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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
A revaluation of algal diseases in Korean Pyropia (Porphyra) sea farms and their economic impact
Kim, Gwang Hoon ; Moon, Kyoung-Hyoun ; Kim, Je-Yoon ; Shim, Junbo ; Klochkova, Tatyana A. ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 249~265
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.249
As with land crops, cultivated algae are affected by various diseases ranging from large outbreaks of a disease to chronic epiphytes, which may downgrade the value of the final product. The recent development of intensive and dense mariculture practices has enabled some new diseases to spread much faster than before. A new disease is reported almost every year, and the impact of diseases is expected to increase with environmental change, such as global warming. We observed the incidence of diseases in two Pyropia sea farms in Korea from 2011 to 2014, and estimated the economic loss caused by each disease. Serious damage is caused by the oomycete pathogens, Pythium porphyrae and Olpidiopsis spp., which decreased the productivity of the Pyropia sea farms. In Seocheon sea farms, an outbreak of Olpidiopsis spp. disease resulted in approximately US $1.6 million in loss, representing approximately 24.5% of total sales during the 2012-2013 season. The damage caused by green-spot disease was almost as serious as oomycete diseases. An outbreak of green-spot disease in the Seocheon sea farms resulted in approximately US $1.1 million in loss, representing 10.7% of total sales in the 2013-2014 season in this area. However, the causative agent of green-spot disease is still not confirmed. "Diatom felt" is regarded as a minor nuisance that does not cause serious damage in Pyropia; however, our case study showed that the economic loss caused by "diatom felt" might be as serious as that of oomycete diseases. Bacteria and cyanobacteria are indigenous members of epiphytic microbial community on Pyropia blades, but can become opportunistic pathogens under suitable environmental conditions, especially when Pyropia suffers from other diseases. A regular acid wash of the Pyropia cultivation nets is the most common treatment for all of the above mentioned diseases, and represents approximately 30% of the total cost in Pyropia sea farming. However, the acid wash is ineffective for some diseases, especially for Olpidiopsis and bacterial diseases.
Re-evaluation of green tide-forming species in the Yellow Sea
Kang, Eun Ju ; Kim, Ju-Hyoung ; Kim, Keunyong ; Choi, Han-Gu ; Kim, Kwang Young ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 267~277
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.267
Green tides occur every year in the Yellow Sea (YS), and numerous investigations are proceeding on various aspects of the phenomenon. We have identified bloom-forming species collected from diverse locations in the YS using morphological traits and the chloroplast gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL). Morphological and rbcL sequence data analyses characterized the blooming species on both sides of the YS as belonging to the Ulva linza-procera-prolifera (LPP) complex clade or U. prolifera of earlier reports. However, U. procera within the LPP complex must be regarded as synonym of U. linza. Moreover, U. prolifera in free-floating samples collected from the Qingdao coast in 2009 was clearly in a distinct clade from that of the blooming species. Therefore, U. linza is the main green tide alga in the YS and has the procera-morphology. The green drift mats in the southeastern part of the YS (southwest sea of Korea) consisted predominantly of U. linza and rarely of U. compressa or U. prolifera.
What`s in a name? Monophyly of genera in the red algae: Rhodophyllis parasitica sp. nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta); a new red algal parasite from New Zealand
Preuss, Maren ; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C. ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 279~288
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.279
Red algal parasites are common within red algae and are mostly closely related to their hosts, but have a reduced habit. In the past, red algal parasites, due to their reduced morphology, have been given distinct generic names, even though they are often phylogenetically nested in their host`s genus. This is a problem nomenclaturally for maintenance of a taxonomy based on monophyly. This study investigates the morphology, genetic variation and distribution of an undescribed red algal parasite growing on its host Rhodophyllis membranacea, widely distributed throughout New Zealand. Microscopy, molecular markers (plastid, mitochondrial, nuclear), and herbarium investigation were used to investigate this species. The parasite is widely distributed throughout New Zealand. All molecular markers clearly show that the parasite is almost identical to the host, even though morphologically quite distinct from members of the host genus. We believe that to maintain monophyly of Rhodophyllis the parasite should be described as a new species of Rhodophyllis, Rhodophyllis parasitica sp. nov. We also recommend that in order to maintain generic monophyly most red algal parasite genera should also be transferred to their host genus.
Phylogenetic relationships of Rosenvingea (Scytosiphonaceae, Phaeophyceae) from Vietnam based on cox3 and psaA sequences
Lee, Kyung Min ; Hong, Dang Diem ; Boo, Sung Min ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 289~297
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.289
The taxonomic status and the distribution of Rosenvingea species need attention because of the difficulties in morphological identification in the laboratory as well as in the field. We analyzed mitochondrial cox3 and plastid psaA gene sequences from Rosenvingea species from Vietnam, Mexico and Panama in combination with morphological examinations. Our results confirmed the occurrence of R. intricata and R. orientalis in Vietnam. R. intricata formed dense decumbent mats with many flat branches, often inter-adhesive, and was up to 5 cm in diameter. R. orientalis thalli were up to 18 cm long with narrow (less than 2 mm in width) tubular to compressed fronds. Both cox3 and psaA phylogenies revealed the non-monophyly of the genus Rosenvingea, as reported previously for other scytosiphonacean genera.
Morphological characterization of Symbiodinium minutum and S. psygmophilum belonging to clade B
Lee, Sung Yeon ; Jeong, Hae Jin ; Kang, Nam Seon ; Jang, Tae Young ; Jang, Se Hyeon ; Lim, An Suk ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 299~310
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.299
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are known as zooxanthellae and exist as either symbiotic or free-living forms. Among this genus, two species, Symbiodinium minutum and Symbiodinium psygmophilum, were recently established based on genetic characters. However, some critical morphological characters of these species, such as plate formulae and related diagnoses have not been provided yet. In this study, we analyzed the morphology of S. minutum and S. psygmophilum by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The S. minutum had the Kofoidian plate formula consisting of a small plate (x), elongated amphiesmal vesicle (EAV), 4`, 5a, 8", 7s, two cingulum rows, 18-20c, 6```, and 2````, while S. psygmophilum had x, EAV, 4`, 5a, 8", 7-10s, two cingulum rows, 20-22c, 5-6```, and 1````. These plate formulae are different from any other reported Symbiodinium species. In addition, both species had a pentagonal 1a plate and a hexagonal 2a plate, while other known Symbiodinium species had a hexagonal 1a plate and a pentagonal 2a plate. Thus, we confirm the species status of S. minutum and S. psygmophilum based on morphological and genetic characters and report the detailed morphological characteristics of these two species.
Biocide sodium hypochlorite decreases pigment production and induces oxidative damage in the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides
Ebenezer, Vinitha ; Ki, Jang-Seu ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 311~319
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.311
The biocide sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used for controlling algal growth, and this application can be extended to marine environments as well. This study evaluates the biocidal efficiency and cellular toxicity of NaOCl on the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, with emphasis on pigment production and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test organism showed dose-dependent decrease in growth rate on exposure to NaOCl, and the 72 h
was measured to be
. NaOCl significantly decreased pigment levels and chlorophyll autofluorescence intensity, indicating possible detrimental effects on the photosystem of C. polykrikoides. Moreover, it significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, suggesting the production of reactive oxygen species in the cells. These data indicate that NaOCl exerted deleterious effects on the photosynthetic machinery and induced oxidative damage in the dinoflagellate and this biocide could be effectively used for the control of algal blooms.
Ascophyllum nodosum and its symbionts: XI. The epiphyte Vertebrata lanosa performs better photosynthetically when attached to Ascophyllum than when alone
Garbary, David J. ; Miller, Anthony G. ; Scrosati, Ricardo A. ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 321~331
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.321
Vertebrata lanosa is an abundant and obligate red algal epiphyte of Ascophyllum nodosum that forms part of a complex and highly integrated symbiotic system that includes the ascomycete, Mycophycias ascophylli. As part of ongoing studies to resolve interactions among species in the symbiosis, we used pulse amplitude modulation fluorimetry of chlorophyll a fluorescence, from photosystem II (PSII), to measure the maximum quantum yield (
) of PSII [
] and relative photosynthetic electron transport rates (rETR), as a function of light intensity, in order to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity of the two algal symbionts in the field and in the laboratory under different treatments. Our primary question was `Is the ecological integration of these species reflected in a corresponding physiological integration involving photosynthetic process?` In the laboratory we measured changes in
in thalli of V. lanosa and A. nodosum over one week periods when maintained together in either attached or detached treatments or when maintained separated from each other. While the
of PSII of A. nodosum remained high and showed no significant variation among treatments, V. lanosa showed decreasing performance in the following conditions: V. lanosa attached to A. nodosum, V. lanosa in the same culture, but not attached to A. nodosum, and V. lanosa alone. These results are consistent with observations in which rETR was reduced in V. lanosa maintained alone versus attached to A. nodosum. Values for
in V. lanosa measured in the field in fully submerged thalli were similar to those measured in the laboratory when V. lanosa was attached to it obligate host A. nodosum. Our results provide evidence of a physiological association of the epiphyte and its host that reflects the known ecology.
5β-Hydroxypalisadin B isolated from red alga Laurencia snackeyi attenuates inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
Wijesinghe, W.A.J.P. ; Kang, Min-Cheol ; Lee, Won-Woo ; Lee, Hyi-Seung ; Kamada, Takashi ; Vairappan, Charles S. ; Jeon, You-Jin ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 333~341
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.333
In this study, four compounds isolated from the red alga Laurencia snackeyi were evaluated for their potential anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Since
-hydroxypalisadin B showed the best activity it was further tested for the production of prostaglandin-
), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-
), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).
-Hydroxypalisadin B significantly reduced the
release and suppressed the iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also significantly reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-
, and IL-6. These findings provide the first evidence of anti-inflammatory potential of
-hydroxypalisadin B isolated from the red alga L. snackeyi and hence, it could be exploited as an active ingredient in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food applications.
Anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenol-rich extract from the red alga Callophyllis japonica in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages
Ryu, BoMi ; Choi, Il-Whan ; Qian, Zhong-Ji ; Heo, Soo-Jin ; Kang, Do-Hyung ; Oh, Chulhong ; Jeon, You-Jin ; Jang, Chul Ho ; Park, Won Sun ; Kang, Kyong-Hwa ; Je, Jae-Young ; Kim, Se-Kwon ; Kim, Young-Mog ; Ko, Seok-Chun ; Kim, GeunHyung ; Jung, Won-Kyo ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 343~353
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.343
Despite the extensive literature on marine algae over the past few decades, a paucity of published research and studies exists on red algae. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of the ethanol extract of the red alga Callophyllis japonica against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage inflammation. The C. japonica extract (CJE) significantly inhibited the nitric oxide (NO) production and the induced dose-dependent reduction of the protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Additionally, the CJE reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-
, interleukin (IL)-
, and IL-6. We investigated the mechanism by which the CJE inhibits NO by examining the level of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, which is an inflammation-induced signaling pathway in macrophages. The CJE significantly suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 MAPK. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that the CJE inhibits LPS-induced inflammation by blocking the MAPK pathway in macrophages.
Fucoxanthin derivatives from Sargassum siliquastrum inhibit matrix metalloproteinases by suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs in human fibrosarcoma cells
Nguyen, Van-Tinh ; Qian, Zhong-Ji ; Lee, Bonggi ; Heo, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Kil-Nam ; Jeon, You-Jin ; Park, Won Sun ; Choi, Il-Whan ; Jang, Chul Ho ; Ko, Seok-Chun ; Park, Sun-Joo ; Kim, Yong-Tae ; Kim, GeunHyung ; Lee, Dae-Sung ; Yim, Mi-Jin ; Je, Jae-Young ; Jung, Won-Kyo ;
ALGAE, volume 29, issue 4, 2014, Pages 355~366
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.355
Fucoxanthin is known to be an effective cell proliferation inhibitor with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities. However, there is a lack of data regarding the biological effects of cis isomers of fucoxanthin. To assess the potential therapeutic properties of 9`-cis-(6`R) fucoxanthin (FcA), and 13-cis and 13`-cis-(6`R) fucoxanthin complex (FcB) isolated from Sarggassum siliquastrum, we investigated their inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. FcA and FcB reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein and mRNA levels, as well as the migration of these cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, FcA and FcB increased levels of MMPs inhibition factors such as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. FcA and FcB significantly inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor
) and by inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Our results demonstrate that suppression of the NF-
, JNK, and p38 signaling pathways may inhibit PMA-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. Therefore, FcA and FcB may be useful in noninvasive therapeutic strategies against fibrosarcoma metastasis.