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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Volume 10, Issue S2 - 00 2001
Selecting the target year
Estimations of the
Dry Deposition Flux at Urban Areas in Korea
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~8
This study was carried out estimating the dry deposition flux of
at eight urban areas in Korea during one year of 1996. To calculate the deposition flux, deposition velocities were calculated by turbulence parameters estimated from routine meteorological data. Also, hourly averaged
concentrations which calculated from air pollution monitoring data of each city were used. The dry deposition velocities were mostly higher in the coastal areas than the other areas, which would be caused by relatively strong wind. And, they were high in the daytime because of turbulence activities. The deposition flux of
is mainly related to the atmospheric concentration. The annual average
concentration and the deposition flux were 22.62ppb and 1510.52g/
/hr at Pusan respectively. Also, the flux was higher in winter than other season, which was a significant contribution of exhausted fuel for heating. While the deposition velocity was high to 0.688cm/sec at Yosu in case of strong wind and small cloud cover, the deposition flux was high to 1597.4g/
/hr at Pusan in case of weak wind and small cloud cover.
Study on the Sound Absorbing Characteristics of Recycled Materials -Based on used Paper and Cigarette Filters-
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 9~12
In this study, development of new sound absorbent which is safety, economical and efficient with using recycled materials is tried for substitution of commercial sound absorbent. The sound absorbents, used in this investigation, were made of used paper or filters of cigarette butts. With the variation of the material densities, sound absorptions of materials were measured. The impedance tube method is used for measuring sound absorption coefficient of the new sound absorbent materials. The measured frequency range was 250Hz to 4000Hz in 1/3 octave band. The sound absorption coefficient of the commercial materials and that of the materials synthesized in the our laboratory show almost same value.
Automated On-Line Digestion System for the Determination of Total Phosphorus
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 13~19
An on-line digestion system based on the flow injection analysis technique was presented for the determination of total phosphorus. The system converts condensed and organic phosphoruses into orthophosphate that can be analyzed spectrophotometically. The reaction between orthophosphate and ammonium molybdate in a strong acid medium forms the yellow complex of phosphomolybdate which is next reduced to a molybdic blue complex by stannous chloride. The quantitation of orthophosphate is based on the absorbance of the molybdic blue. To determine total phosphorus, the digestion system was installed between the sample injector and the reaction coil with the added lines of digestion solution(potassium persulfate+sulfuric acid) and the
carrier. The system has shown that the digestion efficiencies were greater than 95% for the typical condensed and organic phosphoruses. When tripolyphosphate standards were used, the calibration data showed that the linear dynamic range extended to a concentration of 1.5ppm with the detection limit of 25ppb total phosphorus. The typical relative standard deviation was less than 2%. The proposed system was successfully applied to lake water, wastewater, and streamwater. The analytical variables such as digestion efficiency, analysis time, and reproducibility were evaluated and compared with the manual digestion method.
Application of QUAL-2E Model for Water Quality Management in the Keum River -Waste loads Allocation Analysis by Considering Autochthonous BOD-
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 21~25
The Keum river has been utilized for drinking water supply of several city including Kunsan city and is deepening pollution state due to numerous municipal and industrial discharges. The concentration BOD in river is affected by the organic loading from a tributary and the algae biomass that largely happen to under eutrophication state. In the eutrophic water mass such as the Keum river, the autochthonous BOD was very important part for making a decision of water quality management, because it was accounted for majority of the total BOD. The predict of water quality has important meaning for management of water quality pollution of the Keum river. The purpose of this study will manage and predict water quality of the Keum river using QUAL-2E model considering the autochthonous BOD. The estimation of autochthonous BOD represented that the relationship between BOD and chlorophyll a. The regression equation was shown to be autochthonous BOD=
chlorophyll a. The results of this study may be summarized as followed; The QUAL-2E model was calibrated with the data surveyed in the field of the study area in June, 1998. The calculated value by QUAL-2E model are in good agree to measured value within relative error of 7.80~20.33%. Especially, in the case of the considering autochthonous BOD, the calculated value of BOD were fairly good coincided with the observed values within relative error of 15%. But the case of not considering autochthonous BOD, relative error of BOD was shown to be 43.2%. In order to attain II grade of water quality standard in Puyo station which has a intake facility of water supply, we reduced to the pollutants loading of tributaries. In the case of removed 100% BOD of tributaries, the BOD of Puyo station was 4.07mg/
, belong to III grade of water quality standard. But in the case of removed 88% nutrient of tributaries, it was satisfied to II grade of water quality standard as below 3mg/
of BOD. For estimation of autochthonous BOD in Keum river, we are performed simulating in accordance with reduction of nutrient load(50~100%) under conditions removal 90% organic load. Occupancy of autochthonous BOD according to nutrient loading reductions were varied from 25.97~79.51%. Occupancy of autochthonous BOD was shown to be a tendency to increasing in accordance with reduction of nutrient loading. Showing the above results, the nutrient that one of the growing factor of algae was important role in decision of BOD in the Keum river. For the water quality management of the Keum river, therefore, it is necessary to considering autochthonous BOD and to construction of advanced sewage treatment plant for nutrien
Long-Term Change of Heavy Metal Concentration in the Kumho River Water
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 27~33
In order to study the long-term change of heavy metal concentrations in the Kumho river water, water analysis was conducted at 13sites surrounding the Kumho river system for 18times from September 1993 to August 1999. Analytical items for the study of water quality are Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb. The six year term studied in this work was divided into Part I and Part II, which covers the period from September 1993 to August 1996 and the period from September 1996 to August 1999, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the unit of ppm for the Part I period showed 0.032, 0.025, 0.006, 0.050, 0.053 and 0.019, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the unit of ppm for the Part II period showed 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, 0.004, 0.020, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. The heavy metal concentrations in the Kumho river water for te second period were found to be decreased by 1/32, 1/25, 1/6, 1/1.5, 1/2.5, 1/26.5 and 1/9.5 for Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb, respectively. The present results clearly indicate that the water quality in the Kumho river is improving in terms of heavy metal contaminations.
Mutagenicity of River Water of Nakdong River Estuary in Korea
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 35~39
The mutagenicity of the river water of Nakdong river estuary was determined by Ames test using the blue rayon suspension method. Samples were collected from 10 sites in the estuary once in each season of 1998. The samples collected from the sites where industrial waste discharge on May were mutagenic, but the other samples were not mutagenic. The sample collected from the site 1 located near the industrial area (Hadan-dong) were highly mutagenic in the TA98 with (+S9) and without (-S9) mix as well as in the TA100 with (+S9) and without (-S9) S9 mix, suggesting that the river water of this site is polluted by direct and indirect mutagens of frame-shift type as well as direct and indirect mutagens of base-replacement type. The positive mutagenicity, although relatively low, was also detected in TA98 with (+S9) and without (-S9) S9 mix in the extract of the site 4 near the industrial area(Jangrim-dong), suggesting that the primary mutation type is frame-shift. The negative mutagenicity from July to December at the sites (1-4) near the industrial area seems to be affected by the low economic growth rate in 1998 in Korea. On the other hand, the negative mutagenicity in all extracts collected from the sites 5-10 near the residential area where living sewage discharge, suggests that the river water was not polluted by mutagens.
The Structure of Phytoplankton Community in the Middle-Lower Part of the Naktong River
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 41~45
This study was carried out to investigate phytoplankton community structure in the Naktong river from January to December in 1999. In water quality, average value of pH were 8.1, BOD 2.5mg/
, COD 5.0mg/
, Chl-a 41
, respectively. Phytoplankton were identified 42 genera 76 species. Among these, diatoms were 39 species(51.3%), green algae 25 species(32.9%), cyanobacteria 4 species(5.3%), dinoflagellates 4 repectively. The highest standing crops were 33,023 cells/
in February at the Mulgum and the lowest 79 cells/
in March at the Goryung. Also, Standing crops were increased with proceeding from middle part to lower part. Seasonal succession of phytoplankton represented that Stephanodiscus hantzschii was dominant species in winter, Cyclotella menaghiniana and Synedra acus in spring, C. meneghiniana, S. acus, Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima in summer, and A. granulata var. angustissima and C. meneghiniana in autumn. Ecological important species were 4 species, that are Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra acus, and Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima. In the community analysis, dominance indices ranged from 0.434(August, Namji) to 0.999(January, February, Mulgum) and diversity indices from 0.026(February, Mulgum) to 3.073(September, Namji). According to the similarity index among the stations, it was generally defind as two areas such as middle(Goryung, Namji and Samryangjin) and lower part(Mulgum).
Study on The Salinization in Groundwater of the Eastern Area of Cheju Island
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 47~58
According to the results of the groundwater quality investigation about 230 holes all over the country, the groundwater which was in excess of standard grows larger every year and closed holes increased to 23,457 holes in 1997 from 15,724 holes in 1996. This is the major reasons that water quality contamination, shortage of water quantity, increasing of salinity and so on. There are 7 groundwater salinization sources which are condisered as most important on a regional level. And among theses the Cheju Island groundwater salinization sources are (1) halite solution, (2) natural saline groundwater, (3) sea-water intrusion. The method of taking an isotopes is one of research methods of the origin of groundwater salinization and is used in so many studies because it has very high confidence.
and so on in an isotopes are frequently used in the method of them. Consequently on this study we analyzed major ions and
in groundwater, sea-water and rain of the eastern part of cheju island known as contaminated site from long time ago to examine the origin of groundwater salinization. Relation ratios of the major ions versus chloride ion shows similar tendency to sea-water. This indicates that sea-water entered the groundwater layer. And amount of
in holes of the land side is higher than of the sea side. Relation of chloride ion versus
H indicates negative character. Therefore we can think that the reason of groundwater salinization of this part is natural saline groundwater and halite solution by relation
Optimal Operation Condition of Spray Drying Sorber for Simultaneous Removal of Acidic and Organic Gaseous Pollutants
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 59~64
The effect of major operating parameters in spray drying sorber(=SDS) for automatic control for the simultaneous removal of acidic and organic gaseous pollutants from solid waste incinerator was performed. The field experiment was carried out in pilot scale test for the quantification of major operating parameters of hydrophilic and the hydrophobic pollutants. The removal efficiencies of
and HCI in the 5wt% slurry condition were being increased with the increase of the stoichiometric ration which is the molecular ratio of lime to the pollutant concentration, and with the decrease of inflow flue gas temperature in the pilot SDS reactor. The removal efficiency along the height of spray drying sorber was closely related to the temperature profile, and more than 90% of total removal efficiency was achieved in an absorption region. For the removal of acidic gas the optimum operating condition considering the economics and a stable operation is the 5wt% of slurry concentration, 1.2 of stoichiometric ratio and 25
of inflow flue gas temperature. For the organic gases of benzene and toluene the removal efficiencies were 20-60% which is much lower than that of acidic gas. The best removal efficiency was obtained at 1.5 of stoichiometric ratio and 25
of inflow flue gas temperature. The organic\`s removal efficiency along the height of spray drying sorber was quite different from that of acidic gas, that is, more than 60% of the total removal efficiency for benzene and 90% of the total removal for toluene were achieved in the dried adsorption region, which was formed at the lower or exit part of the reactor.
A Study on Fluid Dynamics for Effect of Agitation Velocity on Nutrients Removal in High Rate Algae Stabilization Pond
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 65~71
HRP(high rate pond) which had kept the manufactured clay of 3cm-thickness as benthic clay in reactor and the 6 flat-blade turbine as impeller for agitation was named HRASP(high rate algae stabilization pond). And the experiment for treatment of artificial synthesis wastewater containing COD :300mg/
-N : 300mg/
, T-P : 9mg/
as nutrients was been performed successfully. This reactor was been operated under conditions : 24hrs.-irradiation and water temperature,
and pH 7 and agitation velocity, 15, 30, 45rpm and the effect of agitation velocity on algal bioaccumulation of nutrients was been studied with view point of fluid dynamics. The next followings could be obtained as results. 1. The agitation with a turbine impeller blade in HRASP makes clay particle indicate superior suspension effect by means of forming of excellent curl/shear flow in reactor. 2. The excessive suspension of clay particle which is created at 45rpm as rotation velocity of impeller blade of turbine disturbs the light penetration and algal photosynthesis reaction. 3. Efficiencies for removal of nutrients come out as COD : 93.9%~94.3%, (
) : 81.9%~99.0%, T-P : 46.8%~53.6%. 4. Kuo values of
for algal growth come out seperately as 15rpm :
. 5. Kuo values of
for removal of N, P come out seperately as 15rpm :
, 30rpm :
. 6. It can be guessed easily that the excessive agitation can inhibit the algal and bacterial symbiotic reaction if it is considered that micro organism\` sense to preservation of life is relied on natural function of metabolism. Therefore the studies for this matter should be followed continuously.
Effect of Environmental Factors on the Properties of Polymeric Material(II) : Temperature and Ozone Exposure Time
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 73~77
This study examined blends of styrene butadiene rubber(SBR) and chloroprene rubber(CR) prepared from an open 2-roll mill following the conventional polymer blend method for a wide range of the blend composition. Rubber vulcanizates were manufactured by hot press and then mechanical properties, heat and ozone resistance of the specimens were examined. Due to the post cure during the aging test, hardness of vulcanizates was increased. It was found that the undesirable characteristics of heat and ozone resistance of pure SBR was significantly improved through the blending of SBR with CR.
Responses of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Ascorbate Peroxidase in Chloroplasts to Water Stress
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 10, issue 1, 2001, Pages 79~84
To assess resistance of transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in chloroplasts to water stress, changes in leaf water potential, turgor potential, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were measured. Leaf water potential in all plants remained high up to day 4 after withholding water but thereafter decreased markedly. In spite of a remarkable decrease in leaf water potential, some of transgenic plants maintained higher turgor potential compared with control plant on day 12. In particular, the transgenic plant expressing MnSOD showed an outstanding maintenance in turgor pressure by osmotic adjustment throughout the experiment, resulting in high stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, among transgenic plants, osmotic potential was reduced more effectively in multiple transformants such as the double transformant expressing both MnSOD and APX, and the triple transformant expressing CuznSOD, MnSOD and APX than single transformants. Consequently, further research is needed to get general agreement on the tolerance of transgenic plants to water stress at different growth stages for each transgenic plant.