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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of architectural history
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Architectural History
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
Space(空問) and Sky-Earth(天地) - View of Space in the Architectures of the East and the West -
Kim, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 7~28
We are so used to the concept of the term 'space' that we do not question its conceptual validity. However, this paper argues that the notion of space prevailing all over the world, is not a universal concept that can be applicable to all architectures of the world, but is a particular concept that is generated from the Western way of thinking. This paper alms to identify the conceptual structure of the idea of space as it is originated in the tradition of the West, and, as an alternative view of space, tries to identify the nature of the view of space perceived in the tradition of the Eastern architecture. Comparison of the two views, that of the East and the West, and their meaning in the future of architecture, is another task to discuss in this paper. To be able to clarify the meaning of space in East Asian tradition, a set of new perspective of understanding of space was invited. They are ; 1. sky-earth(天地); insisting that the notion of space should be replaced within the context of sky, which is one half of sky-earth totality 2. energy of the air (空氣), space is not empty part inside of a building, but is a dynamic condition of air that is a part of the sky which always exist in form of energy 3. place(자리): instead of space, which, basically. is a man-made concept, idea of place is necessary, which include not only space but also earth Such concept of space which is different from the notion of space of the West, is meaningful not only to identify the idea of space in the East, but also to be able to contribute for more dynamic, varied, and balanced understanding of space.
A Study on Song Soon's Myonang-jong and the Architectural Characteristics of Nujung of 16th Century
Youn, Li-Ly ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 29~39
The Honam region has played an important role in the development of Korea poetry. So this study focuses on Song Soon among various factors of Honam architecture in 16th century. He was ahead of his times in development of Korean literature, and made buildings that become background and materials of his literature. Song Soon built Myonang-jong in Damyang for his life time and tried to design to pull in nature into his buildings. These buildings were built in beautiful landscape, and showed elegance as a retired scholar and Taoism characteristics. He provided basic ideas, that is, pulling in nature into architecture, and metaphysics morality, and his ideas also influenced Honam School Including Jung Chul. This study looks into Nujung architecture that had become materials of Myonang-jong Song Soon literature and characteristics of Honam architecture through his buildings at the same time.
A Study on Changes of the Central Part of Beomeosa Temple - Based on Photographs and Drawings -
Youn, Suk-Hwan ; Han, Sam-Geon ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 41~58
This study was started under the judgement that reviewing
A Survey Report of Korean Architecture
, which contains photographs and drawings by Sekino Tadashi and which was also made under the order of the Japanese government(1902), would make it possible to consider in detail the status of Korean buildings in the period of the Korean Empire. The focus of the study. was put on three main parts of the temple, especially the central parts. The photographs and drawings as mentioned above showed that changes in the layout of buildings in the central part of the temple were made between the period of the Korean Empire and that of Japanese occupation. Thus the purpose of the study is to investigate when changes in building layout in the central part of the temple were made and what made such changes to be caused, obtaining information necessary for future changes in the precincts of the temple. Results of the study can be summarized as follows. First, 'Seonchal Daebonsan Beomeosa feonkeongdo' and 'Gyeongsangnamdo Dongraegun Beomeosa Geonmul Jeondo' were made in a same period. While, 'Chosun Gojeok Dobo', published by the government-general of Chosun, was a collection of photographs taken by Sekino Tadashi for about 30 years from 1902 to 1933 under the order of the Japanese government. But there were few changes in the building layout of the temple shown in the three materials. Second, one of the photographs and drawings made since 1933, not contained in 'Chosun Gojeok Dobo', and discovered by this researcher was 'Seonchal Daebonsan Beomeosa Annae' which was published by the temple itself after national independence from the period of Japanese occupation, indicating the main reason of changes in building layout as mentioned above. In conclusion, the layout of buildings of the temple began to be changed on a large scale, with so-called 'Cheyongseol' ignored, when Buddhist monk Cha Woon Ho established a 7-storied sarira tower to the left of the main building in the center of the upper part in 1936. In addition, the axis line connecting between Hwaeomjong and Seonjong was also changed at that time.
Architectural Embodiment of National Identity: Finnish National Romanticism around 1900
Kim, Hyon-Sob ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 59~72
Architectural embodiment of a national identity has long been a significant topic in Korean architectural circles. For this reason, it must be helpful to examine the so-called, 'National Romanticism' of Finnish architecture around 1900 in that Finnish architects of the time struggled to embody their national identity through their projects. Considering the historical and linguistic affinities between Finland and Korea, the Finnish architectural situation draws . our additional attention. This paper aims at showing its historical background, the meaning of each type of buildings in the stream, and limitations it implies. The atmosphere of Finnish nationalist movement, which was provoked by [Kalevala] publications (1835; 1845) and shown in Karelianism, was heightened by Tsarist Empire's Russification programme of Finland in the late 19th century Architecture was one of the most important genres expressing her national identity. Finnish national romantic architecture could be divided into three. The first is a log house style for artists' studio house, motivated by the Finnish vernacular farmstead - especially by Karelian farmhouse. This type of building signifies the Finns' will to return to their motherly soil. The second is a stone architecture style for public buildings, inspired by Finnish church or castle of an early medieval time. By using roughly-cut granite as the main exterior material, buildings of this type symbolise the toughness of legendary heroes and Finns' desire for national Independence. The third type of building was based on both of the former or more dependent on architects' Imagination and creativity. However, Finnish national romantic architecture has been criticised by some critics owing to its decorative, eclectic and self-indulgent characteristics. Probably, it was not really national but rather inter-national because of the Influences of English Arts and Crafts Movement, the American Richardsonian architecture and the continental Art Nouveau. And the negative images of 'national' and 'romantic' made some historians coin other terms like 'national realism' or 'material realism'. As another limitation, one raises the low degree of its contribution to the entire architectural history. Despite these criticisms, however, this paper argues that Finnish national romantic architecture is meaningful in itself, particularly because it illustrates vividly Finns' struggle to search for their national identity and, after all, their craving for national independence.
A Study on the Front Elevation Proportion System in Traditional Housing 'An-Chae' - Focused on the Middle-High Classes' Housing in Jeonnam District -
Park, Ji-Min ; Cheon, Deuk-Youm ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 73~86
The purpose of this study is to prove the correlations among various factors what determined to formation of front elevation proportion system through making an actual survey and investigating. According to the analysis of them, we make conclusions as follows; 1, On the assumption that average distance of 1Kan(間) is 1, the height of foundation is 0.21, the height of floor from foundation is 0.24, the height of normal column from floor is 0.85, the height of eaves from foundation is 1.10. 2. Southeast faced buildings are wider than southwest faced buildings in the distance of 1Kan (間) in the range of
. The height of foundation and floor in the southeast faced buildings are higher than those in southwest faced buildings beside the height of normal column, eaves, high column in the southwest faced buildings are higher than those in southeast faced buildings. 3. As number of front Kan(間) increases, the distance of 1Kan(間) decrease and the height of eaves and high column(高柱) increases. This is cause of making a maximum needed inner space by increasing the distance of 1Kan(間). This is an wisdom for living from ancestors. 4. As number of Dori(道里) increases, the distances of 1Kan are nearly same but the height of eaves and high column(高柱) increases about 300mm, This is a natural result from an increasing of building scale. 5. The distance of 1Kan(間) in later 19C building is most wide but, the unit heights are minimal average values at year 1900 as a reference mark. After this, the height of normal column, eaves, high column are higher about
. 6. The number of Kan in front elevation, Dori(道里), and direction of building have correlations each other in proportion system of traditional housing An-Chae with significant level, p<0.05.
The Roof Construction Method of Urban Hanok in Bukchon, Seoul
Song, In-He ; Kim, Young-Soo ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 87~100
We have focused on the roof construction method of Urban Hanok in Bukchon, Seoul. The Urban Hanok, urban traditional housing type, had been evolved In modern context from 1930's to 1960's. We have confused Urban Hanok with traditional Hanok, because they have similar figures. But Urban Hanok have the characteristics as a result of the roof construction method. The purpose of this paper is to define Urban Hanok more concretely, thus we payed attention to the roof structure, specially to the comer that each roof structure meets. So we got some characteristics of the roof construction method of Urban Hanok in Bukchon. First, the roof construction methods of the roof are transformed at the corner parts, where three purlin structure and five purlin structure meet. The collision of the different roof structure has made a lot of types. Second, the roof slope of Urban Hanok is more gentle than traditional Hanok, that is caused by ornamental double eaves and awnings. Finally these characteristics are results of the compact lot size in urban neighborhood. The construction method is a inclusive word that contain materials, composition, ornament and social common sense. With the understanding on the roof construction method of Urban Hanok, we can define the identity and the value of Urban Hanok, And we can suggest the policy and the design guidelines for the reservation and rehabilitation for Urban Hanok of Bukchon, Seoul.
Ecological Features appearing in Korean Traditional Architecture and Landscape Architecture
Lee, Young-Mi ; Cheon, Deuk-Youm ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 101~115
The main aim of this research is centered on the relation between nature and humans, and is to study the ecological characteristics appearing both in Landscape Architecture, one of the currents of ecological architecture as the architectural solution on the relation between humans and nature, and in our traditional architecture. Through this study, we were able to see that our traditional architecture was influenced by our ancestor's view of nature, and that the foremost feature of our ancestor's view of nature on our traditional architecture is not conflicting with nature, but, instead it is complying with it through seeking harmony with nature. Also we could see that our ancestor's view of nature is similar to Landscape Architecture having come to the fore toward the tendency of modern ecological paradigm in that it is the representation seeking the organic view of nature pursuing the oneness among artificial structure, humans, and nature. That is, we could figure out that various ecological features appearing in modem Landscape Architecture had been represented for a long long time, in a natural fashion, In the manner of space makeup in our traditional architecture. This is the characteristic of our ecological thinking system understanding nature and humans at the same context, and it has come down not only to our everyday living but to the manner of architectural solutions as well. Through this research, we could reconsider the modern value of ecological architecture inherent in our traditional architecture.
A Study on the Exteriority of Interior in the Louis I. Kahn's Architecture - Focused on the Study of Character of Connecting Elements -
Woo, Young-Sun ; Shin, Buhm-Shik ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 117~135
This paper is a study of the possibility of experience and expression in the architecture of Louis I. Kahn by focusing on the characters of entrance, court and window/wall of his public buildings. In the course of composition, Kahn defined the entrance, court and window/wall as an connecting elements and elements of boundary. The characters revealed by these elements or rooms give the clue to insight Kahn's thought of relation of interior and exterior space or inner and outer space. Following are the characters of these elements. First, a entrance reveals the fact that inner space separates from outer space by connecting these two space and giving the value to inner space as the entity and totality like outer space. The entrance gives its ontological being to human subjects not by vision but experience and expression which is the essence of commonness, that is, Silence. Kahn made the possibility of activity amplify in this common and silent space. Second, this entrance is connected with wide and huge central space not individual spaces of interior space. This extreme procedure of entering makes human subject feel sublime of intoner space. And the central spaces becomes another exterior or another world in the inner world of architecture by the lights from above and by having the boundary wall which shows same pattern of exterior wall. Third, Kahn regarded a window as the giver of lights not as the medium of vision connecting inner space with outer. He tried to connect interior with exterior through the being and character of the light expressed in the interior. And in his buildings, interior space is connected with exterior by expressing the purpose of building, composition of inner space, structural truth and construction facts through the Form, a pattern of wall, details and ornamental joints. By practicing this thoughts in the real buildings, Kahn tried to gave aura to both the interior space and entity of architecture which is regarded as micro universe like flowers, rocks and human beings.
A Study on the Restoration Plan of Beomeosa Temple in the Late Period of Chosun
Youn, Suk-Hwan ; Han, Sam-Geon ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 137~155
This study was started with its consideration as materials showing original shapes of temple buildings in the late period of Chosun the photographs and drawings which contained in
A Survey Report of Korean Architecture
made by Sekino Tadashi through his survey for 62 days(July 5
Sep. 4, 1902). Results of the study can be summarized as follows. During the period of Japanese occupation, Beomesa temple experienced frequent changes in building layout including the transfer and removal of buildings. Such frequent change began in spring, 1936 when a Buddhist monk of Beomeosa temple, Cha Woon Ho moved Gwaneumjeon, originally located to the light of the main building, to the left of the building and, on its original site, built up a 7-storied sarira tower. Though it is difficult to say that the study provides everything about Beomeosa temple, the researcher expects that the study would be the very basis on which changes in the building layout of the temple since the late period of Chosun can be researched. In conclusion, the researcher hopes that the above mentioned restoration plan would help originally restore or enlarge temples, further transmitting such restored or enlarged establishments as valuable cultural remains from generation to generation. In this respect, the researcher expects such restoration plan to be made in continuous and more detailed ways.
A Study on the Generative Diagram in Guarino Guarini's Religious Buildings
Kim, Hong-Su ; Jung, In-Ha ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 157~175
Guarino Guarini(1624-1683) is one of great Baroque architects who developed new spatial concept in architecture. He refused to static space typically appeared in Renaissance architecture. Instead, to make it possible to generate complicate form and moving space, he made use of generative diagram. It provide him with an abstract machine to generate automatically architectural inferiority. His generative diagram consists of three types: single circle diagram, matrix diagram and longitudinal diagram. The first diagram uses single circle as primary generator and develop this by means of overlap and equiangular division. La Cappella della Santissima Sindone, Sanctuary of Chiesa di Oropa, Chiesa dei Padri Somaschi, San Gaetano are designed according to this diagram. The generator of the second diagram is nine circles in
matrix, which provide the base for the interpenetration of space in Guarini's architecture. He inspired this diagram from Kepler's
. The Churches of San Lorenzo, Ste-Anne-la-Royale, San Filippo Neri, San Gaetano are generated by this diagram. The third diagram has several circles in Lantin-cross plan. Guarini adopted this diagram because he had chances to design several churches in Northern Europe. The churches of Santa Maria di Ettinga, Immacolata Concezione, San Maria della Divina Providenza, Church without Name, San Filippo Neri are representative examples for this diagram.
A Study for the Historical Consideration of Social Economical Main Impacts and Spread In Architectural and Urban Development
Lee, Dong-Heon ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 177~195
Tough Korean architecture and urban environment has been developed for almost 100 years, it still remains various kinds of problems. Many attempts was carried out by every new plan to reduce the problems, it result in requiring more investment than before. It means all the investment for the development has been inefficient and immature to protect economic problems compared with the developed country. For the reason of economic problems it must be studied in historical cases which influenced the economic impacts, before the proposal of index with the economic theory. Searching typical architecture or urban development that brought about economic impacts can be classified into 3 cases. First case is the impact that caused the economic growth, increase, boom like the Westminster & others and the american architectures after the economic crisis. Second case is the impacts that was the origin of decline, shrink in economic as the Palace of Versailles, the skyscrape buildings in america before the economic crisis. Third case is the impact that was the both role of increase and decline in economic as the modern architecture in industrial revolution which led to the national economic growth and the gap between the rich and the poor, and as the american architecture that was the root of crisis and the revival in economic. From the case study, it is clear that architecture has relation with economics in various factors as mass production, labour, and another industries all over the history & the world. Now, architecture strongly needed not only to raise functional, cultural effect and value, but to predict and control the economic impacts with theory from further research of historical cases to policy and practise.
A Study on the Plan Type of Anchae of Folk Houses in Jeoun-Nam Province
Kim, Ji-Min ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 14, issue 4, 2005, Pages 197~211
The purpose of this study is to find out the plan type of traditional folk housing in Jeoun-Nam Province. The building time of these houses is mainly from early 19C to early 20C and about 1,000 houses have been investigated. The conclusion of this research is 1. Small house is composed of kitchen, one or two rooms and Marae(the place of storage and sacrificial rite). Big house has one more room and one more storage in comparison with the small house. Marae and Jeoungjibang(a room which is in front of kitchen) are characteristic rooms of folk house in Jeoun-Nam Province. 2. The plan type varies in Jeoun-Nam Province. '-'type is a main type of layout and it is arranged a kitchen, a big room, a Marae and a small room in order. In the big house, jeoungjibang(the third room) is added. 3. In the southwestern Island area, no room is arranged beside Marae. Marae has characteristic confucian order because it is the place of sacrificial rite. Therefore there is a great difference in comparison with other area. 4. In the mountain area such as Gurae, there are some houses which have two rooms arranged up and down in one side; that is, upside is Marae and downside is small room. This type is called Kyump Jip.