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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Optical Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 4 - May 1993
Volume 4, Issue 3 - May 1993
Volume 4, Issue 2 - May 1993
Volume 4, Issue 1 - May 1993
Selecting the target year
Deep UV 마이크로 리소그라피를 위한 새로운 4-반사경 광학계에 관한 수차해석
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 1~8
A design of four-mirror optical system with reduction magnification 5X for deep UV (
=248 nm of KrF excimer laser) submicron lithography is presented. Initially by using the paraxial quantities, the domain of solution for
<0 (d;: distance between the mirror
is found for the system which is free from the four off-axial Seidel first order aberrations that are coma, astigmatism, field curvature, and distortion. The solution with
=2.95 (normalized with respect to
= -1) is choosen and the aspherization is carried out to the spherical mirror surfaces (
in order to reduce the axial and residual off-axial higher order aberrations. The numerical aperture of the final system is as large as 0.4, which gives Rayleigh resolution of 0.38
Amplitude Filter와 Phase Filter가 결합된 광학계의 결상특성
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 9~14
We chose Bessel beamu[
)l in order to investigate image forming property of the optical system with combined filter of amplitude and phase(CFAP). This paper investigated numerically the influence of number of nodes of these beams on the PSF, encircled energy(E), transmission ratio(TR), gain((;) for an aberrated(1aberration-free) optical system. These results showed that the property of PSF differ considerably from the one of the existing amplitude filter and that Bessel beam has super compensating effect for an optical system with spherical aberration. Particularly, the Bessel beam has less the size of central spot than the radius of Airy disk, this result can therefore be applied to the fabrication of semiconductor device.
KrF 엑시머 레이저를 이용한 웨이퍼 스텝퍼의 제작 및 성능분석
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 15~21
This paper describes the design and development of a KrF excimer laser stepper and discusses the detailed system parameters and characterization data obtained from the performance test. We have developed a deep UV step-and-repeat system, operating at 248 nm, by retrofitting a commercial modules such as KrF excimer laser, precision wafer stage and fused silica illumination and 5X projection optics of numerical aperture 0.42. What we have developed, to the basic structure, are wafer alignment optics, reticle alignment system, autofocusing/leveling mechanisms and environment chamber. Finally, all these subsystem were integrated under the control of microprocessor-based controllers and computer. The wafer alignment system comprises the OFF-AXIS and the TTL alignment. The OFF-AXIS alignment system was realized with two kinds of optics. One is the magnification system with the image processing technique and the other is He-Ne laser diffraction type system using the alignment grating on the wafer. 'The TTL alignment system employs a dual beam inteferometric method, which takes advantages of higher diffraction efficiency compared with other TTL type alignment systems. As the results, alignment accuracy for OFF-AXIS and TTL alignment system were obtained within 0.1
for the various substrate on the wafers. The wafer focusing and leveling system is modified version of the conventional systems using position sensitive detectors (PSD). This type of detection method showed focusing and leveling accuracies of about
0.5 arcsec, respectively. From the CD measurement, we obtained 0.4
resolution features over the full field with routine use, and 0.3
resolution was attainable under more strict conditions.
위상변조가 쌍안경 대물경 OTF에 미치는 영향
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 22~27
We investigate the phase modulation effects on the OTFs of a binocular objective which is made in Korea.The OTFs are calculated from design data for FOV
.The phase modulation is carried out by giving phase retardation
on the aperture. The areas where the phases are retarded
on the aperture are of an annular type. The OTFs of phase modulated aperture are also compared with that of unmodulated one. The OTFs of an aberration loaded system can be improved by proper phase modulation.
Performance Criterion of Bispectral Speckle Imaging Technique
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 28~35
In the case of an imaging system affected by aberrations which are not precisely known, the effect of aberrations can be minimized and near-diffraction-limited images can be restored by introducing artificial random phase fluctuations in the exit pupil of the imaging system and using bispectral speckle imaging. In order to determine the optimum value of the correlation length for Gaussian random phase model, computer simulation is performed for 50 image frames of a point object in the presence of defocus, spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism of 1 wave, respectively. In terms of the criterion of performance, the FWHM of the point spread function, normalized peak intensity, MTF and visual inspection of the restored object are employed. The optimum value for the rms difference
of aberration on the exit pupil in the interval of Fried parameter
is given by 0.27-0.53 wave for spherical aberration, and 0.24-0.36 wave for defocus and astigmatism, respectively. It is found that the bispectral speckle imaging technique does not give good results in the case of coma.
Model and Experiments of the Diffractio Patterns by Nonregular Periods
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 36~46
The formula of the diffraction patterns which were made by the grating with the variable periods were derived. The diffraction patterns which had the various data value of the variable periods were simulated by the IBM PC., and the characteristics of the patterns were discussed. The purposes of this study was to find the periods of the real grating and their degree of variation by using the results of the experiment.
Comparative Study on the Efficiency of the Gas Discharge Lasers - Limiting Efficiency of Metal Vapor Lasers -
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 47~56
Practical efficiencies of pulsed gas discharge lasers utilizing vaporized Au, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, TI atoms are numerically optimized for a discharge pulse of 30 ns rise time at 5 kHz pulse repetition rate. Calculated optimum operating temperatures are close to the values at which the vapor pressure of each atom is about 1 Torr and are in good agreement with experimental values reported elasewhere. The optimum charging voltage was about 4 kV for all atomic vapor lasers except the TI laser. The calculated maximum efficiencies that have been discussed for possible limiting efficiencies for each laser were considerably higher than the reported experimental values. Especially, they were as high as 6.8% for Mn laser and 15% for Ba laser that were comparable to the 8.5% of copper vapor laser, from which considerably higher efficiencies can be expected for these two lasers experimentally. But, the present calculation shows a very low efficiency of 0.058% and requires an exceptional operating condition for the TI laser.
Fabrication and Output Characteristics of Compact Capacitor Transfer XeCl Laser
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 57~65
Small XeCl laser of charge transfer discharge excitation was fabricated and output charateristics were investigated according to gas mixture ratio. Beam cross section of 2.7cm
1.5cm was obtained by constructing excimer laser which preionization is operated automatically and which has chang profile electrode. According to the component gas mixture ratio, the condition of maximum output energy, efficiency were investigated. The maximum energy, efficiency and specific energy were obtained 230 mJ, 1.6% and 1.1 J/l, respectively. The long pulse effect is observed by constructing low peaking to main capacitance ratio of 1:3.
Pulse Compression of an Additive-Pulse Mode-Locked CW Nd:YLF Laser by Using an Optical Fiber and a Grating Pair
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 66~72
Additive-pulse mode-locking (APM) was performed in a
cw Nd:YLF laser by coupling a nonlinear external external cavity to the main cavity. The APM pulsewidth was 4.5 ps and the average output power was 1.5 W. This APM pulse was compressed by an optical fiber and a grating pair to be as short as 210 fs with a peak power of 17 kW.
Transient Behaviour of Photorefractive
Crystal: Two Wave Mixing with an External A.C. Field
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 73~83
The temporal differential equation describing the build-up of the space-charge field in the presence of square and sinusoidal alternating field in photorefractive materials is solved analytically. We also measured the average two-wave mixing gain and the full temopral gain variations in a B
crystal with applied fields of up to 7 KV/cm amplitude and 1 KHz repetition rate. It has been found that the experimental measurements agree well with the theoretical results.
Temperature and DC Electric Field Dependence of Second Harmonic Generation in Mg:
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 84~89
Spatial homogenity of Mg (4 mole %):LiNb
is investigated by studying the characteristic of Second Harmonic Generation in Mg:LiNb
as a function of temperature and DC Electric Field. It is found that the temperaturs at which the intensity of the second harmonic is reduced to the first zero from its maximum for the phase matching condition is shifted linearly to the strength of DC Electric field applied to optic axis of Mg:LiNb
. From these results, the electro-optic coefficient of Mg:LiNb
is estimated to be higher than that of Congruent LiNb
by a factor of 1.5.
Mode Analysis of Silica Waveguides with Semi Circular Cross Section by using the Method of Harmonic Expansion in Finite Area
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 90~100
A computer routine for personal computer(PC/AT class) is developed to analysize the mode characteristics of silica based optical waveguides whose cross sections are of semi circular and other typical shapes. The basic algorithm used in the routine is to convert the wave equation into a matrix equation by expanding the wave function in terms of simple harmonic functions. The matrix elements are a set of overlap integrals of sinusoidal funtions with appropriate weight given by the distribution of refractive index over the waveguide cross section. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix is then computed via diagonalization. We explain some practical problems that arises when implementing the algorithm into the routine. By using this routine we analyze the mode characteristics of silica based optical waveguides of semi circular and some other typical cross sections.
Theoretical Analysis of a
Diode Laser Pumped
Doped Fiber Amplifier
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 101~107
We carried out the useful theoretical calculation for the optimum design of a 1.48
diode laser pumped E
doped fiber amplifier. The model we established is based on the rate equations of three level laser system and the overlap integral between fundamental mode L
doped area. We determined several fiber parameters (N.A., V value, fiber length, E
concentration, cutoff wavelength etc.) for the optimum design of a high optical gain. We found that our theoretical results are very useful to the design of E
doped fiber used in EDFA.
Waveguides and Their Photorefractive Properties
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 108~113
In this paper, we study the photorefractive properties of Fe indiffused
waveguides. Comparing the photorefractive properties of
with those of
, we confirm the increase of the diffraction efficiency and the sensitivity by Fe doping. Also for the photorefractive properties of
waveguides with different ambient gases, the diffaction efficiency and the sensitivity of
indifused in pure argon gases are the highest and its decay time is the shortest. Therefore, it is recommended that pure argon gases be used in Fe indiffusion process for good optical switches with photorefractive effect.
Construction of Laser-heated Pedestal Growth System for Single Crystal Fibers
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 114~119
We constructed a laser-heated pedestal growth station using a 25 W
laser to grow various single crystal fibers. The LHPG system consists of the optical system which includes a reflaxicon, an elliptic mirror and a parabolic mirror with their centers drilled, and the translation system to move a source and a seed independently. To test the system, we pulled a few ruby fibers with diameter of 600
and length of 2 cm, and studied characteristics of their photoluminescence.
Duality of Light
Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics, volume 4, issue 1, 1993, Pages 120~131
The wave-particle duality of light is studied in connection with the development of thoghts in physics. The various ideas from Einstein to quantum optics are traced and the experimental evidences for each idea are enumerated. Moreover, the delicate features in quantum mechanics are pointed out and the conceptual bases of those features are stated.