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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Dec 1975
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jun 1975
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Studies on the Operation Control with Automatic Silk Reeling Process to be responded for Korean Silk Cocoon
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 1~26
These studies were attempted to find out the optimum silk reeling system by use of automatic silk reeling machine to increase raw silk yield and reeling efficiency with various silk reelable cocoons. The obtained results are as follows; 1. The mean silk reelability ratio(X)of the Korean cocoons during the last ten years was 61 per cent, beside 64.7 per cent in autumn cocoon and 57.3 per cent in spring cocoon. However, the ratio variation of autumn cocoons was larger than that of spring cocoons. 2. A positive correlation between cocoon filament breaks during its process and silk reelability levels was shown to be significant. The cocoons of both poor and good reelability evidenced "J" shape distribution on the filament break graph by the order of reeling cocoon end. Many bave breaks were found at the inner shell of the cocoons, or in case of poor reelability cocoons. 3. The morphology of broken cocoon ends during the process was classified into A, B, C, D, E and F types, The occurrence of B type was majority, but that of F type was minority among them. 4. In case of the cocoon cooking, H-type ion-exchanged soft water was better for good reelability cocoons, Na and H-type ion exchanged neutral soft water for those of fair reelability, and alkaline (Na-type) soft water for those of poor reelability, respectively. 5. The modification of cooking water by mixing the above different types of water (50％ Na-type and 50％ H-type passed by standard natural water; 75％ Na-type and 25％ H-type passed by hard natural water; 25％ Na-type and 75％ H-type passed by soluble natural water) made higher yield of raw silk with tess breaks of thread. 6, In case cocoon ends groping water included sodium hexametaphosphate as much as 800 ppm. the groping efficiency and raw silk yield of cocoon was improved. The effect was pronounced in case of poor reelability cordons. 7. The most reasonable cocoon cooking and silk reeling condition for automatic silk reeling process were observed to be rather incomplete cook with good reelability cocoons and optimum cook with poor reelability cocoons succeeded by the reeling bath temperature of 45
, 8. The reasonable silk reeling velocities were observed to be about 150m per min. for good reelability cocoons, 120m per min. for fair reelability ones and 90 to 120m per min. for poor reelability ones. 9. In order to improve the raw silk yield of cocoons and reeling efficiency, the cocoon stand-by-ratio for reeling should be kept at the level of 40 per cent for good reelability cocoons or at 60 per cent for poor reelability ones beside necessary end found cocoon condition.
Studies on the Harvest of Mulberry Shoots with Branch by Thin Out
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 27~29
The experiment was carried out to establish a reasonable harvesting method of mulberry shoots with branches by thin out in spring, comparing with thin-out harvest, and the results are as follows. 1. In spring, the thin-out harvest showed no remarkable effect in the results of seven days interval cutting down, except for the treatment of thinning-out thinner branches. 2. There was no significance between the control and the thinning-out thinner branches, but a tendency to increase a little harvest. Therefore, few shoots of thin branches should be cut down for the 4th instarlarvae and the rest of branches for the 5th instarlarvae. 3. The thin-out of the thicker branches showed the worst result of others, because it can hardly expect for 7 days after cutting down the thicker branches.
Electrical Shock on the Hatching in Diapause Eggs of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 31~34
This experiment was carried out to find out whether an electric-shock can hatch the diapause eggs or not. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The electric-shock speeded up the embryonic development in diapausing eggs. 2. The higher hatchability was shown by the electric shock for five seconds. 3. The diapause eggs which had been treated with electric-shock and cold storage were hatched covering 15 to 22 days.
Effects of Adulterants in HCl on Artificial Hatching in the Silkworm Eggs
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 35~39
The acid treatment hatching method has been used practically for about 60 years and a number of investigators have studied about the artificial hatching for silkworm e99s, but the basic theory about the acid treatment hatching is not clarified yet. It is no exaggeration to say that the accidents of non hatching is continued ceaselessly in the silkworm egg by hydrochloric acid treatment. It is believed that the accident is due to the adulterants in HCl lather than inattention of acid treatment. Therefore, the authors mixed hydrochloric acid (analytical grade) with or added it to chemical ingredients which are possible to be included in the process of hydrochloric acid production, and treated it to summer and fall silkworm egg. The metalic adulterants such as iron, mercury, lead and arsenic are appeared not to be worried, but damage of SO
and free chlorine is seemed to lie considerable. Therefore, before acid treatment for hatching hydrochloric acid was warmed to 50
with shaking to evaporate several injurious gases, by whick the damage due to use of hydrochloric acid for acid treatment hatching is prevented considerably. In conclusion, it is recommended to pretest bioassay with every HCl samples before artificial hatching of silkworm egg.
Individual Difference in the Cocoon Quality of Female and Male Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 41~46
In order to investigate the individual difference in the cocoon quality of female and male silkworm, Bombyx mori, the individual variation of cocoon quality of all the examined population, the variation of cocoon quality within batches. The variation of batches were also examined with 19 batches (843 cocoons of female and 806 of male) of lam 111 X Jam 112, and the daily variation of cocoon quality after harvesting on 300 good cocoons of female and male is as follows：(table omitted) 2. The daily variation of cocoon quality after harvesting. The daily reduction rate of cocoon weight after havesting was higher at the late stage than at the beginning stage of pupal duration and it showed a tendency to be higher in male than in female pupae.
Some Facts in the Course of the Segregation and Selection of the Sex-limited Inheritance Character of Silkworm Larval Marking
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 47~53
This experiment was carried out to obtain a marked larvae in sex-limited inheritance, using F
hybrid Bo ok X Chun san introduced from Japan. Sequence of backcrossing has been done through the earlier generation with a recessive character of plain marked larvae. 1. It is noted that genotypic segregation of sex-limited larval marking was observed in F
generation; female possesses larval marking and male shows a plain marking. 2. Larval marking heredity follows a diagram of segregation with an expected genotype such as ♀ ： (W
P/P and ♂ ： Z/Z
P/P. 3. It is observed that dissociation was occurred to produce female with a genotype of W/Z
P/P in segregation ana selection. 4. Abnormal ratio of sexuality is observed in the course of segregation and segregation and analysis of it is continuously under way. 5, It is observed that the difference of qualitative characteristics between female and male obtained from the original variety shows the same tendency as the normal marked variety.
Characterization of a Toxin isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis var. alesti and Its Toxicity to the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 55~62
In the studies of characterization of crystal prototoxin isolated from Bacillus thuringinensis var. alesti and its bioassay to the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L., the following results were obtained. 1. The complete lysis of bacteria grown on the nutrient agar at 30
in an incubator took 30 days, but the period could be reduced by a half in a devised broth media in a fermentation jar. 2. The protein toxin extracted directly from a mixture of crystals and spores without separation of crystals and spores was pure as same as the protein toxin extracted from only crysals separated. 3. By SLS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of prototoxin released from crystals in alkali (pH 9.5) three different proteins in molecular weights of 120,000, 87,000, 74,000 were separated. 4. In the bioassay of the toxin to the silkworm larvae, LD
50/ per gram of the larvae in the 4th instar was 0.080
Studies on the Appearance of the Dwarfishness Silkworm caused by Peroral and Hypodermic Inoculation of the Flacherie Virus, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 63~68
Flacherie of all other silkworm diseases greatly affects cocoon crop as it is far-reaching and wide spreading. Fleacherie which kills silkworms caused by bacteria can be classified as bacterial digestive organ disease, and "Sotto" disease. Bacterial digestive organ disease is caused by the bacteria living in the silkworms alementary canal and a majority of flacherie belongs to this disease. Septicemia is caused by bacterias breeding in silkworms body fluid but its attach is comparatively limited during the larva period. "Sotto" disease is caused by eating mulberry leaves infected with bacteria which produce toxin and silkworms are intoxicated and killed by the toxin. The cause of flacherie is mainly due to a poor environment. The unclean and unsanitary silkworm rearing beds help bacterias breeding and bacteria enter silkworms body through mouth organ or skin. The present study is to investigate various causes of flacherie by means of pulverization of silkworm. Filtrated fluid is extracted by centrifuge and hypodermic of peroral inoculation-is given to young and medium silkworms of spring and autumn. The gained results of the experiment are summarized as follows： 1. Silkworms infected with flacherie were pulverized and their filtrated fluid was extracted by centrifuge and inspected under microscope to find polyhedron from the fluid. 2. The experimenting group of peroral inoculation. a) From the third day of peroral inoculation silkworms appetite generally decreased and ate less compared with the control group. b) After 7 days of the inoculation silkworms suffered from empty head, loose bowels and fainting. c) Some of the silkworms still ate but as were shown in Fig. 3 and 4 some dwarfish silkworms were found. d) There was no remarkable difference between 1st and 2nd instar inoculation groups. e) There was a tendency that the number of diseased silkworms was decerased as the increase of instars. 2. The experimental group of hypodermic inoculation a) Both of 3rd and 4th instar inoculation groups showed no remarkable singularity and the number of diseased silkworms decreased. b) The rate of diseased silkworms was comparatively low because the body fluid was acidy or toxin was hard soluble. Hypodermic inoculation could not give much harm to the silkworms compared to peroral inoculation.
The Statistical Analysis of Raw Silk Quality Control in Korea
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1975, Pages 69~74
This report was aimed to examine the status of raw silk quality and to come up with means of the good quality silk production by use of the statistical quality control method. The results obtained are as follow ： 1) The raw silk quality of size 20/22 denier was found to be 2A grade during the last five years. 2) In order to level up the silk grade, the better quality control is required especially in the average evenness and cleanness. 3) It was found that winding brakes and elongation of silk threads have been versed gradually through the period. 4) Larger variation was observed in cleanness control chart, but low evenness have stayed with in the desirable control range.