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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of architectural history
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Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Architectural History
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Dec 1993
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Jun 1993
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A Study on the Formation and Development of a Traclitional Village in San-Cheong
Lee, Kyu-Sung ; Kim, Il-Jin ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 9~24
The objective of this study is to describe more positively and concretely the entity of traditional village through the quantitative and scientific analysis process using positive data. Dan-Gye, a traditional village in San-Cheong, has been populated since more than 500 years ago because of its ideal conditions for settlement. In this study, the fluctuations on the numbers of households in Dan-Gye were analyzed from the first settlement era to the present, and the transformations of housing sites and roads since 1913 were also analyzed. The results are as follows. 1) The village Dan-Gye has a history of more than 500 years, and the first inhabitants were the Ryus. As time went by, the Ryus' power became weak gradually, but the powers of the Kwons and the Parks who had flowed later into this village became prosperous to make up a prominent family village in the late period of Cho-Sun dynasty. Such powers had reached the peak in the early period of Japanese occupation, and although the powers became weak gradually after that time, those two families have overwhelmed other families in population and possession of large houses until now. But as the confucianism in every-day life fell off and the inhabitants moved to cities, the existence of a family community became meaningless. 2) The Kwons and the Parks have possessed the large parts of the village's housing sites. As time went by, the sites have been divided and fields have been changed to housing sites for the increasing families, and such division and change have been made chiefly on perimeter areas. 3) The characteristics of the road in Dan-Gye where traditional roads existed began to be destroyed by Japanese construction of new roads, and such destruction has continued due to the bank construction after a flood and the road constructions after 1970s.
A Study on the Housing Adjustment in the First Half of Cho-Sun Dynasty - with special perspectives of microsociological approach -
Hong, Hyung-Ock ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 25~41
This study was made to analyze the housing adjustment phenomenon in the first half of Chosun Dynasty by applying Microsociological approach. By reviewing the housing adjustment theory of Morris and Winter, research model for the period was developed in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, normative housing deficit (=cultural norm-housing condition+family norm), constraints, behavioral propensities, and housing adjustment mechanism with the following results : 1. In the first half of Chosun Dynasty the size of the house, the house site and decorating items were specified by law (cultural norm) according to the social status. Although the law was constraints for the housing phenomenon, it was not applied universally. Frequantly the law was violated by the upper class. By the middle of the Dynasty the family norm became more important for the housing phenomenon than the cultural norm. 2. Efforts were made to practice the Confucianism as a cultural norm in the first half of Chosun Dynasty At that time Husband-Living-in-Wife's-House was more popular than Wife-Living-in-Husband's-House. Because the customs were against the Confucianism, the latter was encouraged by law. But it did not change. Instead a compromised system became popular in the middle of the Dynasty. The house shrine was practiced to increase the symbolism of the family, which, in turn, exerted influences in deciding the housing site (cultural norm). These cultural norm was not accepted as the family norm untill the second half of the Dynasty. These trends forced the man and woman use separate areas of the house, and formulated a hierarchic positions within a house. 3. It was shown that the settlement of Confucianism as a family norm was closely related to the popularization of the Ondol system in the house, which functioned as one of the behavioral propensities to encourage diversity of space for many purposes. Though the Ondol system was accepted as a useful heating system earlier, this became more popular in the middle of the Dynasty because the housing pattern with Ondol fitted very well with a large family system with patriarchism. Ondol system for one or two rooms substituted Ondol for all rooms in the second half of the Dynasty. 4. From the beginning of the Dynasty housing adjustment of the family was determined by the social status and by law (cultural norm). Within this cultural norm each family decided its adjustment mechanism according to its economic ability (family norm). Family norm was more important factor than the cultural norm to determine the micro-space pattern in the house. But this period witnessed the formations of new conditions by the ruling class's efforts to implement new ethics for hierarchy and sexual discrimination. According to these conditions the Confucianism overruled the family norm in the later period.
A Study on the Conservation of Historic Environment Relating to the Folk Village of HAHOE
Kim, Soon-Il ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 42~53
In the last twenty years at home and abroad, there were outcries demanding conservation of local and historic environment. HAHOE, the most outstanding folk village of our country, has drawn the attention of visitors and investigators. This study aims to clarify the conservation measure of HAHOE. The conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows : a) The most efficient way to conserve historic environment is to harmonize the old and new modern living functions of the area. b) Special and new policies should be established for the rehabilitation of historic environment. c) It is necessary to give more attention to value natural and architectural vistas. d) Unified regulations and activities of the community action group or local government are requested.
A Study on the Staffs of the Governmental Organization of Construction in the Old-Korean Empire - focused on the Architectural Office controlled by the Ministry of Finance -
Kim, Tae-Jung ; Kim, Soon-Il ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 54~73
This study focuses on the staffs of the Governmental Organization of Construction who actually led this organization. Two main points of this study are as follows; 1) The composition and appointment of staffs, before and after the Korea-Japan Treaty in 1907, are evaluated, and 2) The working and academic career of each personnel are analyzed in connection with understanding of internal characteristics of this organization. Special attention is given to Korean personel and Japanese engineers who undertook a leading role. Korean engineering staffs were very few in number. It is thought, viewing their records of careers, that almost all of them didn't have any engineering basis, and simply they had some relations to Japan. It is certain that their role in this organization was interpreters using their Japanese language ability, and their roles were only limited to non-technical areas, if any. The early engineers from Japan were selected among the officials with comparatively rich careers of the Temporary Architectural Dept. or the Temporary Engineering Dept. of Custom House in Japan. But, in later days, the quality of Japanese engineers changed to the level of premature without practical experiences who unwillingly came to Korea to have a job under the depression of construction economy of Japan. The academic careers of Japanese engineers were various, from self-taught to regural college education, but the leading engineers were from Tokyo University. The civil engineers became high-level technical officials in the Government-General after the Japanese Annexation of Korea. But, sometimes later, many of the architectural engineers became practicing architect managing design offices on private basis.
The Formation of Korean Modern Architect and its Patronage
Song, Yul ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 74~90
The genesis of Modern Architecture in Korea by Korean Architects can be explained by the Korean socio-economical condition. During the late 19c and early 20c many buildings had been constructed that contained modern function, But modern builings designed by Korean Architects appeared through the 1930s. The 'Hwoisaryung' which was a law to restrict establishing company in Korea since 1910 was extincted at 1920. Korean modern capitalists formed after 1920 could be clients of a modern buildings. The period of the formation of Korean modern architects met that of Korean modern capitalists. Korean modern capitalists commissioned Korean architects and Korean architects were able to practice only in the relation of its patron. Korean capital formed 6 per cent of total capital in Korea. Although Korean capitalists would be a patron of Korean architects, their requests of building were restricted to the commercial, the residential and the private educational buildings.
A Study on the Formation & Characteristics of Collegiate Education of Architecture in Korea from 1945 to 1961
Ryu, Jeon-Hee ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 91~112
This study aims to clarify a history and its external conditions of collegiate education of architecture in Korea from 1945 to 1961. To reveal the process of formation of architectural education of this period, my analysis is chiefly concerned with the organization and of its curriculum in terms of policies of Ministery of Education, especially focused in case of Dept. of Architecture in Seoul National University, I attempted to describe the complex interactions between the structural conditions and results within and without the education system and the more general social, economic, and political contexts that pertained during those years, 8.15 Emancipation, Korean War, and Post-war Rehabilitation period. We may summarize them in part by saying the reception in Korea of the American influence was done through educational ideas, policies, systems, and various aid programs. The social raison d'etre of architectural education in Korea has been to produce technologically skilled man in the sense of engineer.
Architectural Competition System of the Early Modern Ages - Through the Victorian Competition System -
Shin, Tae-Yang ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 113~125
I focused my attentation on two points in this paper. Firstly, I explore the relationships between the competition system and the philosophical bases in economic and social doctrines which encouraged, the architectural profession which it supported. Secondly, I intend to describe the development of the modern competition system. The economic theories were applied to architecture; these were natural laws and laissez-faire. The principles of competition and progress were never doubted. Two developments aided architects in attaining both a sense of professional identity and a way of regulating the comprtition system; these were the founding of professional societies and the emergence of a professional architectural press. The first organized effort to control the competition system was made in 1839 by the Competition Committee of the Institute of British Architects, but the problems had remained virtually unchanged by the 1880s. A code of regulations was drawn up by the RIBA in 1872, but this were much like earlier codes and recommendations. From the 1890s, the RIBA established a permanent committee to review the conditions of all competitions and authorize members to participate; the measure was paralleled in various other countries, notably in the 1911 international regulations of the CIAM.
Classical Tradition in the Modern Movements - Architectural Historical re-evaluation on the possibility of Italian Rationalism -
Yim, Seock-Jae ;
Journal of architectural history, volume 2, issue 1, 1993, Pages 126~135
Italian Rationalism held a specific position in the Modern Movements of Architecture, due to the fact that Italian Rationalism could not totally escape from the classical tradition of Italy. Until the seventies, Italian Rationalism had been criticized for having made no contribution to the progressive aspects of the Modern Movements owing to the very keeping of tradition. After the seventies, however, there emerged a movement which tries to reinterprete the Modern Movements of Architecture in relation to tradition and under this new situation, Italian Rationalism is believed to have a historical possibility of unifying tradition with modernity. This study is to show how Italian Rationalism struggled with the issue of tradition, why Italian Rationalism was under-evaluated and which historic lesson we can learn from it in the contemporary days of the revivalistic Post-Modernism.