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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Morphology and plastid psbA phylogeny of Zygnema (Zygnemataceae, Chlorophyta) from Korea: Z. insigne and Z. leiospermum
Kim, Jee-Hwan ; Boo, Sung Min ; Kim, Young Hwan ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 225~234
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.225
Zygnema is a conjugating filamentous green algal genus that is distributed in a broad range of freshwater habitats, from sea level to alpine summits. Although more than 150 species have been described worldwide, their taxonomy remains unclear, probably owing to their relatively simple morphology. We investigated the detailed morphology of Korean Zygnema species, combined with analysis of the plastid psbA gene from 22 specimens of the genus and putative relatives, in order to develope a key to their identification and isolation, and to determine their relationships. We recognized two species of Zygnema; Z. insigne and Z. leiospermum, based on morphological characters such as width of the vegetative cell, position of zygospores, dimensions and form of spores, shape of female gametangia, and color of mesospores. The analysis of psbA data was consistent with morphological comparison. The pairwise divergence between two species was 3.7-4.1% (34-38 bp) in psbA sequences. The phylogeny of psbA revealed the monophyly of Z. insigne and Z. leiospermum together with two isolates of Z. circumcarinatum from Germany and Scotland. This is the first report on the psbA gene phylogeny of Zygnema.
Morphological study of the genus Eucampia (Bacillariophyceae) in Korean coastal waters
Lee, Jun Mo ; Lee, Jin Hwan ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 235~247
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.235
Regardless of continuous researches, recent researches on the genus Eucampia (Bacillariophyceae) have focused mainly on E. zodiacus f. zodiacus In the present study, species of the genus Eucampia have been studied based on their morphological characteristics. Eucampia species were collected at 24 sites from July 2008 to June 2011 in Korean coastal waters. Species were mainly identified based on the shape of valve, ocellus, and aperture, along with the length and shape of the bipolar elevations. As a result, five Eucampia species were identified: Eucampia cornuta, E. groenlandica, E. zodiacus f. zodiacus, E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis, and E. zodiacus var. cornigera. E. cornuta and E. groenlandica have long pervalvar axis length, but the others display short or moderate length. Ocellus shape of E. cornuta, E. groenlandica and E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis are linear ribs, whereas E. zodiacus f. zodiacus and E. zodiacus var. cornigera have radial ribs with central area. E. cornuta and E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis have long and narrow cylindrical elevations. E. groenlandica and E. zodiacus f. zodiacus have short and broad elevations with blunt tips. E. zodiacus var. cornigera has long and broad conical elevations. In terms of aperture shape, E. cornuta has large elliptical form, E. groenlandica has almost circular to rounded rectangular form, E. zodiacus f. zodiacus has narrow and elliptical rounded rectangular to a narrow lanceolate form, E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis has almost rectangular form, and E. zodiacus var. cornigera has rounded rhombic form. On the basis of elevations in broad girdle view, 5 Eucampia taxa could be divided into 3 types: `narrow H type`, E. cornuta and E. groenlandica; `regular H type`, E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis and E. zodiacus var. cornigera (partial); `wide H type`, E. zodiacus f. zodiacus (almost).
Lithothamnion steneckii sp. nov. and Pneophyllum conicum: new coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) for coral reefs of Brazil
Mariath, Rodrigo ; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael ; Figueiredo, Marcia ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 249~258
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.249
Nongeniculate coralline red algae are a common element of the Brazilian coastal zone, especially associated to coral reefs. During the course of ecological studies at Parque Municipal Marinho do Recife de Fora, two species of non-geniculate Corallinales were the major organisms covering the reef. Analyses of the vegetative and reproductive features of the species were analyzed; indicating that one new species of the genus Lithothamnion is proposed here based on the combination of several features associated with anatomy of the tetrasporangial conceptacles in relation to other species of the genus for which modern accounts are available. This new proposal along with other new species, new combinations and range extension of some species of the genus based in similar features clearly suggest that stability in species delimitation is possible. The second species found Pneophyllum conicum represents a range extension of more than 6,000 km from the Pacific in to the Atlantic Ocean suggesting that some nongeniculate species are widely distributed. The occurrence and abundance of these species supports and emphasizes the need for an extensive taxonomic reassessment of coralline red algae in the context of Brazilian coral reef biodiversity.
Morphology and molecular study of Pterosiphonia arenosa sp. nov. (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) from Jeju Island, Korea
Kim, Myung Sook ; Kim, Su Yeon ; Yang, Mi Yeon ; Kim, Byeongseok ; Diaz-Tapia, Pilar ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 259~268
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.259
The genus Pterosiphonia is composed of 22 species worldwide and four of these species have been reported in the North-East Asia. In Korea, P. pennata originally described from the Mediterranean Sea has been previously recorded from the southern coast as a widespread species. In order to confirm the same species from Korea and Mediterranean, we observed the morphology of Korean Pterosiphonia specimen and analyzed rbcL sequences for inferring phylogenetic relationships among similar congeners. Korean entity was recognized as a new species, Pterosiphonia arenosa sp. nov. The new species is characterized by ecorticate axes with 7-10 pericentral cells, branches formed every two segments, and coalesced with main axis over 1-1.25 axial segments, and tetrasporangia formed in straight series on determinate branches of the upper parts of erect axes. A phylogenetic analysis of rbcL sequences demonstrated that P. arenosa was distinct from P. pennata found in Spain as well as other species. In conclusion, morphological and molecular sequence data indicated that P. arenosa sp. nov. has been previously misidentified as P. pennata in Korea.
Seasonal variation in depth-stratified macroalgal assemblage patterns on Marado, Jeju Island, Korea
Kang, Jeong Chan ; Kim, Myung Sook ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 269~281
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.269
Marado is a small rocky island located off the south coast of Jeju Island and acts as the first gateway of the Kuroshio Current to Korean coastal ecosystems. This island is one of the most unpolluted and well preserved sea areas around the Jeju coast. We extensively observed macroalgal assemblages of species and functional forms in the intertidal and subtidal zones through four seasons on Marado, Jeju Island, Korea to demonstrate the seasonality of vertical distribution patterns and biomass. A total of 144 species (14 Chlorophyta, 40 Phaeophyta, and 90 Rhodophyta) were identified in quadrats and were analyzed seasonally and vertically to define the variation patterns. The annual mean biomass of macroalgae was
and the highest value was recorded in spring and the lowest was in winter. The annual dominant species by biomass was Ecklonia cava followed by Sargassum fusiforme, S. macrocarpum, Amphiroa galapagensis, Chondria crassicaulis, and S. thunbergii. Obvious biomass zonation patterns of macroalgal species were detected in relation to tidal height and depth. Macroalgal biomass, diversity index (H`), and community dynamics were the highest in the shallow subtidal zone. Species number was higher in the subtidal than in the intertidal zone and similar throughout the entire subtidal zone. Our results provide revealing insights into the distribution patterns of macroalgal assemblages in an unpolluted sea area around Jeju Island.
The distribution and ecological factors of aerial algae inhabiting stoneworks in Korea
Song, Mi-Ae ; Kim, Ok-Jin ; Lee, Ok-Min ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 283~294
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.283
The physico-chemical and environmental factors of stoneworks were examined from March 2009 to October 2010, and aerial algae living on 24 stoneworks in Korea were identified. Fifty aerial algae were found in 24 stoneworks. Of the 50 taxa, 30 taxa were cyanophytes, 16 taxa were bacillariophytes, 3 taxa were chlorophytes, and 1 taxon was a xanthophyte. Nine species, including Aphanocapsa rivularis, which is known to only live in aquatic conditions, inhabited both aquatic and aerial environments. Synechococcus aeruginosus, Scytonema coactile var. thermalis, S. coactile var. minor, Stigonema ocellatum f. ocellatum, and Oscillatoria boryana were newly recorded in Korea. As a result of a correlation analysis between algae and the physico-chemical and ecological environmental factors, the taxa were divided into the bryophyte group, the humidity group, and the dry group. Although the bryophyte group was included within the humidity group, it was separated from the dry group. Taxa in the bryophyte group including Nostoc commune which was distributed in more humid areas than those in the humidity group. However, dry group taxa including Chroococcus pallidus were distributed in lower humidity than that of the two other groups. Correlations among other environmental factors were tested to identify other factors that could substitute for humidity and light intensity. As a result, tree distance, water distance, and plant coverage were replaceable environmental factors.
Influence of CO
concentration on carbon concentrating mechanisms in cyanobacteria and green algae: a proteomic approach
Ramanan, Rishiram ; Vinayagamoorthy, Nadimuthu ; Sivanesan, Saravana Devi ; Kannan, Krishnamurthi ; Chakrabarti, Tapan ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 295~301
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.295
Carbon concentrating mechanisms play a vital role in photosynthesis in microalgae and cyanobacteria especially in the proper functioning of Rubisco and assimilation of carbon via the Calvin cycle. This study evaluates the role of carbon dioxide on carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) in a cynaobacteria, Spirulina platensis and a microalga, Chlorella sp. 786. The study organisms were grown in both atmospheric (control sample, 0.035%) and high (exposed sample, 10%)
concentrations. Second dimension (2D) electrophoresis revealed a huge difference in the protein profiles of both organisms suggesting the induction of CCM related proteins in the sample maintained at atmospheric
concentration and the repression of CCM related proteins in the sample maintained at 10%
. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of two important
transporter proteins in the control sample of S. platensis, namely ferredoxin-
reductase and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport system protein. These proteins were only expressed in the control sample and were downregulated or not expressed at all in the exposed sample. Consequently, this study conclusively proves that CCMs are only inducted at low
concentrations and are not functional at high
Identification and toxigenic potential of a Nostoc sp.
Nowruzi, Bahareh ; Khavari-Nejad, Ramezan-Ali ; Sivonen, Karina ; Kazemi, Bahram ; Najafi, Farzaneh ; Nejadsattari, Taher ;
ALGAE, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 303~313
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2012.27.4.303
Cyanobacteria are well known for their production of a multitude of highly toxic and / or allelopathic compounds. Among the photosynthetic microorganisms, cyanobacteria, belonging to the genus Nostoc are regarded as good candidate for producing biologically active secondary metabolites which are highly toxic to humans and other animals. Since so many reports have been published on the poisoning of different animals from drinking water contaminated with cyanobacteria toxins, it might be assumed that bioactive compounds are found only in aquatic species causes toxicity. However, the discovery of several dead dogs, mice, ducks, and fish around paddy fields, prompted us to study the toxic compounds in a strain of Nostoc which is most abundant in the paddy fields of Iran, using polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and mass spectrophotometer. Results of molecular analysis demonstrated that the ASN_M strain contains the nosF gene. Also, the result of ion chromatograms and
fragmentation patterns showed that while there were three different peptidic compound classes (anabaenopeptin, cryptophycin, and nostocyclopeptides), there were no signs of the presence of anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, hassallidin or microcystins. Moreover, a remarkable antifungal activity was identified in the methanolic extracts. Based on the results, this study suggests that three diverse groups of potentially bioactive compounds might account for the death of these animals. This case is the first documented incident of toxicity from aquatic cyanobacteria related intoxication in dogs, mice, and aquatic organisms in Iran.