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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Dec 1997
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Jun 1997
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Studies on the Conditions of Softwood Cutting for Production of Mulgerry Sapling
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 101~105
Most of the mulberry saplings in Korea have been produced by grafting. But the production of mulberry sapling by this method is very complex process and requires high level of technique and two years to produce saplings. Therefore, to develop the mulberry sapling production system by softwood cutting method which is suitable for mass production, several conditions on rooting and growth of cuttings were investigated. The rooting ability of cuttings varied according to mulberry varieties, showing the highest rooting ratio of 93.3% in cultivar of Shingwangppong. Of different soil texture as for rooting media, the clay was found to be the best; other media decreased in order as follows; sand, sand loam and vermiculite. The shading ratio by 70% with polyethylene film showed the highest rooting ratio of the cuttings. Optimum day of cutting was around 50th day after sprouting, whereas the ratio of stem thicker than 7mm at the base of saplings in diameter was highest at 44th day.
Fertility and Mulberry Fruit Characteristics of Three Korean Indigenous Mulberry Species
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 106~113
Three indigenous mulberry species of Morus tiliaefolia Makino, Morus mongolica C. K. Shneider and Morus bombycis Koidz. were naturally crossed and their fertilities and fruit characteristics were investigated during the years of 1996 and 1997. M. tiliaefolia Makino and M. mongolica C.K. Schneider showed low fertility, but M. bombycis Koidz. was medium in fertility. The fruits of M. tiliaefolia Makino were red-purple and midium in size and high sugar content, but those of M. mongolica C.K. Schneider were light red and small but extremely high sugar content. The total acidity of fruits was 0.73, 0.50 and 0.36-0.94% in M. tiliaefolia Makino, M. mongolica C.K. Schneider and M. bombycis Koidz. respectively. Regarding ripenening stage, M. mongolica C.K. Schneider was early and M. tiliaefolia Makino was medium, while M. bombycis Koidz was early or medium.
Contents of Nicotinamide and GABA in Several Sericultural Products
Bang, Hye-Seon ; Son, Hae-Ryong ; Lee, Wan-Ju ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 114~118
Nicotinamide and GABA(
-aminobutyric acid) contents in sericultural products, Mori Folium, Mori Fructus, Mori Cortex Radicis, silkworm podwer, Bombycis Exerementum and Bombycis Corpus were analyzed by HPLC. Nicotinamide content was higher in silkworm derived-products than in mulberry derived-products. Nicotinamide contained Bombycis Excrementum was the highest by 0.31 mg/g DW among the sericultural products. GABA content showed the highest by 1.68 mg/g DW in Mori Cortex Radicis among the sericultural products.
Genetic Relationships of Silkworm Stocks in Korea Inferred from Isozyme Analyses
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 119~133
Isozyme was used to characterize general protein patterns of genetic relationships among 303 silkworm stocks preserved in National Sericultural and Entomology Research Institute, RDA. Six isozymes (esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and sucrase) from hemolymph, midgut, and digestive juice were employed to construct dendograms(UPGMA method) using a polycrylamide gel electrophoresis. A cluster analysis revealed four major group, which were divided into several subgroups within each group, contained assemglages of Japanese and Chinese races. Especially, genetic differentiation in the first and second group was greatest rather than within Japanese and Chinese races repectively and was concordant with the hypothesis of phyletic sorting of initial variability in China many years ago. Hypothesized recent introgression between groups was also plausible, but the eviednce suggested bidirectional gene flow between the Chinese and the Japnaese lineages. Interpreting the results in light of evidence from the current study, the genetic diversity and relationship showed in Korean silkworm race, Hansammyun reflected early and independent evolution from the Chinese ancestor, limited addition of new variability and phyletic sorting within Korean peninsula more than 4,000 years.
Genetical and Biochemical Studies on White Egg Strains of Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 134~139
To elucidate genetical and biochemical characters of the white egg strains preserved in National Sericultural and Entomology Research Institute(NSERI), RDA of Korea, the genetic segregation ratios in egg colours were investigated by crossing test, and egg pigment precursors were also analyzed by paper chromatography and UV-spectrophotometer scanning. The result obtained by crossing test between the white egg strains and normal one illustrated that the most of white egg strains showed typical segregation ratio of white egg-2(w-2), while maternal inheritance which can be seen in white egg-1(w-1) was not found in any white egg strains. Paper chromatographic analysis showed that egg extracts of all the white egg strains contained 3OH-kynurenine, while kynurenine which is known to existed in white egg-1(w-1) could not be detected at all. From the results of these experiments, it was found that all the white egg strains preserved in NSERI were classified as the white egg-2(w-2) strain.
Effects of Insect Growth Regurators on Developmental Physiology of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 140~145
Silkworm fed on mulgerry leaves with 1000 times diluted Insegar(main component : Fenoxycarb, ethyl-2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)ethylcarbmate) and its effects was investigated on increase of the 5th larval silkgland weight and silk quality. The oral application of fenoxycarb showed increase of the silkgland weight. The whole period of the silkgland weight falls on the 2nd instar treatment by 13%, the 3rd day of the 4th instar by 111%(3100 mg) and the whole period of the 5th instar treatment rather decreased it by 66%(497 mg), as compared to 1470mg of the control. Female and male both increased 15%(1779mg) and 12%(1554mg) of the silkgland weight with the 2nd instar treatment, as compared to 1548mg and 1391mg in control, respectively. 118%(3368mg) and 104%(2832mg) of increase in the silkgland weight were also showed with the 3rd day of the 4th instar treatment but 70%(463mg) and 61%(539mg) of decrease were shown with the 5th instar treatment. The maximum weight of the middle silkgland weight increased by 6%(1248mg) and 127%(2673mg) with the 2nd instar and with the 3rd day of the 4th instar, respectively but 67%(393mg) of decrease took place, as compared to 1175mg of the control. The maximum increase of the posterior silkgland weight with whole peried of the 2nd instar treatment increased 12%(419mg) and 75%(656mg) and 64%(135mg) of decrease was shown, as compared to 374mg of the control. The oral application of Insegar at the 2nd instar increased 26 m of cocoon length, 4.0 cg of the cocoon filament weight and 0.21d of the silk denier, as compared to 1147 m of the cocoon length, 38 cg of the cocoon filament, 2.99d of the silk denier, weight of cocoon filament and silk denier, respectively but denier variance narrowed to 0.33d, as compared to that of the control.
Improvement of Predictive and Corrective Inspection Methods to Control Nosema bombycis Infection in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Nguyen, Mau-Tuan ; Jon ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 146~153
The microsporidian infection with Nosema bombycis, reconfirmed its high virulence and transovarial tranmissibility, however, the characteristic symptom of the spots like pepper grains on the diseased larval skin was no more recognized by present varieties of the silkworm. Transovarial transmission rate detected from moth was above 90% in dead eggs or dead larvae in the rearing by mulberry leaves, 80% in the newly hatched larvae starved to death. Transovarially transmitted N. bombycis was easily observed from dead eggs and larvae, and were suggested an individual inspection of a few of dead eggs for detection of the pathogenic spores. The progeny population provided indicative factors on the sampling of predictive and corrective inspection. The higher concentration of N. bombycis spores included in the hindabdormal part of infected moth, applicative on the simple method of indivisual moth inspection. For the predictive inspection of growned 5th-instar larvae, N. bombycis infection was detectable without microscopic observation by the unique symptom of turbid milky-white spots on the silk gland. Inspection of the meconia artificially discharged from silkworm moth, was also succesful of microscopic observation before crossing, without killing or homogenize the moths. The results provided a basis of rational methods for the inspection of N. bombycis infection of the silkworm.
Establishment of Simplistic Moth Inspection System to Prevent Nosema Bombycis Infection of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Han, Myung-Sae ; Mau ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 154~160
Present experiment designed for the review of theoretical basis for the inspection system of infected insects by Nosema bombycis. A microporidian N. bombycis, known as the high virulence, produced at the average of 7
108 spores per female moth of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, enabled transovarial tranmission. Detectability of N. bombycis spores in the mass inspection was varied by dillution level, the higher limit of dillution with healthy moths was 1:140 for 100% detection, 1:160 for 99.5%, 1:200 for 99.0%. For an efficient inspection under the microscopic observation (600
), the lower limit of spore concentration was determined as 1, 000, 000 spores/ml, 60-80 moths could be applicable for a maximum sample unit of a lot. Following the present inspection unit conditioned 35 to 40 moths for a lot. N. bombycis spores were easily detectable from the preparation of crude homogenate with 2% KOH, even the step of contrifuge was omitted. The results suggested a new basis of rational mass inspection system of silkworm female moths to save the facilities, labor, and time.
Effect of Anti-juvenile Hormone Analogue (AJH) on the Larval Ecdysis of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 161~168
To clarify the effect of anti-juvenile hormone analogue (AJH) on the larval ecdysis by feeding at early stage of the 4th instar, the total amount of protein and activity of chitinolytic enzymes in the integument of Bombyx mori were analyzed, PAGE pattern of the protein was observed and the morphological changes of integument during molting period were also observed and the morphological changes of integument during molting period were also observed by means of TEM. The total amount of protein was greatly increased in premolting, then reached maximum level just before ecdysis, and rapidly decreased after the larval ecdysis in the control, while in the AJH treatment, increased 12 hr later than the control and its maximum was only 82.6% of the control. Two specific proteins, which were presumed as the protein originated from endocuticle, also appeared 12 hr later than the control and were maintained to 132 hr after AJH treatment from the aspects of the Native- and SDS-PAGE patterns, although those of the control disappeared instantly after ecdysis. Chitinase and
-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities were also suppressed and delayed by AJH treatment. Furthermore, it was observed that the apolysis took place 12 hr later than the control but new epicuticle was not formed at least until 132 hr after AJH treatment. From these results, it is suggested that the larval molting process of silkworm develops 12 hr later than the control but new epicuticle was not formed at least until 132 hr after AJH treatment. From these results, it is suggested that the larval molting process of silkworm develops 12 hr later than the control by AJH treatment but no further processing takes place just after apolysis.
Spectrophotometric Analysis of Behavior to Tyrosine Residue in the Yellow Fluorescent Cocoon of Bombyx mori
Yeo, Ju-Hong ; Lee, In-Jeon ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 169~173
The behavior of tyrosine(Tyr.) residue of Bombyx mori silk fiber from yellow fluorescent cocoon has been examined for the dependence of pH in aqueous silk solution under the presence of orange II salt. Through the peak separation of angular dependence of spectral pattern of 15N-Tyr. and [1-13C]-Tyr. between the fiber axis and the molecular bond direction, N-H bond in fiber as well as the orientation distribution around the fiber axis were analyzed. Also, and sericin component was obtained from these angular dependence of oriented spectral pattern. The pH dependence of the 13C NMR chemical shift of B. mori silk fibroin was examined in aqueous solution in the presince of orange II are broad at pH
7.0. However, these become sharper at pH
8.0 and remain sharp at higher pH. In these higher pH range, a chemical shift change occurs due to the deprotonation of the Tyr. side group of fibroin. At higher pH. such a hydrophobic cluster is destroyed because of the electrostatic interaction according to the deprotonation of the Tyr-OH group.
The Estimate of Larval Growth of Mulberry Longicorn Beetle, Apriona germari Hope on the basis of the Larval Head Capsule Width, Larval Weight and Length
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 174~179
The larval head capsule width, larval weight and length of mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari Hope were measured when the larvae were exuviated in artificial diet rearing. The larval head capsule width from the 1st to the 12th instar was ranged from 0.12 to 0.69 cm, and growth ratio of each instar was significantly high between the 1st and the 2nd instars. The fitness to Dyar's law for the larval head capsule width was 87.6%. When the logarithum of the larval head capsule width is plotted against the number of instars, the calculated regression line was LogY=0.12086+0.06998X and Dyar's constant was 1.18. The larval weight was increased with larval developmental stages, and the coefficient of variation of larval weight was apparently high. But the calculated regression line was LogY=-0.91592+0.25959X and Dyar's constant was 1.25. The growth ration of the larval length was clearly high between the 2nd and the 3rd instars, and that of larvae from the 4th instar was decreased. The calculated regression line was LogY=-0.16932+0.09841X and Dyar's constant was 1.25. In conclusion, our results suggested that the larvae growth of mulberry longicorn beetle appeared to be highly related in the larval head capsule width, larval weight and length.
Construction of the Novel Baculovirus Transfer Vector Using the p10 Gene of BmNPV
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 180~185
To develope the novel baculovirus transfer vector, the p10 gene was cloned from the Bombyx mori nuclear polygedrosis virus (BmNPV) vB2 strain isolated from the B. mori larvae of sericultural farms. The novel transfer vector was constructed by using the p10 gene of BmNPV vB2 strain was 210 bp. The TAAG sequence at the -71 bp of upstream from translation initiator ATG and two polyadenylation signal site at the downstream from terminator TAA were also detected in the p10 gene. The 5' and 3' flanking region of the p10 gene amplified by PCR was cloned into pBluescriptII SK(+) and then transfer vector pBm10 was construceted. The 7.9 kb pBm10 was analysed by restriction enzymes and the map was confirmed. In order to determine the expression of foreign gene of pBm10,
-galactosidase gene was inserted in the SmaI site of foreign gene cloning site of pBm10. The pBm10 containing
-galactosidase gene was cotranfected wth genomic DNA of BmNPV vB2 into BmN-4 cells. The recombinant baculovirus expressing
-galactosidase was also produced polygedra in the infected cells. The results indicated that pBm10 is functional, suggesting that in the baculovirus expression vector system, the recombinant virus produced by pBm10 was effective by oral infection for the producing recombinant proteins in in vivo expression.
Structural Characterization of Silk Fiber Treated with Calcium Nitrate
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 186~196
The IR crystallinity index of Calcium nitrate treated silk fiber decreased proportionally to the concentration of calcium nitrate. A partial change of conformation was observed in the concentration of over 46.4-47.6% changing from
-sheet or to random coil in the crystalline region. This is in coincidence with the result of crystallinity index, which was started to be reduced in the concentration range of 46.4-47.6%. A same trend was observed for the X-ray order factor, birefringence, degree of orientation and surface structure. These structural parameters were remarkably changed on the treatment of silk fibers with concentration of 46.4-17, 6% calcium nitrate. Therefore, it seems that there exists a critical concentration of calcium nitrate in affection the structure and morphology of silk fibers. According to the examination of surface morphology, the fine stripe was observed in the direction of fiber axis at 46.4% concentration. However, the treated concentration was exceeded by 47.6%, the cracks were appeared severely on the fiber surface in the transverse direction as well as fiber axis direction. This result might be related to the tensile properties, specially a tenacity of silk fibers. As a result of quantitative analysis of a dilute acid hydrolysis, three different regions, which are known as a amorphous, semi-crystalline and crystalline region, could be obtained. The hydrolysis rate curves were different with various concentrations of treatment and the relative contents of each region could be calculated.
Hydrolysis of Silk Fibroin on Alkali Conditions
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 197~202
To hydrolyze silk fibroin was treated with NaOH solution on various concentrations and times. And it was examined that the addition effects of NaHSO3 solution on the solubility and colouring of silk fibroin. As obtained results are as follows; The more increasement of concentration and time of NaOH treatment, the more increasement of solubility but solubility was slight above 3% concentration of NaOH. Fibroin yield was decreased above 3% concentration. This was due to formation of peptide or amino acids below molecular weight 3,000. Most of molecular weight distribution came out to be under 3,000 in 2% concentration and 4hrs of NaOH treatment. The more increasement of adding concentration and 4hrs of NaOH treatment. The more increasement of adding concentration of NaHSO3, the more reduction of solubility but white index of powder increased. In the results of FT-IR spectras of silk fibroin powder obtained by various concentrations of NaHSO3 treatment, the absorbent peak at 3,400 cm-1 which was considered as -CH=N- (azomethine) was disappeared by the more addition of NaHSO3. It showed that absorbent peak of
-fibroin moved into low temperature region and transferred to
- and random coil structure through the DSC experiment. In the results of amino acid analysis, alkali hydrolysis reduced the oxy amino contents acid like serine and tyrosine, but increased the glycine content by the more addition of NaHSO3
The Age of Rootability in Mulberry Softwood Cutting
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 203~204
The authors studied on mulberry cutting of soft wood. It had been known that the rootability of softwood cuttings was formed after 25 days after winter bud sprouting. But, the result showed that the formation of rootability of soft wood was 9 days earlier than the conventional time.
Line X Tester Analysis for Economic Characters in the Bivoltine Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Naseema Begum ; A.S.K. Bhargava ; M.M. Ahsan ; R.K. Datta ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 205~209
In a line X tester crossing programme (24 lines 2 testers) the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were analyzed for five economic characters in the bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The results showed desired GCA effects in 934D1 (9500), 934B (9789) and 934A1 (9855) for cocoon yield per 10,000 larvae brushed by number. Likewise, the lines found to be superior based on GCA effects for other characters were as follows; 931D (14.040 Kgs), 935E (17.023 Kga.), 934D1 (15.643 Kgs.) and 934B (15.687 Kgs.) for cocoon yield by weight: 931D (1.717 g) and 930E (1.796 g) for single cocoon weight; 932B (0.330 g) for single shell weight: 931D (1.717 g) and 930e (1.796 g) for single cocoon weight; 932B (0.330 g) for single shell weight; 932B (18.7%), 933A (18.86%) and 935A (19.89%) for shell ratio. SCA effects showed the superiority of 932D
KA (9822 cocoon yield per 10,000 larvae brushed by number); 932A
NB4D2 (16.933 Kgs. cocoon yield per 10,000 larvae brushed by weight); 931C
KA (1.911 g single cocoon weight); 934
NB4D2 (0.371 g single shell weight and 21.0% shell ratio). The analysis indicated non-additive gene action for all the five characters.
Minoura, N. ; Aiba, S. ; Gotoh, Y. ; Tsukada, M. ; Imai, Y. ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 39, issue 2, 1997, Pages 210~210