence analysis demonstrated H. udoensis was distinct from the United Kingdom`s H. bonnemaisonii, as well as from other species. Morphological and sequence data indicated a previous misidentification of H. udoensis as the type species H. bonnemaisonii. Based on maximum likelihood analysis, Myriogramme formed a sister clade with H. udoensis, with relatively low bootstrap support.
Taxonomic re-examination of a carpet-like Codium (Chlorophyta) from Jeju, Korea
Lee, Hyung-Woo ; Kim, Myung-Sook ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 221~227
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.221
There are three carpet-like Codium species with a broadly expanded thallus reported from Korea and Japan: C. latum Suringar, C. tapetum Y. Lee, and C. tenuifolium Shimada, Tadano and J. Tanaka. During surveys of green algal diversity, we encountered a Codium species with carpet-like thalli from several sites on Jeju Island. To confirm the taxonomic identity of these specimens, we studied the morphological features and obtained rbcL gene sequences. The morphological and sequence data indicated that the carpet-like Codium specimens from Jeju are C. tenuifolium from Japan, but distant from Japanese C. latum. We propose that the carpet-like specimens from Jeju should be renamed C. tenuifolium, instead of C. tapetum or C. latum. C. tenuifolium is characterized by a tenuous, carpet-like and erect thallus with a very short and slightly compressed stipe arising from a discal holdfast, sub-pyriform and clavate utricles with a tumid and swollen apical head, and globular or sub-globular gametangia issued at the basal portion of the utricles.
Spliced leader sequences detected in EST data of the dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Prorocentrum minimum
Guo, Ruoyu ; Ki, Jang-Seu ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 229~235
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.229
Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a mRNA processing mechanism in dinoflagellate nuclear genes. Although studies have identified a short, conserved dinoflagellate SL (dinoSL) sequence (22-nt) in their nuclear-encoded transcripts, whether the majority of nuclear-coded transcripts in dinoflagellates have the dinoSL sequence remains doubtful. In this study, we investigated dinoSL-containing gene transcripts using 454 pyrosequencing data (Cochlodinium polykrikoides, 93 K sequence reads, 31 Mb; Prorocentrum minimum, 773 K sequence reads, 291 Mb). After making comparisons and performing local BLAST searches, we identified dinoSL for one C. polykrikoides gene transcript and eight P. minimum gene transcripts. This showed transcripts containing the dinoSL sequence were markedly fewer in number than the total expressed sequence tag (EST) transcripts. In addition, we found no direct evidence to prove that most dinoflagellate nuclear-coded transcripts have this dinoSL sequence.
Temporal changes in the abundance of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae) in Tongyeong, Korea
Park, Tae-Gyu ; Ok, Yu-Ran ; Park, Young-Tae ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 237~241
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.237
The toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum has been implicated in numerous fish kill events around the world. Since this species commonly co-occurs with other morphologically similar dinoflagellates, field monitoring of this species in natural waters via light microscopy only has been problematic. In this study, we investigated temporal changes in K. veneficum`s abundance in the waters of Obido, Tongyeong, using a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The field survey, from April to December 2010, revealed K. veneficum occurred at low densities (12 to 425 cells
) during this time and that cell numbers peaked in June (early summer in Korea), indicating this species generally occurs in the warmer season (mostly at
and 33.4-34.5‰) in the Obido area.
Variation in morphological traits over a wave-exposure gradient in one but not in another species of the brown alga Carpophyllum (Fucales)
Hodge, Fiona ; Buchanan, Joseph ; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C. ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 243~251
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.243
Environmental conditions can influence the morphology of local biota through phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation. Macroalgal morphologies are often associated with wave-exposure conditions. We investigated the relationship between morphology and wave exposure in two common endemic subtidal macroalgae, Carpophyllum angustifolium and C. maschalocarpum, from the East Cape of New Zealand. Morphological comparisons were made between individuals from two sites and four different wave-exposure zones, as defined by fetch and barnacle composition. Of the seven morphological traits measured in C. angustifolium, only total length varied, and individuals were longer in more wave-exposed environments between the two exposure zones where the species were found. In contrast, total length, stipe thickness and vesicle presence all varied significantly between exposure zones in C. maschalocarpum. C. maschalocarpum specimens were shorter with thinner stipes, and fewer individuals had vesicles in the more wave-exposed zones. Morphological traits of both species also varied between sites, suggesting that other influences are important for determining species morphology. Further study is needed to investigate the role of phenotypic plasticity and genetic variability for driving morphological variation in C. angustifolium and C. maschalocarpum.
Effects of land-based fish farm effluent on the morphology and growth of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in southwestern Nova Scotia
White, Katelyn L. ; Kim, Jang-Kyun ; Garbary, David J. ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 253~263
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.253
Phenotypic plasticity was examined in the economically and ecologically important brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum in southwestern Nova Scotia, considering specifically how nutrient loading affected its vegetative and reproductive features. To determine this, we examined morphometric changes in A. nodosum from two sites receiving direct effluent impacts from a land-based finfish aquaculture facility and from two control sites, approximately 2 km away from the aquaculture facility in opposite directions. Fronds from test sites were significantly younger than from control sites (5 y vs. 8 y); however, fronds from farm sites were significantly larger (219 g vs. 90 g) because of their higher growth rates. Thalli from farm sites had greater reproductive potential, as shown by numbers of receptacle initials (797 initials vs. 281 initials). These results suggest limited nutrient inflows from land-based aquaculture may positively affect adjacent Ascophyllum populations by inducing higher growth rates. We conclude that the coordination of effluent management from land-based aquaculture with natural resource harvesting of A. nodosum may be beneficial. Further study is necessary to determine the limits of nutrient loading for this potentially beneficial outcome.
Bioaccumulation of copper and zinc by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera
Evans, La Kenya ; Edwards, Matthew S. ;
ALGAE, volume 26, issue 3, 2011, Pages 265~275
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2011.26.3.265
This study examined the bioaccumulation of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) by the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, by exposing meristematic kelp tissue to elevated metal concentrations in seawater within laboratory aquaria. Specifically, we carried out two different experiments. The first examined metal uptake under a single, ecologically-relevant elevation of each metal (30 ppb Cu and 100 ppb Zn), and the second examined the relationships between varying levels of the metals (i.e., 15, 39, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ppb Cu, and 50, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 600 ppb Zn). Both experiments were designed to contrast the uptake of the metals in isolation (i.e., when only one metal concentration was elevated) and in combination (i.e., when both metals` concentrations were elevated). Following three days of exposure to the elevated metal concentrations, we collected and analyzed the M. pyrifera tissues using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectroscopy. Our results indicated that M. pyrifera bioaccumulated Cu in all treatments where Cu concentrations in the seawater were elevated, regardless of whether Zn concentrations were also elevated. Similarly, M. pyrifera bioaccumulated Zn in treatments where seawater Zn concentrations were elevated, but this occurred only when we increased Zn alone, and not when we simultaneously increased Cu concentrations. This suggests that elevated Cu concentrations inhibit Zn uptake, but not vice versa. Following this, our second experiment examined the relationships among varying seawater Cu and Zn concentrations and their bioaccumulation by M. pyrifera. Here, our results indicated that, as their concentrations in the seawater rise, Cu and Zn uptake by M. pyrifera tissue also rises. As with the first experiment, the presence of elevated Zn in the water did not appear to affect Cu uptake at any concentration examined. However, although it was not statistically significant, we observed that the presence of elevated Cu in seawater appeared to trend toward inhibiting Zn uptake, especially at higher levels of the metals. This study suggests that M. pyrifera may be useful as a bio-indicator species for monitoring heavy metal pollution in coastal environments.