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Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 50, Issue 2 - Dec 2012
Volume 50, Issue 1 - Jun 2012
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Comparison of the pollination activities among honeybee, Apis mellifera, and bumblebees, Bombus ignitus and B. terrestris in the watermelon houses on summer season
Lee, Sang Beom ; Choi, Young Cheol ; Park, Kwan Ho ; Ha, Nam Gyu ; Hwang, Seok Jo ; Kim, Seung-Ryul ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.41
This study was examined the characteristics on the pollinating activities of Apis mellifera, Bombus ignitus and B. terrestris as pollinators on the watermelon flowers(Citrullus vulgaris Schrad), and the effects of the pollination by pollinators compared to the artificial pollination in the watermelon green houses in Nonsan City on summer season in 2005. As a result, B. ignitus and B. terrestris could not be used for summer season, because the bumblebees were not pollinated effectively indeed even two days after hives were released at watermelon green houses during the summer cultivating period. It could not be controlled a poor watermelon house conditions; high temperature and low humidity on summer season which were the bad environment for pollinating activities of bumblebees. But this study was showed that A. mellifera could be used comparatively good pollinator instead of artificial pollination in spite of the bad environment for bee within the watermelon green houses on summer season.
Determination of Heavy Metals and Residual Agricultural Chemicals in Bombyx mori Silkworm Cocoon
Kweon, HaeYong ; Jo, You-Young ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Ji, Sang-Duk ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 48~52
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.48
Heavy metals and residual agricultural chemicals in Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon for nontextile usages were examined. Proximate composition of silkworm cocoon was examined; contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash were about 5 ~ 6%, 93 ~ 94%, 0.4 ~ 0.5%, and 0.3 ~ 0.4%, respectively. The Heavy metals were analyzed by ICP/MS after acid digestion. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead were not detected. The average contents of mercury, zinc, and cupric were 0.317, 3.99, and 2.06 mg/kg, respectively. Agricultural chemicals, such as dichlorvos and paraquart also were not detected. Silkworm cocoon may be safe used for nontextile applications.
Identification of Antiviral-related Genes Up-regulated in Response to Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus
Goo, Tae-Won ; Hong, Sun-Mee ; Kim, Sung-Wan ; Choi, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Park, Seung-Won ; Kang, Seok-Woo ; Yun, Eun-Young ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 53~62
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.53
Silkworm larvae often suffer from viral infections causing heavy losses to the economy of silk industry. Insects exhibit both humoral and cellular immune responses that are effective against various pathohens like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc., but no insect immune responses is effective against viral infection. To obtain genes related to insect antiviral immunity from Bombyx mori, the cDNA library was constructed from B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)-infected B. mori. From the cDNA library, we selected 411 differentially expressed clones, and the 5' ends of the inserts were sequenced to generate ESTs. In this work, 135 unigenes were generated after the assembly of 411 differentially expressed clones ESTs. Of these 135 unigenes, we selected 109 antiviral response-related candidates except 26 clones that high similarity with genes derived from BmNPV. Among 109 unigenes, a total of 80% had significant matches to genes from other organisms in the database, wheres 20% of the unigenes had not matched in the database. Functional groups of these sequences with matches in database were constructed according to their putative biological function. Three largest categories were control of cellular oraganization (52%), metabolism (20%), and protein fate (10%). The genetic information reported in this study will provide more information about antiviral-related genes in silkworms.
Artificial Multiplication of the Black Soldier Fly(BSF), Hermetia illucens(Diptera: Stratmyidae) Using the Livestock Feces
Choi, Young-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Beom ; Park, Kwan-Ho ; Nam, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Jong-Gill ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Choi, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.63
This study was conducted to investigated the distribution, ecological character and life cycle of Black Soldier Fly(BSF), Hermetia illucens, to determine effects of BSF on composing ability to the livestock feces. The distribution of BSF was defined in all parts of the country in Korea. Its main habitat was found to be areas near cattle sheds, feces sheds, living waste dump grounds, and food waste dump grounds. Excellent species of the bio-conversion using the livestock feces were selected out of two kinds of solider flies(Hermetia illucens and Ptecticus tenebrifer). And effects of BSF on composing ability to the livestock feces were pig feces 0.5 g, cattle feces 0.43 g and chicken feces 0.3 g per a larvae of BSF. In the examination of the ability of BSF to decompose food waste, volume of the livestock feces decreased by weight pig feces 77, cattle feces 83.62 and chicken feces 80%. Observed characteristics of BSF larvae and pupae stage were by developmental stage may be summarized as follows: size and length of larvae and pupae of BSF were higher than in pig feces and mixed sawdust treatments. In order to develop artificial indoor rearing techniques, The pupation and emergence rate were not visible the difference but important factor of the mating and egg-laying was a sun light. And it was visible the difference in mating ratio. Mating rate of H. illucens by seasonal change was the highest from May to July. Mating mostly occurred between 10 : 00 and 12 : 00 during which light intensity is high. As the egg-laying medium for artificial egg collection, calf feed and food waste were most effective. The ratio of egg-laying medium is waste food : sawdust(1 : 1) in volume. For egg-laying materials, flower foam and wood with holes were used; holes sized 3 ~ 5 mm in diameter, 7 ~ 10 mm in depth were most preferred for egg-laying.
A study of changes on the physical properties of silk fibroin biological membrane according to the dissolving conditions
Jo, You-Young ; Kweon, HaeYong ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ; Lee, Heui-Sam ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 71~75
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.71
Silk is a natural polymer that has the advantages of the biocompatibility, excellent mechanical strength, low immune rejection, and molding facility. But silk does not dissolve easily in water or general solvent. To investigate the characteristics of silk biological membranes according to dissolving condition of silk fibroin, we made the silk biological membranes using silk fibroin solutions with different amount and dissolving time of silk. The characterizations of the silk biological membranes such as morphology, structure, and mechanical strength were observed. Although each biological membrane has the same fibroin content, there was a significant difference in the thickness and transparency. But there was no significant change in the molecular weight of the silk fibroin solutions and morphology of silk biological membranes. We were established the manufacturing condition for silk fibroin biological membrane. So we expect that the conditions will help in the development of medical supplies in the future.
Manufacture and Characterization of Silkworm Gland Hydrolysate
Hwang, Jung Wook ; Lee, Heui Sam ; Kim, Hojin ; Kim, Kyu-Oh ; Choi, Yong-Soo ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 76~81
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.76
Silk protein has been explored to be used for biomedical applications for several decades. However, it has not been used in this field cause to their irreversible crystallization after dissolving in water. The existing methods of silk protein hydrolysis using silkworm cocoon were used with harmful solvents and through a very complicated process. Therefore, we have developed novel methods for the production of water-soluble hydrolysate using silkworm gland. We manufactured two types of silkworm gland-derived hydrolysate (water-soluble SGH, SSGH; total SGH, TSGH) and compared the characteristics with commercial cocoon-derived sericin hydrolysate (CSH). The molecular weight of SGH ranged from 7 to 50 kDa (SSGH) and 5 to 15 kDa (TSGH) within glycine, alanine, and aspartic acid as a main amino acid composition. In contrast, CSH ranged from 15 to 50 kDa within serine and aspartic acid. The results of FTIR implied that SGH was more soluble form than CSH, as shown by the decrease in the
-sheet structure at
on amide I peak. In comparison with 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.1% (1 mg/ml) SSGH had equivalent effect on the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. All results of the SSGH made by novel manufacturing process indicate the SSGH is more preferable as a culture medium supplement than cocoon-derived sericin.
The effect of citric acid and enzyme inactivation treatment on C3G stability and antioxidant capacity of mulberry fruit jam
Kim, Hyun-Bok ; Kim, Jung-Bong ; Seok, Young-Seek ; Seo, Sang-Deok ; Kim, Sun-Lim ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 82~86
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.82
We have developed processing methods improved cyanidin-3-glucoside(C3G) stability in mulberry fruit's jam. In the processing of mulberry jam, 3 minutes blanching using microwave inhibited the C3G destruction by maintaining the antioxidant capacity and inactivation of enzymes related to pigment's stability. Also citric acid increased C3G stability in the mulberry fruit's jam. As the adding sugar, sucrose was considered the more desirable sugar than oligosaccharide or xylitol. It showed high C3G content and antioxidant capacity compared to the two treatment groups. In conclusion, when processing mulberry fruit's jam, the addition of citric acid and the enzyme's inactivation treatment were considered effective treatment for the C3G stability and antioxidant ability.
Construction of fluorescent red silk using fibroin H-chain expression system
Kim, Sung Wan ; Yun, Eun Young ; Choi, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Seong Ryul ; Park, Seung Won ; Kang, Seok Woo ; Kwon, O-Yu ; Goo, Tae Won ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 87~92
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.87
We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein variant2 (DsRed2) in transgenic silkworm cocoon. Fluorescent cocoon could be made by fusing DsRed2 cDNA to the heavy chain gene and injecting it into a silkworm. The DsRed2 fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, was designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the DsRed2/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter. The use of the 3xP3-driven EGFP cDNA as a marker allowed us to rapidly distinguish transgenic silkworms. The EGFP fluorescence became visible in the ocelli and in the central and peripheral nervous system on the seventh day of embryonic development. A mixture of the donor and helper vector was micro-injected into 1,020 Kumokjam, bivoltin silkworm eggs. We obtained 6 broods. The cocoon was displayed strong red fluorescence, proving that the fusion protein was present in the cocoon. Accordingly, we suggest that the DsRed2 fluorescence silk will enable the production of novel biomaterial based on the transgenic silk.
Protective Effects of Extracts of Protaetia brevitarsis on Carbon tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in the Mice
Chon, Jeong-Woo ; Kweon, HaeYong ; Jo, You-Young ; Yeo, Joo Hong ; Lee, Heui Sam ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 93~100
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.93
To investigate the effects of Protaetia. brevitarsis extracts on the protection against liver damage by carbon tetrachloride(
) in rat, two kinds of experiment were performed, firstly by the primary hepatocyte culture and secondly by the animal feeding. The primary hepatocyte culture with the extracts of P.brevitarsis showed significantly low activities of GPT, bile acid, and bilirubin, indicating an excellent protective effect against liver damage by
. Especially, below molecular weight 1,000 blew the water to have 32.1% recovery degree. In the seconde experiment, serum GPT activity was significantly decreased in water fraction of P. brevitarsis compared to
treatment by 98.2%. Serum concentration of bile acid and bilirubin were tended to increased by
treatment, but water fraction of P. brevitarsis and silymarin recovered the level. These consistent results in vitro and in vivo suggest that the extracts of P. brevitarsis may have strong protective effects against liver damage induced by the potential toxicants such as
Simultaneous Production System of Silkworm Dongchunghacho and Male Pupae Using Both Parent Sex-limited Larval Marking Variety
Ji, Sang-Duk ; Kim, Nam-Suk ; Kang, Pil-Don ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Hong, In-Pyo ; Ryu, Kang Sun ; Kim, Young-Ki ; Nam, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Mi-Ja ; Kim, Kee-Young ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 101~108
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.101
This study was conducted to confirm the mass production of male pupae and sex-limited larval marking variety as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenupes in RDA(Rural Development Administration). Silkworm pupation, infection rate and synnemate formation of I.tenuipes were examined. Among the silkworm varieties tested, male Hansaengjam showed the highest pupation rate at 98.7%. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of newly-exuviated 5th instar silkworm was 83.7 ~ 90.4% in the spring rearing season and 91.7 ~ 96.6% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was execellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 99.5% followed by male Yangwonjam(99.5%) and Baegokjam(99.4%) in the spring and autumn rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 0.93 ~ 1.25 g in the spring rearing season. The female Hansaengjam had the heaviest synnemata weight(1.25 g). Synnemata dry weight ranged from 0.27 ~ 0.35 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight(0.35 g).
Study on the Cold Storage Condition of Hypoaspis aculeifer(Canestrini)(Acari: Gamasida) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae(Schrank)(Acari: Acaridae)
Ham, Eun Hye ; Choi, Young Cheol ; Lee, Jun Seok ; Park, Jong Kyun ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 109~111
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.109
The success of biological control depends upon the standard setting and effective mass rearing of natural enemies. In this work, we have investigated cold storage condition of Hypoaspis aculeifer(Canestrini) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae(Schrank). which has been stored at 8,
, in dark condition. An appropriate temperature of cold storage was
with wheat bran(50%) and rice bran(50%) for T. putrescentiae. 7o% of T. putrescentiae and H. aculeifer could survive for 28 days and 70 days at
. After storing at
with prey mite for 28 days, 56 days and 84 days, their reproduction rate showed similar resultes.
Determination of Optimum Conditions for Mass Rearing of Cadra cautella(Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) and Orius laevigatus(Fieber)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
Ham, Eun Hye ; Choi, Yong Seok ; Lee, Jun Seok ; Park, Jong Kyun ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 112~115
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.112
To develop an efficient mass rearing system for Cadra cautella(Walker) and Orius laevigatus(Fieber) were investigated under the conditions of photoperiod 16L : 8D,
. The highest efficiency rate(multiply 28.6) of C. cautella was achieved when using the rearing cage of
. The highest efficiency rate(multiply 16.3) of O. laevigatus was achieved when using the rearing cage of
(adult 1,500, 10 pcs(10 cm) of plant of egg taking). The moth could be successfully reared with all food substrates tested, of which rice bran(43%) + chick feed(43%) + yeast(14%) assumed to be proper for mass-rearing in view of cost.
Cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes using Mini-kit, small culture container
Nam, Sung-Hee ; Lee, Kwang Gill ; Yeo, Joo Hong ; Lee, Heui Sam ; Hwang, Jae Sam ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Park, Kwan-Ho ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 116~121
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.116
Cordyceps and its allies fungi has been described as a secret medicine that gives eternal youth and a long life. Some species of Cordyceps are sources of biochemicals, such ascordycepin, with interesting biological and pharmacological properties. Hence, it has been studied to uncover its pharmacological effect. We attempted to study the formation of fruiting bodies and to develop means of mass production Korean isolate of Paecilomyces tenuipes has been inoculated into silkworms, where it reproduced using culture container, mini-kit successfully. Culture container, mini-kit is composed of a cylinder-shaped body and lid. The container is made of translucent polyethylene terephthalate. The size of the container is
, reduced by 10 times as compared with the conventional culture kit. The mini kit has many advantages - high culture amount, ability of maintaining optimal humidity, parasite-free cultivation and high-end appearance. With the kit, the optimal cultivation condition is under
, culture period of 53 days. And synnemata of P. tenuipes could be kept fresh for 14 days at the temperature of under
. Therefore, the Min-kit can be used in both ways as a culture container and a packing kit for end-user customers.
A Study on the Development of an Early Embryonic Gene of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Choi, Kwang-Ho ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Park, Seung-Won ; Kim, Sung-Wan ; Kang, Seok-Woo ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 122~125
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.122
This study was aimed for a development of a useful gene promoter which has a transcript expressional specificity in the early embryonic period of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. To select a useful gene expressed in the early embryonic stage, we constructed and analyzed a PCR-base subtraction cDNA library. In subtractive hybridization analysis, we confirmed four clones as differently expressed genes(BmNanos-like, BmNanos-P, BmNanos-O, BmVasa mRNAs). Northern hybridization and real time PCR results reveled that the BmNanos-like gene promoter is suitable for the silkworm transgenic vector system. Further defined studies on molecular functions and biological roles of their promoters will give us well-fined information and its application.
Fecundity, Life span, Developmental periods and Pupal weight of Tenebrio molitor L.(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Park, Young-Kyu ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Lee, Young-Bo ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Jun-Seok ; Kang, Seung-Ho ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 126~132
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.126
Two different feed(bran and swine feed) effect was tested on development of Tenebrio molitor at
. There was no significant feed effect on larval developmental periods(80.0 ~ 83.7 days), pupal length (18.1 ~ 18.7 mm) and fecundity(44.3 ~ 55.3 eggs) during first two days. However, fecundity was significantly affected by the pupal weight(P < 0.05), such that the number of eggs 172.3, 191.2, 215.0 gradually increased as pupal weight rose from 0.12 g, 0.15 g to 0.18 g, respectively. During the first two weeks of oviposition was 51.8%, which gradually decreased for further days. Longevity was
days with increasing pupal weight of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18 g, respectively. Larval densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 individuals reared in the container (
) resulted 67.9% of the T. molitor pupation during first three weeks. Pupal weight was decreased
when it was reared at different larval densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 individuals, respectively in size of(
) rearing container.
Studies on Ecological Environments and Indoor-rearing Conditions of the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema hecabe
Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Se-Gwon ; Nam, Gyoung-Pil ; Son, Jai-Duk ; Lee, Jin-Gu ; Park, Young-Kyu ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Lee, Young-Bo ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.133
The Aims of this study are to investigate ecological environments and indoor-rearing conditions of Eurema hecabe for artificial rearing. Two different nesting site, a open area nearby small river(A area; Daejin-ri, Gonyang-myeon, Sachun-si, Gyoungsangnam-do) and a foot of a hill area(B area; Noryang-ri, Seolcheon-myeon, Namhae-gun, Kyoungsangnam-do), selected for investigation of ecological habitat environment, and investigated two times per month, during six month, from June to November in 2010. In result, the number of butterflies, Eurema hecabe, at the hill area(B area) was 6 times more than the open area(A area). We observed the number of eggs, larvae and puapae in the B area more times compared to those in the A area. In the B area, Lespedeza cuneata was higher preference than the other host plant, Lespedeza pilosa and Albizia julibrissin. For development of indoor-rearing conditions, common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe, was reared in a room condition. As a result of oviposition preference experiment, 100-mated-female laid significantly higher number of eggs
on Lespedeza cuneata plant, whereas the number of eggs was
on Cassia obtusifolia plant. Moreover, the eggs hatched within
days from the day of oviposition and procent of egg hatchability was 53.7% on host plant. The headwidth of each developmental larval stage were
(5th). The larval period was
days under high temperature, long day condition(
, 16L : 8D), showing 81.0% pupal ratio. The pupal period was
days, and the emergence rate was 79.6%. Based on above experiment, artificial rearing system of common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe was completed in indoor condition.
A Study on the Development of an Immune Related Genes from Midgut of Silkworm
Choi, Kwang-Ho ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Park, Seung-Won ; Kim, Sung-Wan ; Kang, Seok-Woo ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 140~144
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.140
This study was aimed for identification of a useful genetic resources from the entomopathogenic bacteria infected-midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. We analyzed the appropriately midgut-immunizing condition of
instar larvae by a feeding infection using several entomopathogenic bacteria. Xenorhabdus nematophila was selected as a suitable bacteria for midgut immunization of Jam 123, B. mori. We constructed a subtraction cDNA library from the mRNA of the immunized midgut, respectively. A total of 1,000 clones were randomly selected from the subtracted cDNA library, and then performed a differential display hybridization analysis with forward and reverse probes. In conclusion, nine clones were identified as differential expressed genes, which presumed that these genes were involved in gut immunity of silkworm. The total number of clones analyzed in this work is not enough to have a brief overview of a understanding on the midgut immunity factors of silkworm. Therefore, further defined studies on these molecules biological roles will give us well-fined information about the innate immune mechanism of silkworm.
Isolation and purification of a cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide from the japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai
Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Choi, Kwang-Ho ; Park, Seung-Won ; Kim, Sung-Wan ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Kang, Seok-Woo ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 145~149
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.145
Cecropin is a well-studied antimicrobial peptide that play important role as key factor in insect humoral immunity. In this study, cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide was isolated and purified from the larval haemolymph of immune-challenged japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai. To isolate antimicrobial peptide, we separated and compared acidic extracted hemolymph protein bends between control and immune-challenged larvae using SDS-PAGE analysis. In the immune hemolymph extract, but not of non-immune hemolymph, we detected differential expressed peptide band with molecular mass 4,223.01 Da. To understand this peptide better, we successfully purified this peptide using cation exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence obtained by Edman degradation evidenced a significant degree of identity with other lepidopteran cecropins. The purified A. yamamai cecropin-like peptide showed a broad spectrum of activity against fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Mulberry Leaves and Silkworm Excreta Extracts on Weight Performance, Blood Characteristics and Cecal Microflorae of Chicks
Han, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Dong Wook ; Ji, Sang Yoon ; Hong, Seong Koo ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Heui-Sam ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 150~160
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.150
The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of mulberry leaves and silkworm excreta ethanol extracts on weight performances, blood characteristics, cecal microflorae of chickens. Two hundred forty male broiler chicks(Ross) were fed diets for five weeks containing 0.1%(MLA) and 1%(MLB) of mulberry leaves ethanol extracts, and 0.1%(SEA) and 1%(SEB) of silkworm excreta ethanol extracts. Weight performance did show no significant difference in all test groups which were fed with supplementation of mulberry leaves and silkworm excreta ethanol extracts. They showed better weight gain and feed conversion than the negative control group which was fed only with forage without antibiotics. ABTS(2'-azine-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) test was conducted to investigate free radical scavenging activity of blood in tested groups. ABTS scavenging activities of tested groups were higher than control groups in significant level, though there was no significant difference(P = 0.396). Specifically, MLB group showed the highest scavenging activity. Blood-level concentration of MDA, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was also decreased in tested groups and the lowest level was observed in SEA(P = 0.001). As storage time increased at
, muscle-level MDA concentrations of all tested groups were generally increased and significant difference was obsereved between tested groups and controls in total increase of MDA concentration(
). In cecal microflorae, SEA and SEB showed decreased total microbe population compared to NC(
) and even to PC. Supplementation of mulberry leave and silkworm excreta ethanol extract did show a similar inhibition effect against Salmonella sp., furthermore, MLB did enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus sp.(
). In summary, ethanol extract of silkworm excreta may be a potential alternative of antibiotics for chicks. In addition, both of ethanol extracts supplementation to broiler chicks would be very useful not only to improve antioxidant effect of blood but also to suppress lipid peroxidation without any loss of weight performance in poultry farming.
Antimicrobial activity and characterization for defensin of synthetic oligopeptides derived from Bombus ignitus
Kang, Heui-Yun ; Kim, In-Woo ; Lee, Joon-Ha ; Kwon, Young Nam ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Yoon, Hyung Joo ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Kim, Iksoo ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 161~165
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.161
Antimicrobial peptides of insects are found and reported as immune defence system against infectious agents. The peptides are produced by fat body cells and thrombocytoids, a blood cell type. Defensin is 38-45 amino acids long and consists of an
-helix linked by a loop to an antiparallel
-sheet. Defensin from a bumblebee, Bombus ignitus, is known to comprise 52 amino acid residues. This peptide consists of two
-helixes; ACAANCLSM and KTNFKDLWDKRF and one
-sheet; GGRCENGVCLCR. We carried out antibacterial activity test by radial diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive), Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Pseudomonas syringae (Gram negative), Candida albicans (fungi), MDRPA, MRSA, and VRE (antimicrobial resistant microbes) with synthetic oligopeptides from Peptron (Daejeon, Korea). The predicted curtailment fragment (GGRCEVCLCR-
-sheet had strong antibacterial activity when internal amino acids were removed. But, curtailment fragments (ACAANCLSM-
-helix were not showed antibacterial activity. These synthetic oligopeptides were showed the great activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria.
Optimal Cutting Conditions for the Production of Cudriania tricuspidata Bureau
Sung, Gyoo Byung ; Kim, Ki Young ; Kim, Hyun Bok ; Ji, Sang Duk ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 166~170
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.166
Most of Cudriania tricuspidata Bureau saplings in Korea have been produced by crown division. But the production of Cudriania tricuspidata B. saplings by this method is very low in efficiency and in uniformity. Therefore, to develop Cudriania tricuspidata B. saplings production system by cutting method which is suitable for mass production, several conditions on rooting and growth of cuttings were investigated. The rooting ability of cuttings varied according to temperature on the bed, length, thickness of the hard wood cutting and rooting agent application. Of different concentration of rooting agent, the 5,000 ppm of 1-naphthalenacetic acid(NAA) and Indole butyric acid(IBA) were found to be the highest in rooting of hardwood cuttings; other concentration were in order as follows; 2,500, 1,000 and 10,000 ppm in concentration of rooting agents. The shading ratio of polyethylene film showed the highest rooting ratio of the softwood cuttings at 55%.
Characteristics of Mulberry Cultivar "Sangberry"(Morus alba L.) for Fruit Production
Sung, Gyoo Byung ; Kim, Hyun-Bok ; Kang, Pil Don ; Kim, Ki Young ; Ji, Sang Duk ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 171~177
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.171
We bred a mulberry cultivar named Sangberry, through local adaptability test, which is under registration as a new cultivar for fruit production. Local adaptability test had been carried out at four places(Suwon, Kongju, Jangseong and Sangju) for six years from 2005. This is tetraploidy variety belonging to(Morus alba L.) made by colchicine treatment on growing point of winter buds. Sangberry was high yielding cultivar in fruit productivity by 70% compared to control cultivar "Chungilppong(Morus alba L.)" for four years. Although Sangberry was a little lower in sugar content of mulberry fruits, it contains more bioactive materials like C3G, rutin and amino acids than Chungilppong. It is adaptable to every where except the places where cold damage and sclerotic disease happen frequently.
The species list of insects and spiders appear in the press Elementary School Textbooks
Lee, YoungBo ; Park, Hae-Chul ; Han, Tae-Man ; Kim, Seong-Hyun ; Whang, Seok-Jo ; Kim, Nam-Jung ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 178~188
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.178
Since based on the 7th revised educational curriculum, the insects and spiders in elementary school textbook are as follows. A total of 60 species belonging to ten order of insects and three species of two families in the order Araneae were investigated. Among of them, we found that the species name and their photos were switched in three times, and also, misidentified species name were examined in three times. In the result of spices appearing frequencies between insects and spiders in the whole grade levels, the confirmed species numbers were a total of 63 species and the number of frequencies were 169 times. In the appearing frequencies, the correct identified species are relatively lowed as only 44 times(26.0%). In investigation on the appearing frequencies for the each insect orders, Othoptera and Coleoptera are mostly high such as ten and nine times, respectively. The appearing frequency for species levels are sequently counted as Drosophila sp.(18 times), Oxya chinensis sinuosa(16 times), and Papilio xuthus(12 times). The result of investigation for the appearing frequencies of insects in the each grades and semesters indicated that the first semester of third grade includes most large number insects which are 18 insect species, contrary, only one insect species are reported in the first semester of second grade.
Molecular characterization of diapause-related genes in the bumblebee, Bombus ignitus
Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Park, In-Gyun ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Jung, Duck-Oung ; Yoon, Hyung Joo ; Lee, Sang Beom ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Lee, Joon-Ha ; Kim, In-Woo ; Kwon, Young Nam ;
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science, volume 50, issue 2, 2012, Pages 189~193
DOI : 10.7852/jses.2012.50.2.189
To find diapause-related genes, we were performed by differential hybridization with three types of [
]dCTP-labeled total cDNA probes synthesized from diapause-prepared, diapause-maintained and diapause-activated stage of Bombus ignitus queen. Nine individual cDNA clones were found to be differentially expressed in diapause-maintained and diapause-activated stage. Among these clones, BIDC9(BIDC ; Bombus ignitus differentially expressed clone) was analyzed through full-length sequencing and expression pattern analysis. This clone was specifically expressed in the thorax organ. The effect of Juvenile hormone analog(JHA) and
treatment was examined. JHA treatment induced the expression of BIDC9 cDNA clone abruptly after 4 day of treatment.
treatment induced also the clone after 2 day of treatment. BIDC9 cDNA was identified as Bombus ignitus diapause gene contained an open reading frame of 1376 bp encoding 255 amino acids.