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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Phycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Volume 30, Issue sup - Jan 2015
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Morphology, molecular phylogeny, and pigment characterization of an isolate of the dinoflagellate Pelagodinium bei from Korean waters
Potvin, Eric ; Jeong, Hae Jin ; Kang, Nam Seon ; Noh, Jae Hoon ; Yang, Eun Jin ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 183~195
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.183
The dinoflagellate genus Pelagodinium is genetically classified in distinct sub-clades and subgroups. However, it is difficult to determine whether this genetic diversity represents intra- or interspecific divergence within the genus since only the morphology of the type strain of the genus Pelagodinium, Pelagodinium bei, is available. An isolate associated with the genus Pelagodinium from Shiwha Bay, Korea, was recently cultured. This isolate was clustered with 3 to 4 strains from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean. This cluster was distinct from the subgroup more closely associated with P. bei. The morphology of the isolate was analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and was almost identical to that of P. bei except that this isolate had two series of amphiesmal vesicles (AVs) in the cingulum, unlike P. bei that has one series. When the pigment compositions of the isolate and P. bei were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, these two strains had peridinin as a major accessory pigment and their pigment compositions were almost identical. In addition, the swimming behaviors of these two strains were very similar. The reexamination of the type culture of P. bei revealed two series in the cingulum as for the isolate. The new findings on the number of series of AVs in the cingulum, the pigment composition, and the swimming behaviors suggest that P. bei and the isolate are conspecific despite their genetic divergence. This study provides a basis to further understand the molecular classification within Pelagodinium combining genetic, morphological, pigment, and behavioral data.
Morphology and phylogenetic position of a freshwater Prasiola species (Prasiolales, Chlorophyta) in Korea
Kim, Moon Sook ; Jun, Man-Sig ; Kim, Cho A ; Yoon, Jihae ; Kim, Jin Hee ; Cho, Ga Youn ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 197~205
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.197
The genus of leafy green algae, Prasiola Meneghini, includes marine, terrestrial, and freshwater species. A total of 11 species and one variety have been identified in China, Korea, and Japan. In Korea, Prasiola formosana var. coreana has been reported in Muncheon, North Korea, while a different type of Prasiola species has been reported in South Korea. The South Korean species has been found growing along a small stream originating from Chodanggul Cave, a limestone cave in Samcheok, Gangwon Province. Here, we revised the morphological characteristics of the South Korean Prasiola species and analyzed plastid rbcL, psaB, and tufA genes to clarify its identity. Although the external and anatomical morphologies varied among individuals, our results were very similar to previous reports. Plastid three genes sequences of the South Korean specimens were identical to those of P. japonica collected from Japan as well as to published sequences of P. yunnanica from China. A short rbcL-3P sequence (196 bp) from P. formosana var. coreana, which was identified in the type specimen, was also identical to a sequence from P. japonica. These Prasiola species and variety from Korea, Japan, and China are all distributed in areas characterized by limestone bedrock. Based on morphological, phylogenetic, and distributional features, the South Korean Prasiola species is regarded herein as P. japonica. Here, we also propose to synonymize P. formosana var. coreana and P. yunnanica with P. japonica.
Caloglossa beccarii (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from freshwater rivers in Kerala, India, a critical new record
West, John A. ; Kamiya, Mitsunobu ; Ganesan, E.K. ; Louiseaux-de Goer, Susan ; Jose, L. ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 207~216
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.207
Caloglossa species occurs in freshwater streams around Southest Asia. We report it from 2 different riverine sites in Kerala, India. Tetrasporangiate plants were observed in field collections from the Periyar River and Chalakkudy River. The Chalakkudy isolate did not reproduce in culture but the Periyar isolate developed abundant tetrasporangial sori in culture. Many spores were discharged and most were abortive, but some germinated normally, sporelings forming male gametophytes with numerous spermatangial sori and females with many procarps, viable carposporophytes and some nonfunctional (no carpospores) pseudocystocarps. Some carpospores germinated forming new tetrasporophytes. Molecular evidence (28S rDNA and rbcL) placed the Indian specimens close to C. beccarii and C. fluviatilis. Considering the freshwater habitat and morphology of vegetative thalli (blade shape, rhizoid arrangement, and number of rhizoid filament per cell), the Indian specimens should be assigned to C. beccarii.
Molecular identification of the algal pathogen Pythium chondricola (Oomycetes) from Pyropia yezoensis (Rhodophyta) using ITS and cox1 markers
Lee, Soon Jeong ; Hwang, Mi Sook ; Park, Myoung Ae ; Baek, Jae Min ; Ha, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Jee Eun ; Lee, Sang-Rae ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 217~222
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.217
Pythium species (Pythiales, Oomycetes) are well known as the algal pathogen that causes red rot disease in Pyropia / Porphyra species (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Accurate species identification of the pathogen is important to finding a scientific solution for the disease and to clarify the host-parasite relationship. In Korea, only Pythium porphyrae has been reported from Pyropia species, with identifications based on culture and genetic analysis of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Recent fungal DNA barcoding studies have shown the low taxonomic resolution of the ITS region and suggested the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene as an alternative molecular marker to identify Pythium species. In this study, we applied an analysis of both the ITS and cox1 regions to clarify the taxonomic relationships of Korean Pythium species. From the results, the two closely related Pythium species (P. chondricola and P. porphyrae) showed the same ITS sequence, while the cox1 marker successfully discriminated P. chondricola from P. porphyrae. This is the first report of the presence of P. chondricola from the infected blade of Pyropia yezoensis in Asia. This finding of the algal pathogen provides important information for identifying and determining the distribution of Pythium species. Further studies are also needed to confirm whether P. chondricola and P. porphyrae are coexisting as algal pathogens of Pyropia species in Korea.
Niche partitioning of picocyanobacterial lineages in the oligotrophic northwestern Pacific Ocean
Choi, Dong Han ; Selph, Karen E. ; Noh, Jae Hoon ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 223~232
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.223
More than 20 and 10 clades / ecotypes of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively, have been identified in various oceanic regions. However, their diversity has yet to be thoroughly studied in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Further, spatial distribution of Synechococcus clades in the oligotrophic oceans has been scarcely characterized. To elucidate picocyanobacterial lineage distribution in the northwest Pacific Ocean, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequences of picocyanobacteria were sequenced by barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing method. Additional pyrosequencing library using a primer specific for the Synechococcus subcluster-5.1 was constructed to thoroughly understand Synechococcus diversity in the oligotrophic oceans. In warm pool area, Prochlorococcus was predominant and showed a distinct depthpartitioning between HLII and LL ecotypes. Despite low abundances, diverse Synechococcus clades appeared in the oligotrophic open ocean, showing both vertical and horizontal niche partitioning. Clade II was the predominant Synechococcus clade, especially in upper euphotic depths. In shallow and middle euphotic depths, clades UC-A, III, and CRD1 were distributed broadly. However, a distinct shift in the horizontal distribution was found at ca.
. Conversely, clades XVII and CRD2 dominated at deep euphotic depths and constituted a higher proportion than clade II. These niche-partitioning of Synechococcus clades seemed to be related with temperature, nutrient concentration as well as iron concentration.
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase analysis in free-living and symbiotic microalgae Coccomyxa sp. C-169 and Chlorella sp. NC64A
Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor ; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah ; Chen, Wanping ; Mohlatsane, Molikeng Eric ; Mojahi, Thebeyapelo Jacob ; Yu, Jae-Hyuk ; Mashele, Samson Sitheni ; Syed, Khajamohiddin ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 233~239
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.233
Microalgae research is gaining momentum because of their potential biotechnological applications, including the generation of biofuels. Genome sequencing analysis of two model microalgal species, polar free-living Coccomyxa sp. C-169 and symbiotic Chlorella sp. NC64A, revealed insights into the factors responsible for their lifestyle and unravelled biotechnologically valuable proteins. However, genome sequence analysis under-explored cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins ubiquitously present in species belonging to different biological kingdoms. In this study we performed genome data-mining, annotation and comparative analysis of P450s in these two model algal species. Sixty-nine P450s were found in two algal species. Coccomyxa sp. showed 40 P450s and Chlorella sp. showed 29 P450s in their genome. Sixty-eight P450s (>100 amino acid in length) were grouped into 32 P450 families and 46 P450 subfamilies. Among the P450 families, 27 P450 families were novel and not found in other biological kingdoms. The new P450 families are CYP745-CYP747, CYP845-CYP863, and CYP904-CYP908. Five P450 families, CYP51, CYP97, CYP710, CYP745, and CYP746, were commonly found between two algal species and 16 and 11 P450 families were unique to Coccomyxa sp. and Chlorella sp. Synteny analysis and gene-structure analysis revealed P450 duplications in both species. Functional analysis based on homolog P450s suggested that CYP51 and CYP710 family members are involved in membrane ergosterol biosynthesis. CYP55 and CYP97 family members are involved in nitric oxide reduction and biosynthesis of carotenoids. This is the first report on comparative analysis of P450s in the microalgal species Coccomyxa sp. C-169 and Chlorella sp. NC64A.
In vitro antiviral activity of dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol-A isolated from edible brown alga Eisenia bicyclis against murine norovirus
Eom, Sung-Hwan ; Moon, Sun-Young ; Lee, Dae-Sung ; Kim, Hyo-Jung ; Park, Kunbawui ; Lee, Eun-Woo ; Kim, Tae Hoon ; Chung, Yong-Hyun ; Lee, Myung-Suk ; Kim, Young-Mog ;
ALGAE, volume 30, issue 3, 2015, Pages 241~246
DOI : 10.4490/algae.2015.30.3.241
This research was conducted to develop effective and safe marine-derived antiviral compounds against norovirus. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extract from Eisenia bicyclis exhibited strong antiviral activity against murine norovirus (MNV) as a norovirus surrogate. Among the phlorotannins from E. bicyclis, dieckol (DE) and phlorofucofuroeckol-A (PFF) were known to possess the strongest antibacterial activity. In this study, DE and PFF were evaluated for antiviral activity against MNV. DE and PFF exhibited strong anti-MNV activity with 50% effective concentration (
. However, PFF exhibited more effective antiviral activity against MNV with higher selective index (668.87) than that of DE (550.60), due to its lower cell toxicity against RAW 264.7. This is the first report on the anti-MNV activity of phlorotannins from seaweed. The results obtained in this study suggest that the phlorotannins could be used as a potential source of natural antiviral agents.