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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of architectural history
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Architectural History
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Dec 1992
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Jun 1992
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A Study on the House of the Gentry (士大夫) in the late 16th Century -Centering around Ryu, Hee-Choon's Diary(Miam-Ilgicho)
Lee, Ho-Yeol ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 9~38
In the study the documents in Ryu Hee-Choon's diary (Miahm-Ilgicho) from Oct. 29th 1575 to Feb. 9th 1577, for Kaeg-Chung(客聽) are arranged and analized. Ryu, Hee-Choon (Mi-ahm) was a civil minister in the era of Myung-Jong to Sun-Jo of the Chosun dinasty. This study would be one of the basal material for actually inquiring into the character of houses for the gentry in the late 16th century. Above all, the significance of this is that it study could show the details of the architectural economy, the organization of architectural society and the process of the supply of architectural material at that time. Craftsmen devoting themselves to this work are carpenters, artisans making roof titles, roofers and artisans constructing walls. And the content that are craftsmen of monks(僧匠), artisans of commoners(私匠) and slaves belong to government(官奴) is noticeable thing. In this construction work, monks in temples of the region and laboures commandeered by the government office are mainly mobilized. Except of them, private slaves and commoners mobilized by government office also devoted themselves to this work. But, it required more research whether this aspect could be the general character of the construction work of the gentry in the late 16th century. Architectural material, in the case of wood was cut and transported mostly from islands like Jin-do by labourers commandeered by the head officer of the region and monks. Superintendents seemed to come be non-specialists of noble families of the ruling class. So, it is thought that they managed mainly the manpower supply and administration. And some architectural ironworks, much provisions and marine products for labourers and craftsmen were proided by the government office of the region. This could be understood in the same context as above that goverment office of the region contributed to commandeering labourers and supplying architectural material in some degree. Carpenters and roofers took wages that is, about 7.7 pils(匹) of cotton cloth for each carpenter and 5 pils of cotton cloth and some provisions for each roofer. This would be a noticeable thing for researching wages of craftsmen at that time
The Eating and Cooking Spaces of Yang-ban Houses in the Cho-sun Dynasty
Park, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 39~51
Eating was done on a respective one-man dining table, which reflect the esteem for the individual. The family eating place was generally An-bang of the house, The eating space of Yang-ban housing with its hierarchical, spatial method of tabling and eating around the head of the family served as a synchronically meaningful space which was to strengthen the solidarity of patriarchy beyond the mere funtioning place of eating. That meaning seems to reveal itself more conspicuously when we consider that the eating place is An-bang, the center of the main house. The basic space for cooking was Bu-oak (Chung-ji). Thre was no water-supply system or drainage in the kitchen, so all the water needed for cooking was drawn from outdoor well with a bucket. The traditional eating habits, the entertainment for the bustling guests, and the frequent sacrificial rites required many store rooms for the subasidiary food and wide space for putting food into order.
A Study on Interpretation of Architectural Drawings on
in the Cho-Sun Dynasty
Hong, Seung-Jai ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 52~67
In Cho-Sun Dynasty, since Czhu-Ja Ga Rae be introduced in late Korea dynasty, many kinds of
by a personal or national edition had been published, based on supports of the political ideology. Especially, in the age of governing by
in 16 17c, after completion of publishing
'Geong Guk Dae Jeon (1469)' in late 15c, norm of
has prevailing and the quantity of publishment of it is more growing. Generally, the contents of these kinds of
is intended to interprete the czhu-Ja
. and furthermore, some kinds of it, descripted directly architectural institutions as a part of
through architectural drawings, with quatating chinese scholar's theory. It can be said that architectural institution on
may be a kind of political institution as a tool for execution of a ideal ideology in Confucianism. In this Context, it can be concluded that the governing-class in Cho-Sun Dynasty refered to the architectural institution on
as a ideal norm and, in constructing or organizing buildings, it was taken in account as a 'frame of reference'. The Locus of this study is on architectural drawings on
, for certifying interrelationship the institution which is executed in the drawings and the architectural characteristics of construction and organization in Cho-Sun Dynasty.
The Change in the Buddhist Architecture of the Unified Silla Period (668-935)
Kim, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 68~84
The development of Buddhist architectures of the Unified Silla period have been generally understood to have paired pagoda instead of one which had been popular until before the unification. Besides the stylistic categorization of paired pagoda system, there had been no further investigation reported concerning whether there was any detailed process of change within the development of paired pagoda style. This paper aims to identify such change inside the development of paired pagoda style, which, externally, seems to be the same pattern of site design maintained throughout the period of Unified Silla that lasted for about three centuries. Since the temple sites of study are in the same pattern of layout, the method of investigation has to be such that can identify the subtle changes that, in external appearance, are not easily discernible. Hence, this research compared the dimensions of important measurement of five temple sites to be able to clarify the process of minor changes. Among many sites of Silla temples, only five were suitable for the research since detailed measurement were possible through field research or the report of excavation. They are the sites of Sachonwang-sa, Mangduk-sa, site of Kunsuri, and Bulguk-sa. Although the five sites have the same style of paired pagoda, it is clear that there were consistant flow of change. Even though the motivation of such change were not strong enough to change the site pattern itself, it resulted continuous minor changes such as the size and location of architectures. The size of image hall, for example, was growing larger and larger as time goes on, while, the size of Pagoda was getting smaller. In the same way, the size of middle gate became smaller while the size of lecture hall became larger, although the rate of change in these cases were not as severe as that of image hall and pagoda. At the same time, pagoda was coming closer to the middle gate leaving larger space in front of the image hall. Such aspect is even more meaningful considering the fact that the pagoda, from the 8th century in Japan and China, moved outside of the major precinct. The image hall, too, moved toward the middle gate slightly so that the space in front of the lecture hall became more spacious. Such changes, of course, were not accidental but they are the same continuous motivation of change that caused the changes before the period of unification. Enlargement of image hall and reduction of pagoda, for example, represent the changing relative importance of religious meaning. Hence, it is evident that one can not easily imterprete the development of one style only by categorizing it to be one same style. In the veiwpoint of the underlying motivation of change, the fact that one style persisted for a certain period of time, does not mean there had been no change, but means that it was the time of motivational accumulation, causing minor changes within the same style, to be able to create major change coming after.
A Study on the Modern Domestic Architecture in Taegu Area after the End of the 19th Century
Yoon, Jae-Woong ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 85~100
This Study is to analize the transfiguration of the domestic architecture in the process of modernization. Thirty two houses which were located in Taegu province and constructed during the period from 1886 to 1945, were surveyed and analized about the characteristic and their transfiguration. The modern domestic architecture of Taegu province had been constructed greatly by the missonaries and Japanes. The history of development of modern houses in Teagu province can be devided into three period in accordance with the economic policy, housing style and the method of construction. The first period (1886-1910) was the beginning of the modern house. Most of the mission houses of that period were made with brick structure of korean-western style or colonial style. In the second period (1911-1926), colonial, Japanese-western, Japanese housing style were co-exited in Teagu province. During the third period (1927-1945) new method of construction using reinforced concrete and mortar was introduced, therefore the houses become row house (a two or three-family house) and much simpler.
동(東)아시아 근대(近代)에서 '건축(建築)'의 변용(變容) -중(中). 한(韓). 일(日)의 비교(比較)를 통하여-
Shin, Muramtsu ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 101~115
John Ruskin and Herman Muthesius - A Comparative Study on the Architectural Theories of the Early Modern Movements in Britain and Germany -
Kim, Bong-Ryol ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 116~136
Architectural essence of John Ruskin's discourse can resolve itself into natural beauty, craftmanship, and truth in structure, surface, and process. His theories became disciplines of modern English school, Art and Craft and Free architecture, in aspects of organic architecture, morality, and rationality. These concepts disseminated continental Art Nouveau and also became it's basic principles. But his empirical theories hated use of machine, and should find a ideal model in medieval romanticism of Gothic. Anti-machine, as a instictive guideline of English modern architecture, couldn't cope with the industrialization of 20th century, and Gothic revival interfered with creating a new style. Muthesius' discourses were taught by the power of group movements and modern concept of form in English school, originally by Ruskin. But he accepted the potentiality of machine and mass production, and stressed creating the new German style suitable with machine. With the progress of Deutscher Werkbund, his theories were advanced to 'quality' connected with craftmanship, to discourse on mechanical 'form', and lastly to 'standardization and type' for mass production. Mechanical functionalism of Muthesius and DWB were sophiscated and handed down to Bauhaus, and then finally helped establishment of the Modern Architecture and Internationalism. Both English and German modern architecture owed their contribution as well as limitation to Ruskin and Muthesius as theorists. Through this comparative study, we can see the priority of theory to practice, the theoretical justification based on insight for its society and future, and the practical character of theory itself.
The Centurality in 'Due Sacrestie di San. Lorenzo' in Firenze
Song, In-Ho ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 137~148
I have focused my study on the comparative analysis between 'Sacrestia Vecchia (Old sacresty)' and 'Sacrestia Nouva (New sacresty)' of San Lorenzo in Firenze. One is designed by F. Brunelleschi and the other is designed by B. Michelangello on the base of similar program and context. The analytic study has led me to the following conclusions: First. two saresties take concrete shapes by organizing the classcal vocabularies on the elementary forms. Second, though Michelangelo has started Bruneleschi's sacresty, he gives a more concrete form by the heightening the section. Third, the transformation of entrance and aediclues show that Michelangelo designed the new sacresty on the creative interpretation of the classical vocabulary and the context.
A Study on the Organization of Building Plans and Elevations in Andrea Palladio's Architecture - Focused on Elevations of Villas -
Kim, Chae-Jin ; Lee, Kang-Up ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 149~158
Andrea Palladio created many architectural languages based on the authority of existing Renaissance architecture. This paper aims at understanding the architectural design methodology of Andrea Palladio and the organization of his architecture through its plans and elevations. For this purpose, the principles to which he applied are studied. His architectural principles, derived from his treaties, 'Four Books of Architecture' are analysed. Based on his principles, elevations of villas are analysed and villas are categorized according to organization of elements.
A Study on the Perspective Expression in Art and Architecture of the Early Renaissance
Nam, Ho-Hyun ; Park, Eon-Kon ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 159~171
Renaissance Age is called the Period of Discovery because of great development of the economy and the science, and is known the Period of scientific analysis of Man and of interest of Nature out of a blind obedience in the Middle ages. Especially in visual art architecture, painting and sculpture, the rational spirit of Renaissance actually and distinctly communicates the meaning of Work through the scientific and mathematical expression after a finding Perspective by Brunelleschi. So the puropse of this study is to clarify the substancial meaning of Renaissance Art by investigating the expression applied Perspective to the works of Brunelleschi's architecture, Donatello's sculpture and Masaccio's painting.
The In/Out Structure : Interpretation of the Korean Architectural Space by Structuralism
Lee, Hee-Bong ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 172~182
The binary classification, Yin & Yang, can be shown in our culture. Yin & Yang thinking reveals the Up/Down (Principal/Subordinate) relation in space, and Before/After relation in time, and it shows the sequence of Contrast
Reconciliation & Unification
Contrast. For example, a follower is Yin against King, while Yang as a father against his son in our trational cognitive structure. With Left/Right, Front/Rear, and Upper/Lower, In/Out division is a basic body-space term to grasp the space position. In the traditional Korean house, when we go out from the deepest 'In', Anbang to Daechung, we may call Anbang 'In' and Daechung 'Out'. When from Daechung to Anmadang reversely, we call Daechung 'In' and Anmadang 'Out'. Namely, Daechung is both 'In' and 'Out'. This is a fallacy logic in view of western basic conception. 'The In/Out Structure, system of a series of inner spaces, is defined as a transformation of cognitive structure of Yin & Yang thinking to the Korean architectural space. The space structure is one of the important deep structure in Korean society.' The concept of the space structure, apperred in east Asia, can make humane space, for it is not a physical 'type' of typepology but related to cognitive structure of human thinking, The structure is applicable to space design in modern society, for the cognitive structure exists in living culture by transformation.
The Teaching and Practice of Architectural Design A Case-study of Two Professor-Architects in Italy
Kim, Kyong-Soo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 1, issue 2, 1992, Pages 183~199
The problem of separation between the teaching and the practice of architectural design in Korean universities has activated this study. Comparison between two professor-architects in Italy through their various activities has been made during the period of 1991-1992 in the Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia. The names of the two professor-architects are Aldo Rossi and Franco Mancuso. Their teaching activities in their architectural design class with their assistants, their background and formation of architectural theory, and two realized (and prized) works of them have been compared. The results show that there is a great difference (or oppositions) in their world-view and their attitudes towards architecture, the one as an empiricist, the other as a rationalist. But the most impressive observation must be the fact that all of them were coherent in their teaching, theory and practice, although this raises another qustion about the 'rationality' in architecture.