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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Dec 2002
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Volume 4, Issue 2 - 00 2002
Selecting the target year
A Practical Technology for Diagnosis and Management of Diseases in Silkworm Rearing
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 5~169
A practical technology for silkworm disease management at farmer\\`s level was suggested and test verified for its efficacy and adaptability. The technology consisted of disinfection of rearing house and appliances, early disease diagnosis, personal and rearing hygiene and silkworm body and rearing seat disinfection. Besides, the supportive techniques associated in disease management are cited. The validation trials of the technology involving 845 farmers crops with 147,530 disease free layings (dfls) of CSR bivoltine hybrids confirmed the effectiveness of the technology which resulted an average yield of 68.98 ㎏ cocoons/100 dfls.
Evolution of a Productive Multivoltine x Bivoltine Hybrid, CAUVERY (BL67x CSR101) of Silkworm, Bombyx zori L.
D. Raghavendra Rao ; V. Premalatha ; Ravindra Singh ; B. K. Kariappa ; K. P. Jayaswal ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 12~121
Breeding programme was initiated during November, 1995 with the main objective to breed productive multivoltine breeds/ hybrids with suitable genetic constitution to suit the fluctuating tropical climate prevailed in India. Two multivoltine breeds viz., BL-24 and BL-27 selected were as breeding resource materials from the silkworm germplasm maintained at Central Sericul-tural Research and Training Institute, Mysore. By adopting hybridization, backcrossing inbreeding and selection, a new multivoltine breed namely BL-67. This breed spins light greenish yellow cocoons and cocoon shape is oval with medium to coarse grains. The evolved breed was crossed with five tropical bivoltine breeds viz., NB4D2, CSR2, CSR5, CSR18 and CSR101 to study the combining ability, and identified a superior hybrid, BL67 x CSR101, named as CAUVERY, The hybrid is characterized by high pupation rate (>95%), high shell weight (> 35 cg), high cocoon shell ratio (> 20%), longer filament length (> 900 m) and high neatness (93) with a renditta of 6.5 producing 2A-3A grade silk. The hybrid is selected for Race Authorization test of Central Silk Board.
Determination of Economic Threshold Level of Whitefly, Dialeuropora decempuncta (Quaintance and Baker) in Mulberry, Morus alba L.
U. K. Bandyopadhyay ; M. V. Santhakumar ; K. K. Das ; B. Saratchandra ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 15~133
Whitefly, Dialeuropora decempuncta (Quaintance rind Baker) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) has attained the major pest status in mulberry, causing 24% crop loss by sucking the leaf juice and manifesting leaf curl, chlorosis and sooty mould desease during monsoon season in West Bengal, India. The assessment of economic threshold revel is an essential component for formulating the management practices. Experiments were carried out by inoculating five different densities of whitefly viz.,10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 adults on covered mulberry plants in glass houses. From the findings, it was observed that irrespective of released density, no crop loss was observed in the initial period. But with the passing of days, the percent crop loss was increased rapidly. The linear relationship between percent crop loss and number of adults released was established to highlight the significance of economic threshold. The statistical analysis in the linear form of equation showed that initial population of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 whiteflies/plant causes 3%, 12%, 21%, 30% and 40% crop loss in a period of 28 days which is equivalent to 57 ㎏, 247 ㎏, 437 ㎏, 626 ㎏ and 816 ㎏ leaf/acre. Execution of management practices (spray of 0.01% monocrotophos) are economical to the farmer whenever the loss is above 247 ㎏/acre, but below which application of control measures is not economical. From this study, it can be inferred that the economic threshold level far whitefly is 20 individuals/plant beyond which a farmer has to take appropriate control measures.
Induction of Non-Diapause Eggs and Manifestation of Quantitative Characters by Low Temperature Incubation of Eggs in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Ravindra Singh ; K. P. Jayaswal ; D. Raghavendra Rao ; B. K. Kariappa ; V. Premalatha ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 15~149
Induction of non-diapause eggs and manifestation of quantitative characters were studied in different seasons by low temperature incubation of eggs of a low yielding diapause with coloured cocoons silkworm breed, RDI of Bombyx mori. Hundred percent of nandiapause eggs were induced when the egg incubation was carried out at 15℃ followed by incubation initially at 25℃ and then at 15℃. The diapause-nondia-pause relation was found to be reversible. Analysis of variance study demonstrated significant variation in all the quantitative characters whereas significant variation due to different incubation treatments was observed for larval span, fifth instar larval span, cocoon yield/10,000 larvae by weight, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell ratio. study on hybrid vigour skewed significant heterosis over mid parent value for four economic characters viz., cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length in a Fl hybrid between RD1 with diapause eggs and Japanese type bivoltine NB₄D₂
Breeding Resource Materials of Silkworm Bombyx mori L., Adaptive to Tropical Climates
P. Sudhakara Rao ; R. K. Datta ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 19~109
With the objective of selecting suitable breeding resource material, 10 polyvoltine and 10 bivoltine breeds were drawn from the germplasm collection of Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, and evaluated for 3 seasons comprising one year (6 trials). Data were collected on seven traits of economic importance such as fecundity, pupation rate, cocoon yield, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length, and statistically analysed with two-way classification, Joint scoring method and evaluation index. Significant seasonal variations (P < 0.01) were observed in both polyvoltine and bivoltine breeds. Polyvoltines BL27, BL36 and BL54 and bivoltines CSR2, CSR4 and Daizo scored highest ranking values in all the three methods. Hybridization was initiated based on larval markings and cocoon shapes. Seasonal variations were discussed.
Midgut Microflora of Pure Mysore (Multivoltine) and NB₄D₂ (Bivoltine) Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Races During Late Larval Instars
Vineet Kumar ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 20~127
The qualitative and quantitative changes of bacterial flora associated with the Pure Mysore (Multivoltine) and NB₄D₂ (Bivoltine) silkworm (Bombyx modi L.) midgut during third, fourth and fifth instars were studied. Larvae reared on mulberry leaves were dissected and their midgut bacterial populations were enumerated through serial dilution technique and after 72 hrs of incubation period at 28 ± 1℃, the bacterial population was estimated. The results showed a highest mean value of 15×
CFU/g and 28×
g in Pure Mysore and NB₄D₂races, respectively, in midgut tissue of fifth instar larvae. The natural epiphytic microflora of mulberry leaves fed during the respective instars was also studied and found maximum 14×10³ CFU/g in leaves fed in third instars, followed by 5.3×10³ CFU/g and 2.1×10³ CFU/g in leaves fed during fourth and fifth instars, respectively. The bacterial flora colonized in midgut was found to be elaborating amylase, caseinase, gelatinase, lipase and urease enzymes. The highest percentages of isolates were amylase producers followed by protein and lipid splitters in Pure Mysore, whereas in NB₄D₂ protein splitter were dominated followed by lipase and amylase producers in NB₄D₂. The results indicate that the natural microflora may play a vital role in the digestion of ingested food materials in silkworms.
Molecular Cloning of Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Fragment from Midgut of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua
김익수 ; 이희삼 ; 조일제 ; 문재유 ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 26~155
Cytochrome P45O (CYP) gene has been known to play one of the most important roles in metabolizing the exogenous materials. In insect, CYP is particularly known to detoxify toxic materials by adding oxygen molecule to the hydrophobic region of the materials. Thus, CYP-dependent metabolism is associated with the adaptation of insect to host plant chemicals. This in turn is known to be one of the driving forces for CYP diversification. In the present study, we cloned seven gene fragments of CYP 4 (CYP4) family from the midgut of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, through RT·PCT, Sequence analysis of the product showed the gene fragment to contain an open reading frame of ∼150 amino acids, consisted of ∼450 bp. The cloned gene fragments contained typical, conserved regions found in CYP4 family. Pairwise comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences among seven clones ranged in divergence from 0% to 52.86% and resulted in five distinct clones. The other two clones were identical or differ by one amino acid respectively to the corresponding clone, although each differed by ten nucleotides. Analysis of correlation between GenBank-registered, full length CYP4 and the cloned fragments resulted in statistically significant relationship (r² = 0.96085 p < 0.001), suggesting utility of the partial sequences as such full-length sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the clones with GenBank-registered insect and mammal CYP4 family sequences by parsimony and several distance methods subdivided the clones into two groups: tones belonging to CYP4S and the others to CYP4M families.
Effects and Mechanisms of Silkworm Powder as a Blood Glucose-Lowerinly Agent
류강선 ; 이희삼 ; 김익수 ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 27~93
Cocoon production, which is a representative of traditional sericulture shifted into silkworm powder production in the spring of 1995. This, infect, signifies the change from the dress-centered textile business to the bio-industry and the functional resource industry. One of the most outstanding shifting is utilization of silkworm larvae for anti-diabetic agent. In Asian countries including Korea, silkworm powder derived from the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) has long been favored for anti-diabetic agent, but its efficacy was not tested until last decade by modern scientific methods. In this article, we reviewed the major researches on the silkworm powder as a blood glucose-lowering substance. After the beginning test of the efficacy of silkworm powder by a cooperative research between Department of Sericulture and Entomlogy, NIAST, RDA and Kyung Hee University, substantial data have been accumulated so far, In a serial experiment to select best condition, the fifth instar larvae prepared by freeze dry method turned out to have the best blood glucose-lowering effect. In the pharmacological experiment to understand the mechanism of silkworm powder in small intestine, the silkworm powder turned out to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase, by competitively binding to α-type disaccharides. The animal experiment showed that the extract of silkworm powder prevents a rapid increase of blood glucose level after meal and prevents hunger and law blood glucose level during empty stomach. In the experiment to isolate the major component of silkworm powder, which exerts blood glucose-lowering effect, 1-deoxynojirimy-cin (DNJ) was eventually mass-purified, and it turned out that DNJ isolated from silkworm powder was excellent in its blood glucose-lowering effect. In the experiment to understand the personal difference of the efficacy of the silkworm powder, clinical candidates were divided on the basis of the criterion of traditional Chinese medicine: Tae-Yang, Tae-Um, So-yang, and So-Um. The result showed that silkworm powder has a tendency to reduce blood glucose level at fasting and at 2 hours after meal, and this trend was somewhat obvious in the Tae-Um body type. In summary, we reviewed scientific papers on the efficacy of silkworm powder and its purified DNJ as a blood glucose-lowering agent. These suggest that silkworm powder truly possesses blood glucose-lowering effect as documented in the traditional Chinese medicine, although further researches will be required to develop them as ″medical″ resource instead of functional food.
Effects of Insect Hormones on the Replication of Nucleopolyhedrovirus
Yong Zhu Yi ; Qing Li Xiao ; Zhi Fang Zhang ; Jia Lu He ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 29~137
An experimental study was undertaken to quantify the effects of insect hormones on the replication of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). The results demonstrated that
at 72 h post-infection (hpi) rose systematically from 0.55×
/m1, for untreated cells, up to 1.67×
/ml at 3μg/ml, then dropped down to 1.45×
/m1 at 4 μg/ml, by adding ecdysone to the culture medium for Bm-N cells infected with a wild-type Bambyx mori. nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). The optimum enhancement of about 3 times on budded virus (BV) titer at 72 hpi was given at 3 μg/ml of ecdysone. While the polyhedra number had no obvious variation within the range of concentrations from 0 to 4 μg/ml. By addition of juvenile hormone analogue (JHA) into the media with this concentration range, the BmNPV
and polyhedra number at 72 hpi did not show significant changes. Also, the addition of either 3 μg/ml of ecdysone or 3 μg/ml of JHA to the culture media did not appear to affect the
and polyhedra number significantly in infected Sf-21 cells with the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV).
cDNA Sequence and mRNA Expression of a Novel Peroxiredoxin from the Firefly, pyrocoelia rufa
이광식 ; 김승렬 ; 손흥대 ; 진병래 ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 29~101
We describe here the cDNA sequence and mRNA expression of a novel family of the antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin, from the firefly, Pyracoetia ruin. The 555 bp cDNA sequence codes for a 185 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 21 kDa. The deduced protein of P. rufa peroxiredoxin gene contains two conserved cysteine residues. Alignment of the deduced protein of P. rufa peroxiredoxin gene showed 71.1% protein sequenceidentity to known insect Drosophila melanogaster peroxiredoxin. Northern blot analysis revealed that the P. rufa peroxiredoxin is specifically expressed in the fat body of P. rufa larvae.
Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding a Ferritin Subunit from the Spider, Araneus ventricosus
한지희 ; 김승렬 ; 손흥대 ; 진병래 ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 32~163
We report for the first time the cDNA sequence encoding a ferritin subunit from the spiders Araneus ventricosus. The complete cDNA sequence of A. ventricosus ferritin subunit comprised 516 bp with 172 amino acid residues. The A. ventricosus ferritin subunit cDNA contained a conserved iron responsive element sequence in the 5 untranslated region. An alignment of the deduced protein sequence of the A. ventricosus ferritin subunit gene to that of other heavy chain ferritin molecules showed that A. ventricosus ferritin subunit is most similar to the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, ferritin with 70.2% of protein sequence identity.
Biological Control of Pests of Non-Mulberry Silkworms and Its Host Plants in India
R. N. Singh ; M. Maheshwari ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 83~83
The protection of silkworm and its host plants from various kinds of pests parasite and predator is a chronic problem in sericulture. Silkworms and its primary food plants are heavily damaged by large number of pest. The major pests of primary tasar food plants (Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia tomentosa) are the gall insect (Trioza fletcheri minor). Various species of aphids (Eutrichosiphum sp.) have been recorded to damage oak tasar food plants whereas muga silkworm host plants (Machilus bombycina and Litsaea polyantha) are generally attacked by stem bores (Zeuzera multistrigata). Castor (Ricinus communis) is one of the primary host plant of eri silkworm and extensive damage is caused by the castor white fly (Trialeurodes ricini). Insects pests are major enemies of silkworms. Parasites (Blepharipa zebina, Exorista bombycis, Apateles glomeratus), predators (Canthecona furcellata, Sycanus collaris, Hierodulla bipapilla), wasps (Vespa orientalix) and ants (Oecophylla smargdina) continues to cause damage to silk industry. It is estimated that the losses due to parasites and predators are to an extent of 15-20 percent and varies from crop to crop. The complexities in the behaviour and life cycle of pest population existing in semi ecosystem warrant a special attention for their effective management specially in changing scenario for our modern sericulture. Though use of synthetic insecticides has provided us with effective control of almost all major pests and predators, yet their undesirable side effects limit their continued use. Biological control is one of the most important method which can be used to control the pests, parasites and predators population in sericulture. Various potential parasitoids, which can be utilized as an agent of biological control in sericulture have been screened. The natural enemies of the uzi fly (E. bombycis and B. zebina ) are already present in the nature. Nesolynx thymus, Trichria sp., Splangia endius, Dirhinus sp., Trichopria sp., Trichomalopsis apanteloctena and Pediobius sp. are the major parasitoids effective against uzi fly pupa. The scelionid Psix striaticeps and Trissolcus sp. are the Potential egg Parasitoids against stink bug (Canthecona furcellata). Various other native natural potential parasitoids have been screened and suitable strategies have been developed to check the population of pest insect in sericulture.
Studies on the Biological Attributes of Scelionid Egg Parasitoid Psix striaticeps (Dodd) for the Control of Stink Bug Canthecona furcellata (Wolff) in Sericulture
R. N. Singh ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 117~117
Scelionid egg parasitoids Play an important role in biological control of some economically important pentatomids. Stink bug (Canthecona furcellatta Wolff,) is an important predator of Tasar silkworm larvae (Antheraea mylitta D.) and causes 30-40 percent loss in tasar silk industry. Psix striaticeps (Scelionid: Hymenoptera) has been found to be an important egg parasitoid. The parasitization potential of f striaticeps is mere than 60 percent and the sex ratio is female oriented. Studies indicate that the maintenance of existing scelionid population by avoiding harmful practices and the augmentation of scelionids either directly releasing them in the field or by indirectly making the field environment more favorable for them is an important aspect to control the pentatomid population in sericulture. Female bias sex ratio is advantageous to increase the parasitoid population in the field. 24-hour-old egg of stink bug and one-day old parasitoid is suitable for producing maximum progeny. 1 : 30 of parasitoid: host ratio is needed to regulate the estimated population in silkworm rearing field.
Interrelationship of Biological Yield and Harvest Index in Mulberry and Its Association with Shoot Rearing in Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)
B. N. Susheelamma ; Chandrakanth Kamble ; S. B. Dandin ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 4, issue 2, 2002, Pages 143~143
Studies on the interrelationship between biological yield and harvest index, and their association with shoot rearing were carried out in 9 promising mulberry genotypes, which indicated significant variations among genotypes. Biological yield had close association with leaf yield components indicating that they are inter-related for higher productivity in mulberry, Biological yield revealed highly significant positive correlation with important leaf yield components. However height of the longest branch showed negative correlation with biological yield. Genotypes with higher biological yield associated with low ratio of stem weight to leaf weight and high Harvest index on dry weight basis are to be selected for shoot rearing. Biological yield recorded on fresh weight basis had less impact on the present study in comparison to dry weight basis.