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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of architectural history
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Architectural History
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Piazza Plan of Basilica S. Pietro
Kim, Seok-Man ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 7~19
The purpose of this paper is the study on the piazza plan of basilica S. Pietro. The results of study are as follows: 1. The piazza of the basilica S. Pietro was planned in relation to building-piazza-symbol of interior piazza-street as city planning characteristic of Baroque and architectural characteristic of elliptical piazza form. 2. The function of piazza of basilica S. Pietro was planned for religious meeting of a grand scale than a piazza for the common run of people. 3. In general, the disposition, ground, elevation and section plan of the piazza of basilica S. Pietro was planned by principle of spatial and formal composition, according to axis, symmetry, proportion, division and contrast. 4. The location, scale, shape of piazza for disposition and ground plan of the piazza of basilica S. Pietro was basically decided by not only elements of Basilica building, Vatican Palace, Street and Walls of surroundings with axis of the Basilica building, but Fountain and Obelisk as existing constituent elements. 5. The elevation of the piazza of basilica S. Pietro was composed of boundary that was enclosed from wall of trapezoid piazza and gallery of elliptical piazza with equal height as symmetry. And the section plan was planned to approach into the Basilica through slope and stairs of gentle angle, utilizing of existing land form.
A Study on the Severe-Ornament of Wooden Pagodas in Silla Period - Focused on the study of the literature -
Kim, Cheong-Soo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 21~39
This study is to examine the Severe-Ornament (Vyuha :Sanskrit) of wooden pagodas in Shilla period in order to assume a detailed shape of wooden pagodas called the palace style, the multi-story style, the towered namsion style, that were built at the temples in Gyeongju during Shilla period. The Severe-Ornament had been used traditionally by installing a Buddhist image, Guardians, Sarira and by printing a color. The other hand, The roof tiles and tiles were annexed to the Severe-Ornament so as to enhance the value of the wooden pagodas. The Vyuha had been used not only to install a highly valued Buddhist image in the wooden pagodas but also to represent an important part of ritual art of Silla period. Therefore, it was possible to find out a variety of details of the wooden pagodas in Shilla period.
Sekino Tadashi and Architectural Conservation in Korea - focused on the relationship of his methodology of studying architectural history and architectural conservation in Korea -
Kang, Hyun ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 41~55
Most of researches in Korea by far on Sekino Tadashi were mainly focused on his historical view only. The main observations of this study, instead, are that; (1) his methodology of studying architectural history was closely related to his previous experiences with the conservation of the architectural heritages in Japan, and (2) his earlier activities in Korea made a significant Influence on the conservation of the architectural heritages in Korea. Sekino started his carrier after the graduation from the university by participating in the restoration sites of the architectural heritages in Japan, and his experiences at that time had founded the basis of his methodology of studying architectural history. Later, his on-site experiences were also adapted into the conservation of the architectural heritages in Korea when Korea was about to be colonized by Japan. In other words, Sekino's study on the Korean traditional architectures started from 1902 had a meaning of not only the starting point of the study on the Korean architectural history but also the starting point of the conservation of the Korean architectural heritages. Especially, Sekino's study during 1909 1912 prioritized the conservation of the architectural heritages as the main purpose of the study, and the influences of the study spanned over the entire colonial period by Japan. The influences were that; (1) Sekino's studies in 1909 1912 had outlined the colonial government's policy of the conservation of the architectural heritages, and (2) many restorations were made based on those studies.
A Study on the Ritual Ceremony and the Architectural Form of Hwaryeong-Jeon in the Joseon Dynasty
Kim, Dong-Uk ; Cho, Ok-Yon ; Jeong, Chun-Hwan ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 57~70
This study is the consideration about Hwaryeong-Jeon that enshrines Joseon Dynasty 22nd king Jeongjo's portrait of a king. Suwon's Hwaryeong-Jeon that accompanied a portrait and performed ritual ceremonies had several formalities and ceremonies which are connected with rituals. therefore, we will try to examine what relation between arrangement of building and plane composition had. And through this, it is thing to observe construction special quality that Hwaryeong-Jeon has. Joseon Dynasty's young-jeon (a hall where the royal portraits are kept) is retaining each other different state according to construction age every moment. Hwaryeong-Jeon among Joseon Dynasty's a hall of royal portraits is the construction form which is equiped well and is known for keeping the form well from the foundation to now And this building is evaluated as the standard form of early part young-jeon building of 19th century. Especially, Hwaryeong-Jeon shows the typical ritual equipments late Joseon Dynasty and at the same time has all kinds of characteristics which only we can find at Hwaryeong-Jeon. Namely, Hwaryeong-Jeon is the building which brings the design concept of the hall of royal portraits to completion as the building which enshrines single portrait of a king. After all, Hwaryeong-Jeon is evaluated as the building which can pass excellent form of late Joseon Dynasty, the hall of royal portraits building just as it is. Therefore, as I study its own style, I expect Joseon Dynasty's mind that enshrined the portrait of a king elaborately to be revealed.
A study on the Characteristics of Structural Proportion of Pillar and 'Kong-po' in 'Main Hall of Royal Palace(正殿)' of the Royal Palace
Park, Eon-Kon ; Choi, Hyo-Sik ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 71~87
4 royal palaces are currently remained from capital city (Seoul) of 'Cho-Sun(朝鮮)' period. In these palaces, 'Main hall of Royal Palace(正殿)' is the center of the Royal Palaces. The 'Main hall of Royal Palace' of the Royal Palace was the best building of that time. Therefore there were many studies about the 'Main hall of Royal Palace'. But these studies were individual studies of these 'Main hall of Royal Palace'. Therefore, this study is to analyze and compare 4 'Main hall of Royal Palace' of the Royal palaces. It is to study the proportion regarding the Diameter of the pillar, the Height, the pillar and pillar Interval's Distance, and the arrangement of 'Kong-Po(bracket sets)'. With these studies, it is to prove that the 'Main hall of Royal Palace' is the building which high construction technique of this time is expressed. Result of this study is as followings; First, the proportion of pillar height(H) to its diameter(D) average from H=8.0 to 8.5D. Only the Myeong-Jeong-Jeon omitted the 'Go-Ju(高柱)' in the 'Toi-Kan (退間)' to place Ea-Jwa(御座). Second, Second, the proportion of diameter of the pillar of 'Eoi-Bu-Pyeong-Ju(外部平柱)' and 'Nae-Jin-Go-Ju(內陣高柱)' average D1(Diameter of 'Eoi-Bu-Pyeong-Ju') =0.91D2 (Diameter of 'Nae-Jin-Go-Ju'). In regards to the height, the single floor 'Main hall of Royal Palace' and double floor 'Main hall of Royal Palace' seems to be different. The height proportion of the double floor 'Main hall of royal palace' is H1(Height of 'Eoi-Bu-Pyeong-Ju')=0.34H2(Height of 'Nae-Jin-Go-Ju') and single floor 'Main hall of Royal Palace' has a proportion of H1=0.62H2. Third, in Geun-Jeong-Jeon, with the proportion of height and diameter of the pillar, interval's distance between pillars and diameter, the pillar interval distance and height, of 'Ea-kan(御間)' from the 'Toi-Kan' is different from 'Main hall of Royal Palace'. This is because the structure of 'Toi-Kan' of Geun-Jeong-Jeon is not stable. In order to reinforce this, 'Gui-Go-Ju(隅高柱)' of the Geun-Jeong-Jeon jut out
more compared to In-Jeong-Jeon. Fourth, when comparing double floor 'Main hall of royal palace' of Geun-Jeong-Jeon and In-Jeong-Jeon, based on distance of 'Eoi-Bu-Pyeong-Ju' and 'Nae-Jin-Go-Ju' of lower level, the 'Sang-Bu-Pyeong-Ju(上部平柱)' of Geun-Jeong-Jeon jut out
more compared to the In-Jeong-Jeon and also It becomes thicker. Fifth, the arrangement of 'Kong-Po' on the front row of 'Gan(間)' had to do with the change of side 'Gan'. Even though the Geun-Jeong-Jeon and the In-Jeong-Jeon were double floors, the arrangement of the 'Kong-Po' is different because the number of side bay is different.
The Structural Lineage of Palsangjeon in Pubjoo Temple Analyzed through Gilt-bronze Pagoda in the Koryo Period
Kim, Kyeong-Pyo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 89~105
The central aim of this thesis is to see if the structure of Palsangjeon(捌相殿) in Pubjoo Temple(法住寺), a five sto wooden pagoda in Chosen(朝鮮) Dynasty, was handed down from the ancient and middle ages. This study was performed through an analysis of Gilt-Bronze Pagoda built in Koryo(高麗) period. In other words, it is aimed at analyzing which lineage the structure of Palsangjeonbelongs to as a wooden pagoda. In analyzing the structure of Palsangjeon, I attempted to find out its source from the remains of Koryo period prior to the Chosen Dynasty. Examples are the Gilt-Bronze Pagoda, built during the Koryo period. I have also examined its relationship with other existing wooden pagodas and remains. The analysis of Palsangjeon, a five story wooden pagoda in Chosen Dynasty, focuses on the following: First, I explored the possibilities of whether the structure of Palsangjeon was newly invented in Chosen Dynasty, or if it had been derived from the wooden pagodas in the Koryo period. Secondly, I tried to find out if the stable vertical planes, with a great successive diminution ratio, were derived from the middle age, i.e. Koryo period. The results of the study of Palsangjeon through Gilt-Bronze Pagoda analysis are as follows: 1. The structure of Gilt-Bronze Pagoda, a wooden pagoda from the Koryo period, is roughly classified into the accumulation type, using pipe pillars, and the one story type using whole pillars. In the accumulation type, stories are connected in either a flat format or an intervening format. The Gilt-Bronze Pagoda is mainly composed of pipe pillars, with some whole pillars. However, the central pillar was omitted in the building structure. Generally, the upper and lower stories are connected by pipe pillars in a crutch format. All the pillars, whether they are pipe pillars or whole pillars, used Naiten(內轉) technology. The Eave supporter has the Haang type(下昻) and the Muhaang type(無下昻). In most cases, high balustrades are furnished, but few tables of high balustrades have been found. The slanting roof formats have been handed down from Paekche(百濟), Silla(新羅), or Koryo(高麗). However, the structure of the octagon is assumed to be derived from Koguryo(高句麗). The structure of the Gilt-Bronze Pagoda from the Koryo period is mainly composed of accumulated flat squares, with some spire types. intervening format, the structure of Palsangjeon used whole pillars in a half story format in which upper level side pillars are installed on the lower level tie beam. From the Bronze Pagoda from the Koryo period, we can assume that the half story format of wooden pagodas that has stable vertical planes with a great successive diminution ratio was created during the mid-Koryo period at the latest and had been idly developed by the time of the Chosen Dynasty. 3. The whole pillars in Palsangjeon are also found in Gilt-Bronze Pagodas from the Koryo period. Hence, all of the pillars in Palsangjeon seem to have been handed down from the ancient construction technology. They were also used in the construction of wooden pagodas from the Koryo period. Therefore, it is assumed that Palsangjeon was constructed using the construction technology of the Chosen Dynasty that had been developed from the wooden pagoda construction technology of the Koryo period. The stable vertical planes with a great successive diminution ratio in Palsangjeon are derived from ancient Korean wooden pagodas, which have developed into indigenous Korean wooden pagodas with fairly stable vertical planes and a great design, in the half story format of Koryo and Chosen Dynasty. Therefore, it is assumed that the structure of Palsangjeon has a systematic relationship with traditional Korean wooden pagodas and is one of the indigenous Korean wooden pagoda structures. 4. In China, the intervening format has been mainly used between stories in multi-story architecture since the ancient days. At the same time, the flat format as also used in ancient and middle ages. However, the flat format was replaced by whole pillars during the Ming(明) and Manchu(淸) Dynasties, in favor of simple and compact construction. The half-story format, in which upper level side pillars are installed on tie beams, has been found in some cases, but it doesn't seem to have been the primary construction technology. Few traces of the half-story format have been found in multi-story architecture in Japan, and it has not been used as a general construction format. By contrast, the half-story format, which seems to have been derived from the Koryo period, was used as a general construction format in multi-story architecture of the Chosen Dynasty. The construction technology of multi-story architecture is related to that of multi-story wooden pagodas, but they have different production technologies. It seems that the structure of Palsangjeon did not just adopt the construction technology of multi-story architecture in the Chosen Dynasty, but it was developed from wooden pagodas in the Koryo period, including the Gilt-Bronze Pagoda. 5. Since the ancient days, most Chinese and Japanese wooden pagodas have adopted an accumulation type of structure using pipe pillars, with accumulated pointed towers. On the other hand, though most Korean wooden pagodas have also adopted an accumulation type of structure from the ancientdays, one story type using whole pillars was created in the Koryo and Chosen Dynasties. The wooden pagoda structure of Palsangjeon, with stable vertical planes in a half story format, is a unique Korean construction technology, different from the construction technologies of Chinese and Japanese wooden pagodas. This thesis clearly determined the structural characteristics of Palsangjeon. However, various remains have yet to be analyzed in depth, to establish an accurate construction technology system. In the beginning of this thesis, I had difficulty in precisely interpreting the internal structure of the Gilt-Bronze Pagoda from its appearance. However, in the process of study, the more serious problem was that there are few remains or ruins of multi-story architecture in ancient and the middle ages of Korea. Therefore, it is urgent to discover various remains in the future. This thesis succeeded in determining the structural characteristics of Palsangjeon. However, it fell short of clarifying the structural lineage of the stable vertical planes, although they show indigenous Korean architectural taste, representing the unique national emotion, and the construction format of multi-story wooden pagodas in Korea. I hope this is clarified in the future research.
Architecture as Re-Presentation of Corporeality -From G. Semper's Bekleidung to Herzog & de Meuron's Surface-
Chung, Mann-Young ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 107~122
The purpose of this study is to analyse Herzog & de Meuron's surface, which represents contemporary architectural trends toward surface. Semper's Bekleidung theory and the important architectural theories about surface were compared according to the conceptual opposition between representation and re-presentation, which is borrowed from Kastern Harris, and again Martin Heidegger. Representation means a sort of translation into a different medium. It doesn't preserve the material identity of what it represent. Re-presentation, however, celebrates the material employed. The tension between representation and re-presentation have activated the architectural history Contemporary architects have emphasized re-presentation at the expense of representation. This trends relate with digital technology, which demands surface or skin independent from depth or interior. Buildings that deserve to be called works of architecture invite us to attend to material in a different way Re-presenting its materials, the work of architecture reveals its being. Such revelation requires that materials work in a way that invites us to step back from our usual involvement with things. It's the poetics of re-presentation, which is emboded in the Herzog & de Meuron's architectural works.
A Comparative Study on the Change of the Space Arrangement for Men in the Traditional House as to Importing the Confucianism - Focused on the Upper Class House of Korea, China and Japan-
Youn, Lil-Y ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 123~134
This study is focused on a space for man in upper classes house that is one of appeared characteristics as Korea, China and Japan imported Confucianism become common cultural base in these countries. Because a space for man in these countries has the same nature represented as a typical space in a upper classes house, and this space is differentiated by regional features, a way of thinking, a way of life and social structure as well, these characteristics are compared one another. Import of Confucianism influenced formation of a upper classes house and the spaces of the house are divided by generation, sexuality and classes. A space for man become a center of the house as well as a space for reception in accordance with patriarchism because this space stands for hierarchy of the house. A space for man of each country, Korea, China and Japan, has differences; that is, Chinese Jeongbang is used as a space for family as well as for guests; Korean Sarangchae is for only men and used as a reception space; Japanese Zasiki is used just for reception. These differences among countries are caused by owner's class, a civil officer or a military officer, and this class differentiated the characteristics of reception for guest. Even though the these countries take the space for man for meeting, Chinese is for family, Korean is for ancestors and Japanese is for guests.
The Primitive Housing of the Ethnic Minorities of Northeastern China, and their Influence on Korean Traditional Houses - based on the Case Study of Five Ethnic Minorities in Heilungjiang and Inner Mongolian Provinces -
Kim, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 135~150
Historical study of Korean traditional houses have been carried, mainly, based on the geographical region of Korean peninsula. However, the case of primitive houses can not be researched according to the geographical and racial concept of modern nations. This study aims to examine the primitive houses of ethnic minorities of northeastern China, where the cultural and racial background have been deeply rooted in the history of Korea as well as Korean traditional houses. Through the field research and literary materials, the basic types of primitive houses of the five ethnic minorities could be identified. Among these types, those that have possible relationship with Korean houses, are cone shaped house, underground house, and elevated wooden house. Archeological evidences of underground houses were amply found in Korea already, but above ground evidences could not be found. However, It seems quite certain that the cone shaped houses and elevated wooden houses, too, existed in Korea as one of the earliest housing types, as can be examined in remaining examples in Korean peninsula. With no doubt, the primitive houses of Korea have strong connection with that of the ethnic minorities of northeastern China. This can be verified through the facts that the evidences of cone shaped houses, the similarities of the use of Inner space, the evidences of elevated wooden houses. Also, the combination of wooden floor and ondol, which is known to be one of the strongest characteristic of Korean traditional houses, could be originated from the combination of primitive summer house, the elevated wooden house, and the winter house, the underground house with ondol.
Particle vs. Field : The Concept of Unit Model in the Architectures of the East and the West
Kim, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 1, 2005, Pages 151~183
All architecture in the history were based on a certain concept of architectural unit that functioned as a base model of architectural design. As we know, such model was not the same in the East and the West, and therefore, their architectures are not the same. This paper aims to identify how and why such base model of the two cultural area are different. As one way of discussing this issue, the concept of particle and field, as two representative idea of the West and East respectively, the employed. This kind of discussion can not follow the way of scientific verification as method of argument. However, the understanding of such concept of unit model is crucial for the understanding of the architecture of the culture in general. In basic sense, the tradition of Western architecture is rooted in the model of particle, where, architecture is conceived to be as a independent unit standing on earth as if it is a box like object. While, the tradition of Eastern architecture is rooted in the model field, where, architecture is conceived to be a part of field organization. In present days, we are used to the model of particle as if it is the only possible model of architecture. But, in fact, what man need to achieve in their architecture and city, is the balance between the two models.