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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2 - Sep 1962
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STUDIES ON THE CYSTINE COMPONENT IN THE SERICULTURAL PROTEINS OF BOMBYX MORI L.
Choe, Byong-Hee ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 1~31
The purpose of this treatise is to prove the presence of cystine in silk fiber through wide sampling throughout all the sericultural processes of Bombyx mori.; also to show that disulfide cross linkages exist in the silk fiber. The conclusions reached were as follows: 1. Crystalline cystine was obtained from silk fibroin using Folin's Method. 2. Analytical data showing the cystine content of silk fiber and its related materials were obtained using Sullvan's Method as follows: Material Percent Cystine A. Mulberry leaf protein 0.175 B. Silkworm egg 0.33 C. Silkworm Body, matured, fat extracted, without silk gland 0.41 D. Silk gland, matured 1.23 E. Silkworm feces none F. Silkworm pupa, fat extracted 0.30 G. Silkworm moth, fat extracted 0.60 H. Raw Silk 0.22 I. Fibroin 0.175 J. Sericin 0.30 3. The presence of cystine in the silkworm was substantiated the existence of 0.175 % methionine in mulberry leaves and 0.12% methionine in the silk gland. 4. Part of the sulfhydryl compounds in the silk gland is believed to transfer to serine and methionine, with the former being secreted into the liquid silk finally as silk fiber and the latter used for nutritive purposes in the growing of silk gland tissue. 5. The cystine content is variable by mulberry species, silkworm species, sex, breeding process, and other culturing environments. 6. Hybrid silkworms require more nutritive amino acids for effective growth than the original parents, and secrete less of them as silk fiber. 7. From such an observation, the amino acid composition of silk fiber is believed to be fairly flexible. Cystine if included in the amorphous part of the fiber, especially in sericin. 8. The result from enriching the silkworm diet with pure cystine or wool cystine did not result in any advantage, therefore it is believed that the natural cystine and methionine contents in the mulberry leafaregoodenoughforsilkwormnutrition. 9. The disulfide cross linkage in silk fiber was verified by using the Harris Method. Contraction took place following the treatment of the fiber with various salts and acids. Comparisons were made with wool fiber. 10. During these experiments, the fibrious structure of silk fiber and the net-globular liquid form were photographed microscopically. It is believed that the globules of liquid silk are net-formed by the inter attraction of the OH ion of the globular peptide and the H ion of water as shown by the hair cracking behavior of the film. The net-globular protein precipitation from the mulberry protein solution showed that mulberry is a proper diet for the formation of fibrous protein in the silk fiber. 11. The significance of the presence of cystine in silk fiber as emphasized in this paper should result in modification of the general conception that cystine is absent from this fiber. NOTICE: A part of this treatise was presented at the annual Korea Sericultural Society meeting held in 1961.
Physiological Study of Silkworm due to Aromatical Plants
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 33~39
The results for the investigation of the various aromatic plants applied diets on silkworm raising from spring to autumn crops are found as followings. 1. There was no difference between the chemical menthol solution (1.0%) enriched diet and the normal diet for silkworm physiology. Neither injury nor advantage was obtained from the investigation. 2. It was found that there was no danger to use the mulberry leaves as silkworm diet by planting Mentha arvensis L. in the vacansy of mulberry farm, and no worse effect was found by rubbing the leaves of Mentha arvensis L. to the surface of mulberry leaves before feeding to silkworm. 3. For the investigation due to Perilla Ocymoides var application in stead of menthol plant ascribed in Paragraph (2) was obtained the same result. 4. As a conclusion of the study, the plantation of the both aromatical plants with mulberry trees is harmless for silkworm growing even though farmers worry about these to plant together with mulberry tree on mulberry farm.
STUDY ON THE GENOTYPIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATION BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF THE EGG MARKINGS AND OTHER METRIC CHARACTERS, IN SILKWORM, Bombyx mori L.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 41~47
This work was carried out to investigate the phenotypic, genotypic, and environmental correlations between the number of the egg markings and other metric characters, and their heritability, with eight varieties in Bombyx mori L. Five European varieties, ten Chinese varieties and ten Japanese varieties were used to know the average number of the egg markings and their variabilities for each strains. The results may be summarized as follows: 1) there were highly negatively phenotypic and genotypic correlations between the number of the egg markings and total cocoon weight, weight of cocoon layer, or denier, but not an environmental correlation. 2) The average number of the egg markings in Chinese strain was more than that in other strains. 3) The correlation between the motality and the number of egg markings seemed not to be found. 4) The heritability of the weight of cocoon layer and the bave length was less than that of total cocoon weight, denier and number of egg markings. 5) The more the number of the polyhedral particles in an egg marking group became, the more the total number of egg markings increased. 6) The variation of the number of the egg markings in European strain was larger than that in any other strains. 7) It is expected that the selection for the number of the egg markings may have genetic advances of total cocoon weight, weight of cocoon layer, or denier. Especially the selection for the number of the egg markings before rearing will save the silkworm rearing cost.
Studies on Diplosis mori Yokopama (mulberry shoot Gall midge) on mulberry tree
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 49~61
The insect Diplosis mori Yokoyama is causing extensive destruction of mulberry trees in Korea with a resultant loss in silk production. This study was made to determine an effective method of control. Methods and Materials Used Preliminary studies were made to determine more exactly the life cycle of the insect. Based on this information, various control measures were tested, including the use of spray methods with BHC and control of larvae by tilling. Results Obtained 1. Life cycle studies (a) In the Suwon area, this-insect has 5 generations per year. The first starts in the later part of June and the final cycle ends in the later part of September. (b) The adult insects appear about 7: 00-8: 00 P.M. and live for 2-5 days. Females live in longer periods than the male. (c) Larvae lives inside the second and third stipules (A. B.) before mulberry leaf development. They cause extensive damage to the leaves at the point where they are attached to the stem. (d) Weather conditions considerably affect the life cycle. The pupa particularly are affected and not be able to change into the moth stage when there is a long period of no rain. (e) Larvae are large......0.3 to 2.0mm......and are milky-white immediately after hatching but turn to pinkish as the worm matures. The matured worm has a jumping ability up to 15-20cm. The worm burrows into the ground 1.5 to 3.0 cm before changing into the pupal stage. (f) The pupal stage usually lasts 7-8 days, in summer weather conditions and the pupa is surrounded with a coarse cocoon. (g) These insects, as a general rule, overwinter as pupae but sometimes as larvae. 2. Control measures (a) BHC dust applied on the ground seem most effective. It should be done 4-5 days after the worm has burrowed into the ground. For this control, it is recommended that 6kg of a 2% formation Tanbo(l0ares) be used. (b) For the effective spraying against the fly, it is recommended that a formulation of liquid BHC spray terials be used at the rate of 400-600 liters per Tanbo. (c) Tillage methods which provide a cover of soil 5cm or more in depth above infested areas will effect-maively prevent the emergence of the fly from the pupal stage. 3. Conclusions Methods of control against Diplosis mori Yokoyama can be tied more closely to the life cycle of the insect with more effective results. Further studies are needed to complete information on possible controls during or after hibernation. Economic studies on the cost of these control measures are also needed.
Studies of Mulberry Seedling preparation by Cattage Method. First Report. Studies of Mulberry Seedling Root preparation by Graving young Branches in Soil
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 63~71
This work was to develope a more simple producing method of mulberry seedling with lower cost than the normal grafting method and the conclusions were found as; 1. There was no difference for the production of the seedling root when the young mulberry branch was graved in soil at the time it grown as 60∼80cm height. 2. It was found that the best result was obtained in case of 15 to 20 young branches of a mulberry shoot were graved instead of whole of them. 3. The seedling root quality of the clay soil graved was found better than the sand soil used, but root producing quantity was found as the same. 4. The fertilizing at the time of the young branch graving was not effective and also the continual fertilizing seemed not to be effective. 5. The seedlings root production was found that Kairyo Nezumigaeshi was best and Ichihei, Suwon Daeyop, Shimano-Uchi, Suwon No.3 and Suwon No.4 were followed of it. But Rosoh was found as poor. Morus alba L. was found as a better Species than Morus Lhou(Ser) Koidz and Morus bombycis Koidz for the production of the seedling root and its quality.
The nutritive value analysis of the mulberry cultured in Korea
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 73~81
This treatise is to analyze the chemical components in the mulberry varieties which are cultured in Korea and to estimate the nutritive values for them. Some of these varieties were developed lately in this country just by the general breeding aspect of mulberry leaf producing and silkworm raising experimentation without analysing the nutritive values of them which may be differed by various culturing condition. This work will be helpful for the improvement of mulberry varieties and the correct judgement of them. The varieties used for the analysis are as followings; A. Morus bombycis Koridz species. 1.Ichi-Hei. 2. Shimano-Uchi B. Morus alba L. species. 3. Kairyo-Nezumigaeshi. 4. Suwon-Daeyop. 5. Suwon No. 3. 6. Suwon No. 4. 7. Yongchon-Chuwoo. C. Morus Ihou (Ser.) Koidz species. 8. Ro-Soh. The specimens were eventually taken under the air and soil dry season because of the rain shortage during the sampling period and the results are found as a rather different from the normal specimen under the normal climate. Therefore, this treatise will be an important report on a special culturing condition and the nutritive values by the mulberry varieties, and still comparable because they were grown under the same condition. The individual conclusions are; 1. Yongchon-Chuwoo which was originated in this country, was found as an important variety for this country from the aspect of mulberry nutritive value and leaf producing amount, and it is believed that this is the best suitable variety for the soil of Korea. 2. Ichi-Hei occupies the better situation as well as Yongchon-Chuwoo from the nutritive criticizing even though it was originated in Japan. 3. The lately developed Suwon No.3 and No.4 are best from the leaf producing point of view, but they are not found such a good varieties from the nutritive aspect. The result may be happened as poor because they were cut before spring sprout started. 4. Ro-Soh which was normally recognized as a poor variety, was also found as a poor nutritive and leaf producing variety. 5. The crude protein and crude fat components in the mulberry leaves decreased as the leaf maturity was progressed, but the crude fiber and crude ash components increased reversively in general view. It was also found that there were some specific changing nature by the mulberry varieties and could not rule them by just one conclusion. 6. During the air and soil dry season, the ash component increases but the hydrocarbon and moisture contents decrease considerably, and which resulted to the increase of mulberry hardness ratio and the decrease of sugar-protein ratio, eventually it causes the decrease of the nutritive value. It was also found that Ichi-Hei, Ro-Soh, and Suwon No. 3 had a strong recovering nature to their normal nutritive condition after raining. 7. Mulberry is of course a rich calorie diet, and is calculated as 50 to 60 Cal. per gram.
Physiological study of Bombyx mori L. due to spraying Agricultural Chemicals on mulberry leaf
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 2, 1962, Pages 83~88
These works were carried on to study the damage due to agricultural chemicals on silkworm and to find out the best ways to use them, considering, in the horticultural field, the utilization of them has rapidly been increased. The results may be summarized as follows: 1) The mulberry leaves being more than 100m from the horticultural field used the agricultural chemicals did not harm the silkworm. 2) Even if the mulberry leaves were located less than loom from the horticultural field sprayed with the chemicals, the silkworms were not injured after washing the mulberry leaves which were attached with the chemicals. 3) The chemicals, E.P.N., B. H. C. 2%, and Selesan were more seriously injured to silkworm than the other ones.