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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Dec 1984
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Oct 1984
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 1984
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Multiplication of Infectious Flacherie and Densonucleosis Viruses in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 1~31
Flacherie, as one of the most prevalent silkworm diseases, causes severe economic damage to sericultural industry and its pathogens have been proved to be flacherie virus (FV) and densonucleosis virus (DNV). Multiplications of the viruses in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were studied by the sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy. The quantitative and qualitative changes of nucleic acids and proteins were investigated from the midgut and hemolymph in the silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV. The histopathological changes of epithelial cells of infected midgut also were examined by an electron microscope. 1. Purified fractions of FV or DNV in a sucrose density gradient centrifugation yielded one homogenous and sharp peak without a shoulder, suggesting no heterogenous materials in the preparation. Electron microscopy also revealed that FV and DNV were spherical particles, 27nm and 21nm in diameter, respectively. 2. Silkworm larvae showed a decrease in body weight on the 6th day and in midgut weight on the 3rd day after inoculation with FV or DNV. 3. DNA content was higher in the midgut when infected with FV or DNV, but the hemolymph of the infected larvae showed no difference during first 6 days after inoculation, after which DNA concentration declined rapidly. 4. RNA synthesis of silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV was stimulated in the midgut, but RNA content was reduced in the hemolymph at the early stage of virus multiplication. At the late stage of virus multiplication, however, it was extremely reduced in both midgut and hemolymph. 5. The concentration of protein in the midgut and hemolymph of silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV showed no difference from that of the healthy larvae at the early stage of virus multiplication, but it was significantly reduced at the late stage of virus multiplication. 6. There was no difference in the electrophoretic patterns of RNAs extracted from the midgut of healthy or virus-infected larvae. 7. The electrophoresis of proteins extracted from the midgut infected with FV or DNV, when carried out on the 1st and 5th day after virus inoculation, showed no difference from that of the healthy larvae. But, there was an additional band with medium motility in the proteins on the 8th day after virus inoculation, while a band with low mobility shown in the proteins of healthy larvae disappeared in the infected larvae. However, a band with high mobility in the healthy larvae was separated into two fractions in the infected larvae. 8. The electrophoretic pattern of hemolymph proteins of the silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV was similar to that of the healthy larvae, but the concentration of hemolymph proteins in the infected larvae was lower than that of the healthy larvae at the late stage. 9. Two types of inclusion bodies were shown by the double staining of pyronin-methyl green in the columnar cell of the midgut on the 8th day after FV inoculation. 10. Electron microscopy of the infected midgut revealed that the 'cytoplasmic wall' of the goblet cell thickened on the 5th day after FV inoculation and several types of the cytopathogenic structures, such as virus
specific vesicles, virus particles, linear structures, tubular structures, and high electron-dense matrices were observed in the cytoplasm of the goblet cell. The virus particles were also observed in the microvilli and the structures similar to spherical virus particles were observed around the virus-specific vesicles, suggesting the virus assembly in the cytoplasm. 11. Fluorescence micrograph of the infected midgut stained with acridine orange showed that the nucleus, the site of DNV multiplication in the columnar cell, enlarged on the 5th day after virus inoculation. 12. Electron microscopic examination of DNV infected midgut revealed that the nucleolus of the columnar cell was broken into granules and those granules dispersed into apical region of the nucleus on the 5th day after virus inoculation. On the 8th day after inoculation, it was also observed that the nucleus of the columnar cell was full with the high electron-dense virogenic stroma which were similar to virus particles. These facts suggest that the virogenic stroma were the sites of virus assembly in the process of DNV multiplication.
Efficacy of Serveral Insecticides to the Mulberry Thrips(Pseudodendrothips mori NIWA)
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 32~36
This study was conducted out to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides, furadan (3%G), disyston(5%G), ortran (50%WP), pirimor (50%EC) and metasystox (25%EC) to the mulberry thrips(Pseudodendrothrips mori NIWA.) The comparisons between damaged by thrips and controlled leaves with the cocoon producion and the chemical contents in leaves were carried. The results were as follows; 1. Ortran, furadan and matasystox showed the good efficacy to control the thrips, especially the period of efficacy was the longest in ortran and furadan. 2. The cocoon yield increased in the controlled plot by 3.68kg/box and 5.15kg/10a more than in the damaged plot in autumn rearing season. 3. The content of total carbohydrate and water in mulberry leaves was clearly higher in the controlled plot than in the damaged plot. This may cause the earlier leave harding by damage in autumn.
Inhibitory Effect of Guanidine Hydrochloride on the Infectious Flacherie Virus of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 37~43
The prevalence of the infectious flacherie virus (FV) disease causes a severe damage to cocoon yield and various methods to control the disease have been studied. In this regard, guanidine hydrochloride (GH), one of the guanidine derivatives known as the most inhibitory agent against the replication of picorna virus, was applied to silkworms per os with mulberry leaves and the results were as follows. 1. The application of GH below 0.01% of the chemical concentration did not give any damage to silkworm larvae. 2. The transmission of the virus disease by introducing the FV infected larvae to the healthy larvae group was proportioned to the number of infected larvae. When l% of infected larvae was introduced to the rearing tray of healthy larvae, the pupation rate was 70.7%(79) and it was 38.4% (43) to 5% of infected larvae introduced, while the control of non-mixed with infected larvae gave 89.2% (100) of pupation rate. The cocoon yield from 10,000 larvae also showed the same tendency as the pupation rate. 3. The inhibitory effect of GH against the replication of FV showed ten times in treatment of 0,01% of the chemical agent compared to the non-treatment. 4. The successive application of GH after virus inoculation to silkworm larvae led to the most effective on the inhibition of the virus replication. 5. The immediate application of GH after the virus inoculation also gave the best effect on the inhibition of the virus replication in silkworm larvae. 6. The effect of GH on the inactivation of FV in vitro was not observed.
Effects of Condensed Sodium Phosphates as a Degumming Aid Reagent for Raw Silk Fabric
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 44~50
The effects of sodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosposphate and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid as a degumming aid reagent were investigated under the conditions of underground water and dimineralized water for the scouring water sources. The changes of water qualities by adding the condensed sodium phosphates and the physical properties of scoured silk fabric were examined, respectively. 1. The water hardness of underground water was decreased by adding the condensed sodium phosphates and it was further reduced according to the increasing temperature. The water hardness reducing power of sodium pyrophosphate was a little stronger than that of sodium tripolyphosphate. 2. The sodium silicate as an alkaline reagant for scouring decreased the water hardness, but the sodium carbonate increased it in the underground water. 3. The pH value of 0.4% soap and 0.25% sodium silicate mixed solution after boiling was. 9.80, but it was leveled upto 9.90 by adding 0.05% sodium pyrophosphate and upto 9.95 by 0.02% ehtylene diamine tetraacetic acid, respectively. 4. The masking action of Fe
3+/ ions dissolved in the scouring water was more remarkable by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid than by the condensed sodium phosphates. Of the condensations, sodium tripolyphosphate was more effective than sodium pyrophosphate in the action. 5. Genrally, the dimineralized water scouring increased the boil-off ratio with reducing the flexural rigidity of fabric which was negatively related with the favorablility of hand-touch more than the underground one did. 6. Under the underground water scouring, the addition of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid increased the boil-of ratio and compressive elasticity of fabric with reducing the flexural rigidity more than that of the condensed sodium phosphates did. 7 The additions of sodium tripolyphosphate and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid reduced the flexural rigidity of fabric with raising the boil-off ratio even in the dimineralized water scouring, but there was no sifnificant difference between both of them.
Studies on Silk Anticrease Improving by Use of Acrylic Monomer Polymerization Method
Choe, Byong-Hee ; Lee, Yang-Hoo ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 51~57
This studies have been carried out to find anticrease finishing method other than urea formaldehyde polymerization method which the author had done it with his former report. Acrylic amide polymerization method with water solubility controlling device was developed in this parer and the obtained results are as followings. 1. Poor anticrease silk textile could improve as much as 25% than original fabric. 2. Light density with high twisted silk textiles may improve a few per cent increase of anticrease, because they held good anticrease nature as well as polyester fabric. 3. There was no significant stiffness change after such finish. 4. This finish is recommended to carry after dyeing process either yarn dye or cloth dyeing. 5. The finished textile with this method is recommended to wash with dry cleanning method.
Studies on the Printing of Silk Fabric (I) - Chlorotriazinyl Reactive Dye
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 58~64
Silk fabric was printed with the reactive dyes (mono and di-chlorotriazinyl type) in order to investigate the change of adsorption and fixation by steaming time, viscosity of dyeing paste, and alkali concentration. It was found that the amount of adsorption and fixation of mono-chlorotriazinyl type dye increased with the increase of steaming time, while di-chlorotriazinyl type dye showed the maximum uptake at 20 minutes. The amount of dye uptake of each dye showed the maximum value at 340 cp of dyeing paste. The light fastness of each dye was poor but the washing fastness was excellent.
A survey on Cocoon Quality Imported in 1983
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 25, issue 2, 1984, Pages 65~68
This survey was to realize the foreign cocoon quality and to provide data for suitable reeling conditions. Cocoons were inported from Taiwan (7 packs) and Hongkong (12 packs) in 1983. The practical inspection and classiffication of above cocoon was performed at Provincial Institute of cocoon testing and tested data were collected to evaluate the cocoon quality. The results were as follows. 1. It showed higher variation of the average raw silk yield percentage and cocoon assorting rate than domestic cocoon. 2. In view of the low quality products, cocoon price was expensive and most of packs were evaluated as inferior grade. 3. It was supposed that importing the superior quality cocoon from foreign country may be contributed to manufacturing of silk commodity of higher grade.