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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of architectural history
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Architectural History
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Colonial Tourism and Modernism in Korean Modern Architecture - Focused on Railroad Station during Japanese Ruling Era -
Ahn, Chang-Mo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 11, issue 2, 2002, Pages 7~22
Architectural style is said to be product reflecting political, social and cultural condition. Especially, in colony, architectural style is strongly related to political condition or policy. After colonization in 1910, public buildings with western historical architectural style in Japanese version were widely built by Japanese colonial government in Korea. And in the late 1920s, modernism style in architecture became dominant in Korea as like other countries. In this situation, curious buildings in strange architectural styles came out. One example is railroad station buildings with traditional Korean architectural style and timber house station having a steep roof which is widely used in North Europe such as Alps area with good sights and mountains. Generally, the colonizer says that colonization is the only way to save the colony at crisis defined by colonizer and they insist that they can help the colony modernize. To justify colonization, the colonizer attributes the colonization to the characteristics of the nation and stagnation of the traditional culture etc.. Accordingly, the colonizer tries to depreciate colony's traditional value and culture. In case of colony which has similar cultural background historically (in this case, economical exploitation is less important than other Asian colony by European power), this depreciation of traditional value and culture in Korea was done more strongly than others. At this time, we should understand special relation between Korea and Japan historically. Even though, colony's locality is adopted by the colonizer in public fields, which is based on political purpose or exotic taste etc.. In early days of Japanese ruling period, Japan never use the Korean traditional facts in public. Therefore there is no use of Korean traditional architectural style in public field. In late 1920s, some railroad station buildings were constructed in new styles without precedence in modern Korea. One is railroad station buildings in Korean traditional architectural style, the other is railroad station buildings in timber house stations having a steep roof which is different form western historical architectural style. It was mystery that Japan had constructed railroad stations in Korean traditional style which Japan had tried to destroy together with Western style railroad station buildings. This paper is made to solve the mystery why the colonizer(Japan) constructed entirely different types of railroad stations at the same time in the late 1920s and 1930s. The key point to solve this mystery is tourism. In this paper, to solve this mystery, I try to use terminology' 'Colonial Tourism' in architecture why colonial power had constructed railroad stations with colony's traditional architectural style and Western style having a steep roof which can be seen north European region.
A Study on the Comparison and Characteristics of Public Standard Housing Unit Plan before and after the Independence from the Japan Occupation
Yoo, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 11, issue 2, 2002, Pages 23~35
Even though there have been greate changes in the types and contents of the housing plan in Korea since the Modem age, it seems that the identity of traditional dwelling culture is still remains within it. The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics and features in the development of the 'Public Standard' Housing Unit Plan by comparing the differences and similarities in unit plans in housings built on Japanese occupation period and those built after the period. From the study, we can conclude as follows: 1. The public standard housing unit plans on both periods have shown the common features in the composition of their physical forms in the way that the front-row area still remains the traditional housing culture and the rear-row area reflects the desires of the modem lives. The structure of the dual-row unit plan appeared in the public standard housing plan was caused by the cultural acculturation in Japanese occupation period. 2. The public standard housing unit plans, however, show the differences in the contents and meaning in units plans with the them of the Japanese housing because of the cultural differences. These differences took placed autonomously through the change of housing plans in the modern time, and have the common features such that 1) the changes in the Maru-centered plan type differ in composition from the inner-corridor plan type used Japanese housing, and 2) the composition of the open-inner spaces in the double-row housing plan reflects the single-row outer open space In the traditional housing. All of these cultural progresses in the public standard housing unit plans was took place as the result of the inner-oriented and notional circulations derived from the modernity. However, the transformed unit plans still contains the identity derived from the variation of the traditional Korean building elements such as Maru and Ondol. In other words, those are the Maru-centered and composed housing plans with juxtaposition of the inner block and the outer block. As the conclusion, though the public standard dwelling unit plan has the similarity in the physical form, it is different in the cultural Identity and meaning from the public standard plans before the independence from the Japan occupation.
A Study on the Alteration of the Collective Housing- in Modern Times, Korea - Focused on the Settled Process of Apartment Housing -
Chung, Soon-Young ; Yoon, In-Suk ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 11, issue 2, 2002, Pages 37~56
The purpose of this study is to examine the changing process of the collective housing in Korea; focusing on the alteration process of the apartment housing, which became a representative housing type in Korea, nowadays. The alteration process of the apartment housing in Korea can be divided into three stages: the introduction stage, the trial stage and the settled stage. The introduction stage is the period between 1920, when the collective-housing buildings were constructed in Korea for the first time, and the Liberation of Korea(1945). The trial stage is the period between 1945 and 1975. During this period, common housing has been constructed. And the massive apartment buildings were started to be supplied after 1975. The settled stage is the period between 1975 and the present. The main scope of this study will be the introduction and trial stages, since a lot of in-depth studies have been executed on the settled stage. The history of the collective housing of Korea starts with City Housing of Seoul, in 1921. It is guessed that this housing was to be small-sized and row-housing type. The first-built, apartment-type building, in Korea, was Mikuni Apartment House, which was constructed as a boarding room of Mikuni Company. In the introduction stage, apartment buildings were built by Japanese architects, with Japanese housing style. Most of them were planned in dormitory type, and some of them were run as tenant houses. Most of them were constructed by bricks, but sometimes by timbers. Tadami was laid in every room and inside-corridor was located in the middle of the house. Although the major style of the apartment buildings was Japanese, the Korean dwellers of those apartments has been influencing the housing type of them. In the trial stage, apartment housing has been experienced in diverse ways. With the development of building technology, floor heating system was settled in apartment housing. This improved the amenities of apartment dwelling remarkably. Although some heterogeneous characteristics still remained in the apartments of Korea, in terms of housing style, the housing style of apartments has been changed into own style of Korea, in accordance with Korean people's life style. The results of this study give us some good implications regarding contemporary housing plan: First, if the unit size of a collective housing is small, the more space could be available for community activities. Second, when planning of collective housing, more concerns should be payed on surroundings. Third, more attention should be payed about low-rise apartment housing, and more land-friendly planning would be required.
A Reconstructive Study on the Urban Structure of the Original Masan in the Colonial Era.
Heo, Jeong-Do ; Lee, Kyu-Sung ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 11, issue 2, 2002, Pages 57~74
This study aims at examining the change of the urban space of the original Masan Area during the Japanese-forced colonial era of Korea(1910-1945) after circa 1912. That year is very important because the modern map of land was introduced. The land area of the original Masan was about
composed of small houses and shops. Colonial era could be divided into 3 periods according to the change of colonial policies. And the change of the urban space is examined according to these 3 periods. During the 1st period(1911-1920) the following 3 development occurred. 1. Land was reclaimed along the coast line by a Japanese civilian named 'Bakgan'. And his ownership of land continued until 1945. 2. A government ware house(Cho-Chang), which was the symbol of Masan harbor, was demolished and the land was divided into small lots. 3. Main artery and trunk roads(14-15m wide) were built replacing 2-3m wide narrow roads and connected to the reclamation land. During the 2nd period(1921-1930), also land reclamation and road making was more frequently carried out. And the infrastructure of the city was developed gradually. Also public buildings began to be built. Modern roads were constructed city-wide not only in the center of the city. In the 3rd period reclamation was at its peak. Especially Sinpo-Dong area located at the middle of New and original parts of Masan was reclaimed connecting 2 parts and making of a central Masan. During that time original Masan was enlarged because of reclamation. The coast line of Masan became straight from e original organic shape. Roads were constructed in the outskirts also. The size of land lots were more or less the same during the colonial era. But gradually lots were divided into smaller lots. Japanese entrepreneurs gradually occupied the central area of the original Masan until the liberation day. But Chinese ownership of land gradually diminished.