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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Dec 1974
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jun 1974
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Studies on the Cause and Control for Non-sprouting Bud in the Utility Reclaimed Hill Side Mulberry Field.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 1~20
These studies are conducted to find out inducing factors for the non-sprouting bud which appears in the utility reclaimed hill mulberry held and to establish control method for it since 1971. The results are as follows： 1. In spring, winter bud does not germinate at all on the top of branches or does wither suddenly after or during its germination. Necrosis and browning are appeared in cortex and phloem of non-sprouting bud branch. In autumn, the deterioration of leaves, the abnormal leaves on the top of branch, and browning of veins or petioles are also observed. 2. The soil of non-sprouting bud mulberry Held were found to be sand loom derived from granite rocks. The sub soil of it was very poor in development of root system because it had hard soil and lower pore space ratio. Especially, the sub soil to bring about severe non-sprouting bud had been easily appeared with deficiency of moisture content because of high density solid. 3. Content of soil moisture was significantly lower in the severe non-sprouting bud soil than in the healthy field. The sub soil o( the healthy field contained proper moisture content. On the other hand, the sub soil of the severe non-sprouting bud held contained almost critical moisture content for wilting. 4. The depth of available soil was shallow in the non-sprouting bud than in the healthy fold. The more rate of the non-sprouting bud was severe, the more available soil depth was sallow. 5. Available boron content in soil was affected by moisture content in soil. There was. lower moisture content in the non-sprouting bud field than that in healthy fold during 5, June to 5, September. 6. There was no significant correlation between soil pH and available boron content. On the other hand, the correlation of the content of organic matter and available boron content appeared to be highly positive significance. 7. The quantity of boron was significantly contained more in healthy mulberry field (0.34∼0.43ppm) than in non-sprouting bud field (0.10∼0.28ppm). 8. Boron content in leaves and barks was significantly lower in the non-sprouting bud trees than in healthy trees. 9. The symptom of non-sprouting bud induced from boron free sand culture was similar with that arised in the non-sprouting bud field. 10. The rate of non-sprouting bud was high by the increased application of lime. Considering the facts mentioned the above, author may conclude that the non-sprouting bud of mulberry tree is caused by boron deficiency, but also it is affected by the parent rocks, organic matter, soil moisture content and lime application. 11. The non
sprouting bud may be completely controlled by the application of 6∼9kg borax per 10a mulberry field twice a year in spring and summer.
Studies on the Physical and Chemical Denatures of Cocoon Bave Sericin throughout Silk Filature Processes
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 21~48
The studies were carried out to disclose the physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction obtained from silk cocoon shells and its characteristics of swelling and solubility. The following results were obtained. 1. The physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction. 1) In contrast to the easy water soluble sericin, the hard soluble sericin contains fewer amino acids include of polar side radical while the hard soluble amino acid sach as alanine and leucine were detected. 2) The easy soluble amino acids were found mainly on the outer part of the fibroin, but the hard soluble amino acids were located in the near parts to the fibroin. 3) The swelling and solubility of the sericin could be hardly assayed by the analysis of the amino acid composition, and could be considered to tee closely related to the compound of the sericin crystal and secondary structure. 4) The X-ray patterns of the cocoon filament were ring shape, but they disappeared by the degumming treatment. 5) The sericin of tussah silkworm (A. pernyi), showed stronger circular patterns in the meridian than the regular silkworm (Bombyx mori). 6) There was no pattern difference between Fraction A and B. 7) X-ray diffraction patterns of the Sericin 1, ll and 111 were similar except interference of 8.85A (side chain spacing). 8) The amino acids above 150 in molecular weight such as Cys. Tyr. Phe. His. and Arg. were not found quantitatively by the 60 minutes-hydrolysis (6N-HCI). 9) The X-ray Pattern of 4.6A had a tendency to disappear with hot-water, ether, and alcohol treatment. 10) The partial hydrolysis of sericin showed a cirucular interference (2A) on the meridian. 11) The sericin pellet after hydrolysis was considered to be peptides composed with specific amino acids. 12) The decomposing temperature of Sericin 111 was higher than that of Sericin I and II. 13) Thermogram of the inner portioned sericin of the cocoon shell had double endothermic peaks at 165
, and 245
, and its decomposing temperature was higher than that of other portioned sericin. 14) The infrared spectroscopic properties among sericin I, II, III and sericin extracted from each layer portion of the cocoon shell were similar. II. The characteristics of seriein swelling and solubility related with silk processing. 1) Fifteen minutes was required to dehydrate the free moisture of cocoon shells with centrifugal force controlled at 13
dyne/g at 3,000 R.P.M. B) It took 30 minutes for the sericin to show positive reaction with the Folin-Ciocaltue reagent at room temperature. 3) The measurable wave length of the visible radiation was 500-750m
, and the highest absorbance was observed at the wave length of 650m
. 4) The colorimetric analysis should be conducted at 650mu for low concentration (10
), and at 500m
for the higher concentration to obtain an exact analysis. 5) The absorbing curves of sericin and egg albumin at different wave lengths were similar, but the absorbance of the former was slightly higher than that of the latter. 6) The quantity of the sericin measured by the colorimetric analysis, turned out to be less than by the Kjeldahl method. 7) Both temperature and duration in the cocoon cooking process has much effect on the swelling and solubility of the cocoon shells, but the temperature was more influential than the duration of the treatment. 8) The factorial relation between the temperature and the duration of treatment of the cocoon cooking to check for siricin swelling and solubility showed that the treatment duration should be gradually increased to reach optimum swelling and solubility of sericin with low temperature(70
) . High temperature, however, showed more sharp increase. 9) The more increased temperature in the drying of fresh cocoons, the less the sericin swelling and solubility were obtained. 10) In a specific cooking duration, the heavier the cocoon shell is, the less the swelling and solubility were obtained. 11) It was considered that there are differences in swelling or solubility between the filaments of each cocoon layer. 12) Sericin swelling or solubility in the cocoon filament was decreased by the wax extraction.. 13) The ionic surface active agent accelerated the swelling and solubility of the sericin at the range of pH 6-7. 14) In the same conditions as above, the cation agent was absorbed into the sericin. 15) In case of the increase of Ca ang Mg in the reeling water, its pH value drifted toward the acidity. 16) A buffering action was observed between the sericin and the water hardness constituents in the reeling water. 17) The effect of calcium on the swelling and solubility of the sericin was more moderate than that of magnecium. 18) The solute of the water hardness constituents increased the electric conductivity in the reeling water.
Studies on the Harvest Methods for the Branch-rearing in Autumn
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 49~55
Studies on the harvest methods for the branch-rearing in autumn are as follows. (1) It turned out to be the best method in the early autumn to thin one to two of the normal branches or the dwarf ones, or pick off some of leaves for the yields, according to the rearing scale. (2) For the rearing of the silkworm larvae at 4th instar, it is recommendable to apply one of the following harvest methods, such as the thinning of dwarf branches, the thinning of some branches, intermediate cutting, and the pick-of of the leaves at low part of mulberry in the regards io the quality of leaves and the labour conditions, and no effects on the harvest. (3) For the rearing of the larvae at 5th instar, it is most practical to adapt one of the yield methods which can produce good harvest with less labours. That is, the pruning. of the middle branches should be gradually made from a part of the mulberry fold. (4) When it is carried out to pick of the leaves on the branches which was left after the middle-pruning harvest in autumn or late, easy and less labours' harvest method of rough picking may be applied in the both of the mulberry pruned in summer or autumn.
Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Components of Artificial Diet on Amylase Activity of Digestive Juice in the Silkworm, Bomyx mor L. I. Effect of Protein Components of a Diet on the Increasing of Larval Body weight, Diet Efficiency and Amylase Activity of Digestive Juice during the 5th instar
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 57~65
This study has been carried out to investigate the effect of protein components of a diet on the increasing of larval body weight and diet efficiency, as well as the amylase activity of larval digestive juices during the 5th instar. Defending on the amounts of soybean meal as a protein source, the six different kind of artificial diets containing mulberry leaf powder fed to the larvae. The results obtained may be summarized as follows： 1. As the protein components of the diet were increased, the amount of increased larval body weight was also increased. 2. As the protein components of the diet were increased, both the cocoon weight and cocoon layer weight were also increased. 3. As the protein components of the diet were increased, both the amount of diet digested and coefficient of digestibility were also increased. 4. As the protein components of the diet were increased, the diet efficiency of larvae were also increased. 5. But the experimenters could not observe any correlation between the increase of protein components of a diet and the amylase activity of the digestive juices.
Study on Spring Cocoon Crops with the Leaf Produced in the Mulberry Field close to the Totacco Field
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 67~75
The studies are to know how much cocoon crops is damaged by the stained leaf with nicotine produced from the tobacco field cultivated in mulching system in spring season and by residual nicotine in autumn season. Furthermore, the new knowledges are to make both industries keep up with their development. In spring season mulberry Held is located higher on the West-North of tobacco held below 20 degrees of slope and with 36 per cent of East-South wind and 18 per cent of South wind blowing from tobacco fold to the mulberry fold. In addition, silkworm larvae are fed with the mulberry leaf produced in the different plots placing by the different distances, l0m, 25m, 50m, 80m, and loom far from the tobacco Held as a control and it is also considered that narcotic larvae including the dead larvae are not observed. On the other hand, it is noted that better leaf quality and abundant growth of mulberry tree is produced from the mulberry fold closer to the tobacco field and with a low slope. 1) Maximum weight of larval body at the 5th stage is damaged by the stained leaf with the nicotine up to 25m far from the tobacco held. 2) The larvae fed with the mulberry leaf in mulberry Held up to 25m far from the tobacco fold produce small number of the fresh cocoons per 1 liter. 3) Low single cocoon weight and low cocoon shell weight are produced by the poison damaged larvae fed with the mulberry. leaf up to 25m far from the tobacco field and weight of cocoon shell is damaged higher than the single cocoon weight. It is resulted in low percentage of cocoon shell. 4) Cocoon yield including the double cocoon from 10,000 larvae is decreased by the larvae fed with the stained leaf in the mulberry fold up to 25m far from the tobacco fold and 19 per cent of cocoon yield is decreased with 2.4kg of cocoon yield in l0m plot and with 2.5kg of cocoon yield in 25m plot at the first season and at the 2nd season with 1.8kg o( cocoon yield in l0m plot and with 11.5kg of cocoon yield in 25m plot, 11 per cent and 9 per cent of cocoon yield including double cocoon from 10,000 larvae is decreased, as compared with the control, respectively. With these results, it is observed that nicotine damage is occurred to the silkworm larvae if the larvae are fed with the leaf in the mulberry Held within 25m-50m far from the tobacco field.
Study on the Residual Tobacco poison to Cocoon Crops according to the Tobacco Cultivation of the Mulching System
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 77~84
In autumn season residual period of nicotine is observed in the larval duration, weight of molting larvae at the various stages, percentage of delayed molting larvae, and survival rate up to the 3rd stage from the 1st season to the 3rd season and up to the stage for four seasons, respectively. Mulberry tree is planted in pot from June 18, 1973 to August 4, 1973 and placed every other row between tobacco variety of Hicks cultivated in mulching system and control is prepared in the Sericultural Experiment Station, placing in the every ridge of mulberry field with the four seasons ; 5 day isolation (1st season), 15 day isolation (2nd season), 25 day isolation (3rd season), and 50 day isolation (4th season). 1) 1st and 3nd instar larvae fed with the tobacco stained mulberry leaf has longer larval duration for the four seasons, as compared with those of the control, increasing 12％ in index with 28 hours, 17％ in index with 37 hours, 23％ in index with 50 hours, 17％ in index with 43 hours from the 1st season to the fourth season and the 3rd to the 4th instar larvae, increasing 18％ in index with 55 hours. 2) 2nd instar molting larvae, 3rd instar molting larvae from the 1st to the 4th season and 4th instar molting larvae at the 4th season decrease their larval weight respectively, as compared with the control. 3) Percentage of delayed molting larvae from the 3rd stage to the 4th stage goes up higher than that of the control in the End larval stage at the 3rd to the 4th season, in the 3rd larval stage at the 1st, the End, and the 4th season, and in the 4th larval stage at the 4th season, respectively. 4) Survival rates in the 2nd larval stage at the 2nd season to the 4th season, in the 3rd larval stage at the 1st to the 4th season, and in the 4th larval stage at the 4th season respectively are higher than that in the control.
Studies on the Generation-to-Generation Transmission of Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus and the Effect of Their Activation on the Induction in the Next Generation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 85~92
Many of studies on the transovarial transmission of occult virus and their activation due to various stresses such as cold or heat treatment, chemical feeding, and nutritional deficiency, etc., in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. have been made, but any attempts have been not made to control virus diseases by detection of the occult virus-carried moths in the production of silkworm egg of hybrids, because of difficulty to detect occult virus in any stage. Therefore, it may be worth while to disclose whether a sublethal infection of the moths from which active virus are detectable, has the same level of induction rate as that of occult virus activation, thus to apply its results for the reduction of the occurence of virus diseases in silkworm rearing. For these purposes, the following experiment was conducted as one of preliminary steps. In this study, investigations on the generation-to-generation transmission of occult virus and a sublethal infection, and the role of chromosomal gene of the host, Jam 103 and Jam 104 in the Previous generation, and Jam 103 x Jam 103 and Jam 104 f Jam 104 in the next generation were made for the induction of virus diseases due to the transmitted virus. The frequency of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis due to the induction in the F
generation was markedly higher in the cross-batches, ♂
♀ and ♂
♀ in which inoculated individuals were used as fem ale parents than in the cross-batches, ♂
♀ and ♂
♀ in which virus has been not inoculated or inoculated only to male in the previous generation. The tendency of increasing rate was observed in any treatments; such as the inoculations of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (10
7, and 10
8//ml ill different concentration of inocula) , cold-treatment (5
, 12hrs or 24hrs), and formalin-feeding treatment (2％ or 3％). The shape of polyhedra (tetragonal in outline) examined in the F, larvae was identified as that of the inoculated polyhedra with partial application of immunofluorescent techniques. These results suggests that the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in B. meri L. are transmitted to the next generation through the egg, apparently in the occult state. And the experimental results of various cross-batches revealed the egg cytoplasm plays an important part i the transmission of the occult virus of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus,
Studies of the Influence of Agricultural Chemical Contaminated Mulberry Leaf on Silkworm Rearing and Cocoon Quality.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 16, issue 1, 1974, Pages 93~100
It is reported that the useful larval characteristics and cocoon quality is damaged when the silkworm is fed on the insecticides contaminated mulberry leaf. The results obtained are as follow： 1) Mortality is growing when the silkworm is fed with the leaf treated with 1,000 folds insecticides and left for 25 days. 2) There are differences in the effects on the useful larval characteristics according to the insecticides, 3) Hernial larvae are brought about when the silkworm is fed with lebaycid stained leaf. 4) Malformed cocoon and abnormal silk is caused by the insecticide stained leaf feeding.