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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Phylogenetic position of eight Amphora sensu lato (Bacillariophyceae) species and comparative analysis of morphological characteristics
Wang, Pengbin ; Park, Bum Soo ; Kim, Jin Ho ; Kim, Joo-Hwan ; Lee, Hae-Ok ; Han, Myung-Soo ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 57~73
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.057
Amphora Ehrenberg ex Kutzing sensu lato is a common and widespread benthic diatom genus with a taxonomy that has been under continual revision, particularly based on molecular analyses. Although Amphora species have been studied using modern microscopy in recent years, there has not been much progress on molecular characterization of the species, especially in Asia. In this study of Amphora, sampling was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in Korean coastal waters. The morphological and molecular characteristics of eight Amphora sensu lato were examined: Amphora marina, A. proteus, Halamphora costata, H. coffeaeformis, H. eunotia, H. holsatica, H. terroris, and Halamphora sp. Based on previous accounts, morphology suggested that A. marina and A. proteus belong to the subgenus Amphora Cleve, which have smooth girdle bands and rather coarse and very distinct areolae on the valve. The other species, H. coffeaeformis, H. costata, H. eunotia, H. holsatica, H. terroris, and Halamphora sp. belong to the subgenus Halamphora Cleve, which was recently elevated to generic status by Levkov 2009, have plicate girdle bands, puncta which do not form straight longitudinal lines, valves which have a narrow ventral portion and apices that are generally rostrate-capitate and recurved. In agreement with analysis based on morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit rDNA suggested that the eight Amphora sensu lato species were not a monophyletic group as the morphological classification. Also, the results of molecular work and statistical analysis on all these Amphora sensu lato combined with phylogenic analysis on our geographically representative samples give strong evidence that Halamphora Levkov is independent of Amphora Cleve. Furthermore, in this study, Amphora terroris was transferred Halamphora as Halamphora terroris (Ehrenberg) Wang comb. nov. and Amphora marina was recorded for the first time in Korea.
Ansanella granifera gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new dinoflagellate from the coastal waters of Korea
Jeong, Hae Jin ; Jang, Se Hyeon ; Moestrup, Ojvind ; Kang, Nam Seon ; Lee, Sung Yeon ; Potvin, Eric ; Noh, Jae Hoon ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 75~99
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.075
A small dinoflagellate, Ansanella granifera gen. et sp. nov., was isolated from estuarine and marine waters, and examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the identity of the sequences (3,663-bp product) of the small subunit (SSU), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2), and D1-D3 large subunit (LSU) rDNA were determined. This newly isolated, thin-walled dinoflagellate has a type E eyespot and a single elongated apical vesicle, and it is closely related to species belonging to the family Suessiaceae. A. granifera has 10-14 horizontal rows of amphiesmal vesicles, comparable to Biecheleria spp. and Biecheleriopsis adriatica, but greater in number than in other species of the family Suessiaceae. Unlike Biecheleria spp. and B. adriatica, A. granifera has grana-like thylakoids. Further, A. granifera lacks a nuclear fibrous connective, which is present in B. adriatica. B. adriatica and A. granifera also show a morphological difference in the shape of the margin of the cingulum. In A. granifera, the cingular margin formed a zigzag line, and in B. adriatica a straight line, especially on the dorsal side of the cell. The episome is conical with a round apex, whereas the hyposome is trapezoidal. Cells growing photosynthetically are
wide. The cingulum is descending, the two ends displaced about its own width. Cells of A. granifera contain 5-8 peripheral chloroplasts, stalked pyrenoids, and a pusule system, but lack nuclear envelope chambers, a nuclear fibrous connective, lamellar body, rhizocysts, and a peduncle. The main accessory pigment is peridinin. The SSU, ITS regions, and D1-D3 LSU rDNA sequences differ by 1.2-7.4%, >8.8%, and >2.5%, respectively, from those of the other known genera in the order Suessiales. Moreover, the SSU rDNA sequence differed by 1-2% from that of the three most closely related species, Polarella glacialis, Pelagodinium bei, and Protodinium simplex. In addition, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence differed by 16-19% from that of the three most closely related species, Gymnodinium corii, Pr. simplex, and Pel. bei, and the LSU rDNA sequence differed by 3-4% from that of the three most closely related species, Protodinium sp. CCMP419, B. adriatica, and Gymnodinium sp. CCMP425. A. granifera had a 51-base pair fragment in domain D2 of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA, which is absent in the genus Biecheleria. In the phylogenetic tree based on the SSU and LSU sequences, A. granifera is located in the large clade of the family Suessiaceae, but it forms an independent clade.
A new species of Bangiopsis: B. franklynottii sp. nov. (Stylonematophyceae, Rhodophyta) from Australia and India and comments on the genus
West, John A. ; de Goer, Susan Loiseaux ; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C. ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 101~109
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.101
Small red algae, especially those previously referred to as `primitive` are often overlooked, but can be quite abundant. These `primitive` red algae are now placed in several classes distinct from the Florideophyceae, for example the Stylonematophyceae. A brownish-red filamentous alga was collected from a sandy tide pool at Cape Tribulation, Queensland, Australia. Cultured specimens were identified as Bangiopsis and conformed to the morphological characters of the genus (multicellular base, erect filaments branched or unbranched, uniseriate to multiseriate-tubular, single multilobed purple-red to red-brown plastid with central pyrenoid, vegetative cells released directly as spores). Molecular data of two plastid genes (rbcL, psbA) support placement of the Australian isolate and isolates from India in Bangiopsis. The genetic variation between these isolates and isolates from Puerto Rico previously attributed to B. subsimplex indicates that these should be considered as a separate species. As the type locality is in the Atlantic Ocean, French Guiana, and not far from Puerto Rico, and the Puerto Rican isolate has been used often in phylogenetic analyses, we propose that the Indian and Pacific Ocean isolates be designated a new species, B. franklynottii, to acknowledge Ott`s many years of research on inconspicuous freshwater and marine red algae. Our research also highlights the lack of careful descriptions in many of the records of this genus and the lack of morphological characters to distinguish species. Especially within the morphologically simple red algae, morphological distinctness does not necessarily reflect evolutionary divergences.
Polysiphonia ulleungensis sp. nov. (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta): a new diminutive species from Korea belonging to Polysiphonia sensu stricto
Bustamante, Danilo Edson ; Won, Boo Yeon ; Cho, Tae Oh ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.111
Polysiphonia sensu stricto is characterized by having 4 ecorticate pericentral cells, rhizoids in open connection with the pericentral cells, four-celled carpogonial branches, spermatangial branches replacing the whole trichoblast, and tetrasporangia arranged in straight series. Polysiphonia ulleungensis sp. nov. is newly described from Sadongri, Ulleung Island, Korea, based on morphological and molecular evidence. It is mainly characterized by having ecorticate axes with 4 pericentral cells, apical cells transversely or obliquely divided, unicellular rhizoids in open connection with pericentral cells, very scarce trichoblasts and scar cells, procarps with a four-celled carpogonial branch, and spermatangial branches replacing the whole trichoblast. Polysiphonia ulleungensis is closely similar in morphology to P. atlantica sensu lato. We concluded that materials of P. atlantica sensu Nam and Kang from Korea correspond to P. ulleungensis. By contrast, the new species differs morphologically from the Atlantic specimens of P. atlantica as well as from P. atlantica sensu Kim and Lee from Korea. Morphological characteristics and rbcL sequence analyses support the taxonomic placement of P. ulleungensis within Polysiphonia sensu stricto.
Comparative observations on Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from India
Suto, Yasuo ; Ganesan, E.K. ; West, John A. ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 121~126
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.121
Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens were collected from Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India. Macroscopic and microscopic features were observed and their comparative features were discussed. The lesions of C. parasiticus occur on the upper and lower leaf surfaces although zoosporangia form only on the lower surface. The thalli grow subepidermally and intramatrically, causing necrosis of whole leaf tissue. On the other hand C. virescens thalli develop on the upper surface and zoosporangia form on the upper surface, the thalli grow subcuticularly, and only the host epidermal and palisade cells are necrosed. Syzygium aromaticum and Polyalthia longifolia are new host plants of C. parasiticus and C. virescens, respectively.
New records of three endophytic green algae from Grateloupia spp. (Rhodophyta) in Korea
Kim, Chansong ; Kim, Young Sik ; Choi, Han Gil ; Nam, Ki Wan ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 127~136
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.127
Endophytic green algae growing in fronds of Grateloupia spp. were examined for infection frequency from their field populations of Jeju, Wando, and Uljin, Korea in August and September 2013. Three endophytes were isolated in laboratory culture from a G. lanceolata thallus collected in Jeju. Unialgal cultures were made from the endophytes, and their morphological characteristics were observed with light microscopy. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis based on chloroplast-encoded elongation factor tufA gene sequences was performed to identify the G. lanceolata endophytes. Three filamentous green endophytic species, Ulvella leptochaete, Blastophysa rhizopus, and Bolbocoleon piliferum were reported for the first time in Korea. General biological information for the three endophytes was also described.
Mixotrophy in the newly described dinoflagellate Ansanella granifera: feeding mechanism, prey species, and effect of prey concentration
Lee, Sook Kyung ; Jeong, Hae Jin ; Jang, Se Hyeon ; Lee, Kyung Ha ; Kang, Nam Seon ; Lee, Moo Joon ; Potvin, Eric ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 137~152
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.137
Mixotrophic protists play diverse roles in marine food webs as predators and prey. Thus, exploring mixotrophy in phototrophic protists has emerged as a critical step in understanding marine food webs and cycling of materials in marine ecosystem. To investigate the feeding of newly described mixotrophic dinoflagellate Ansanella granifera, we explored the feeding mechanism and the different types of species that A. granifera was able to feed on. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of A. granifera feeding on the prasinophyte Pyramimonas sp., the only algal prey, as a function of prey concentration. A. granifera was able to feed on heterotrophic bacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. However, among the 12 species of algal prey offered, A. granifera ingested only Pyramimonas sp. A. granifera ingested the algal prey cell by engulfment. With increasing mean prey concentration, the growth rate of A. granifera feeding on Pyramimonas sp. increased rapidly, but became saturated at a concentration of
). The maximum specific growth rate (i.e., mixotrophic growth) of A. granifera feeding on Pyramimonas sp. was
under a 14 : 10 h light-dark cycle of
, while the growth rate (i.e., phototrophic growth) under similar light conditions without added prey was
. With increasing mean prey concentration, the ingestion rate of A. granifera feeding on Pyramimonas sp. increased rapidly, but slightly at the concentrations
). The maximum ingestion rate of A. granifera feeding on Pyramimonas sp. was 0.97 ng C
). The calculated grazing coefficients for A. granifera feeding on co-occurring Pyramimonas sp. were up to
. The results of the present study suggest that A. granifera can sometimes have a considerable grazing impact on the population of Pyramimonas spp.
Feeding by common heterotrophic dinoflagellates and a ciliate on the red-tide ciliate Mesodinium rubrum
Lee, Kyung Ha ; Jeong, Hae Jin ; Yoon, Eun Young ; Jang, Se Hyeon ; Kim, Hyung Seop ; Yih, Wonho ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 153~163
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.153
Mesodinium rubrum is a cosmopolitan ciliate that often causes red tides. Predation by heterotrophic protists is a critical factor that affects the population dynamics of red tide species. However, there have been few studies on protistan predators feeding on M. rubrum. To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on M. rubrum, we tested whether the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense, Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium spirale, Luciella masanensis, Oblea rotunda, Oxyrrhis marina, Pfiesteria piscicida, Polykrikos kofoidii, Protoperidinium bipes, and Stoeckeria algicida, and the ciliate Strombidium sp. preyed on M. rubrum. G. dominans, L. masanensis, O. rotunda, P. kofoidii, and Strombidium sp. preyed on M. rubrum. However, only G. dominans had a positive growth feeding on M. rubrum. The growth and ingestion rates of G. dominans on M. rubrum increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration <
, but became saturated or slowly at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rate of G. dominans on M. rubrum was
, while the maximum ingestion rate was 0.55 ng C
. The grazing coefficients by G. dominans on populations of M. rubrum were up to
. Thus, G. dominans may sometimes have a considerable grazing impact on populations of M. rubrum.
Polyphenol-rich fraction from Ecklonia cava (a brown alga) processing by-product reduces LPS-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo in a zebrafish model
Kim, Seo-Young ; Kim, Eun-A ; Kang, Min-Cheol ; Lee, Ji-Hyeok ; Yang, Hye-Won ; Lee, Jung-Suck ; Lim, Tae Il ; Jeon, You-Jin ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 165~174
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.2.165
Ecklonia cava is a common edible brown algae that is plentiful in Jeju Island of Republic of Korea. Polyphenols from E. cava have strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, a large number of the by-products from E. cava processing are discarded. In the present study, to utilize these by-products, we assessed the anti-inflammatory activity of the polyphenol-rich fraction (PRF) from E. cava processing by-product (EPB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Four compounds, namely eckol, eckstolonol, dieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol-A, were isolated and identified from PRF. We found that PRF suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in the LPS-induced cells. Furthermore, the protective effect of PRF was investigated in vivo in LPS-stimulated inflammation zebrafish model. PRF had a protective effect against LPS-stimulated toxicity in zebrafish embryos. In addition, PRF inhibited LPS-stimulated reactive oxygen species and NO generation. According to the results, PRF isolated from EPB could be used as a beneficial anti-inflammatory agent, instead of discard.