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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 11, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 11, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 11, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 11, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 11, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Jun 2002
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Heavy Metals in Leaves of Roadside Trees in Daegu City
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1189~1193
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1189
This study was conducted to determine the contents of heavy metals in leaves of roadside trees according to different growth stages in Daegu city. The orders of heavy metal contents in leaves of roadside tree and soil were Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd and Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in leaves of roadside trees and soil showed an increasing tendency as the levels of traffic volume increased. The contents of heavy metals in loaves on October were higher than those on May. Zelkova serrate and Ginkgo biloba showed high contents of Cr, Cd and Pb.
Estimation of dose rate using radiative transfer equations
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1195~1204
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1195
We calculated dose rate using radiative transfer equations to consider radiative processes distinctly. The dose rate at Pohang(36°02'N, 129°23'E) was calculated using measured ozone and meteorological data and two-stream approximations(quadrature, Eddington, delta Eddington, PIFM(practical improved flux method), discrete ordinate, delta discrete ordinate) are used in solving equation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most compatible radiative transfer approximation for simulating the radiative and photochemical processes of atmosphere through comparision between calculated and measured values. Dose rate of the biologically effective irradiance in the region 0.28-0.32 U m showed the highest value when quadrature and Eddington was used and lower value on condition that delta scaling was applied. Correlation coefficient between dose rate at surface using radiation transfer equation and measured UV-B at Pohang was 0.78, 0.79 and 0.81 when delta Eddington, PIFM and delta discrete ordinate were used. Also, in case of above approximations were used, MBE(Mean Bias Error) was within -0.3MED/30min and RMBE(Relative Mean Bias Error) was below 10% between 1200 LST and 1400 LST Approximations which are compatible in estimating radiative process are delta Eddington, PIFM and delta discrete ordinate. Especially, in case that radiative process is considered more detail, delta discrete ordinate increased the number of stream is proper.
The Variation of Water Quality due to Sulice Gate Operation in Shiwha Lake
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1205~1215
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1205
To evaluate the change for water quality after the water gate operation in Shiwha lake, in situ survey were conducted on september in 2000 and January, march, jane in 2001. Chemical characteristics and eutrophication level was estimated from the survey data. The water quality of the Shihwa lake was greatly affected by pollutant load from rainfall, and formation of stratification in summer and winter was increased to effect on nutrient release from sediment. Especially, high concentration of chlorophyll-a was occurred in autumn, due to increased nutrient, high water temperature and low salinity after rainfall runoff. The mean concentration of DIN, DIP were 0.346mg/L, 0.0217mg/L in surface water and 0.826mg/L, 0.0415mg/L in bottom water, respectively, which were over III grade of seawater standard. Also high percentage of ammonia nitrogen to DIN in bottom water for autumn and winter was affected by released nutrient from sediment. Correlation analysis of chlorophyll-a versus TSS was shown that organic matter was affected by autochthonous organic matter stem from the algae, these factor showed reverse correlation about salinity. Closely correlations among to the water quality constituent in continuity survey was appeared. The results of eutrophication index estimation showed the high potentiality of red tide occurrence in Shiwha lake, particularity in summer or fall. Overall water quality was greatly improve to compared with measuring data during 1997~1998 at the beginning water gate operation, which reported by KORDI. Therefore, to improve of water quality in Shiwha lake, we need to establish of management plan about nutrient release from sediment, rainfall runoff, maximum of seawater exchange.
A Study on the Determination of Water Storage-Supply Capacity of Agricultural Reservoir
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1217~1226
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1217
This study aims at the effective estimation of water supply capacity of small scale reservoir and the proposal of the data which is necessary to establish the water resources management plan of down stream area of the reservoir in the future by comparison and examination about reservoir operation technique for the security of agricultural water in small scale reservoir. The result of flow calculation by Tank model is used for the input data as the inflow data which is needed for the analysis of water supply capacity. Stochastic method, simulation method, and optimization method are used to examine the water supply capacity, and water security amount is compared with each method. From the analyses of water supply capacities by each method, slightly different results are shown in spite of the effort to compare them equally using input data such as inflow data under equal conditions, and the comparison of water supply capacities by each method are as follows; linear planning method, simulation method, and transition probability matrix method in the order of amount from the largest. It is thought that the simulation method in which comparatively reasonable application of the inflow data is possible and is simulated in successive time series dam operation of the three methods used in this study thus, simulation model is proper to estimate the water supply capacity of agricultural small scale reservoir. And it is judged that the heightening of efficiency of water resources utilization according to the development of downstream area of dam may be possible using the upward readjusted water supply amount of
at 95% and 90% supply reliability respectively which are above the planning water supply amount of
ton when the simulation method is introduced as the standard.
The Analysis of Water Supply Capacity using Reliability Criteria - for the Nakdong River Basin -
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1227~1233
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1227
In general, the evaluation of water supply capacity is important factor to establish various establishment of water resource supply plan include water resource security and determination of dam's mass. But former researchs about estimation of water supply capacity were lack in continunity of evaluation basis, and didn't excute analysis on reliability criteria also. In this study, Nakdong river was selected for study basin, and then water supply capacity was analyzed by HEC-5 model using identical reliability criteria.
Numerical simulation of wet deposition flux by the deposition model
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1235~1242
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1235
The purpose of this study is to estimate wet deposition flux and to investigate wet deposition characteristics by using the ADOM model. Wet deposition flux of highly reactive
is estimated by applying observed meteorological parameters and concentrations of chemical species to the ADOM model. Wet deposition is largely dependent on large scale precipitation and cloud thickness. Wet deposition flux of sulfate depends on
oxidation in clouds. When large amount of
is converted to sulfate, deposition flux of sulfate increases, but wet deposition flux of
is small. On the whole, the pattern of sulfate wet deposition flux agrees with the typical pattern of sulfate wet deposition that is high in the summer(July) and low in the winter(January).
Characteristics of Concentration Distribution of Coastal Urban Air Pollutants
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1243~1252
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1243
This paper aims to find the characteristics of concentration distribution of coastal urban air pollutants. For this purpose, It was used the daily meteorological data and the hourly concentration data for
in Busan metropolitan city from 1994 to 1996. It was investigated the annual and monthly distribution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration at each site in Busan, and also investigated the characteristics of concentration change of air pollutants with time under the sea breeze. As a results, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and ozone tend to be increased every year and nitrogen dioxide concentration is higher than ozone concentration at all sites in Busan. The concentration of ozone is high in summer season and low in winter season, but the concentration of nitrogen dioxide have a reversed trend. The monthly peak concentration of ozone occurred in April and September, while the monthly minimum concentration of nitrogen dioxide occurred in August. Their trend were identified by sites near the coastline than sites stands apart from the coastline. The sea breeze occurred annual mean 81 day in Busan from 1994 to 1996. The main wind direction of sea breeze was classified into southwesterly and southeasterly. In case of southwesterly, It was pronounced the south wind and southwest wind. In case of southeasterly, the occurrence frequency of east wind was high. Especially, the concentrations of urban air pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen dioxide, were high on time which the sea breeze flow, and the areas that ozone concentration was high moved from outside part to central part of city with time. In costal urban such as Busan, the wind direction of sea breeze is influenced the change of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration on time which the sea breeze flow at each site and also influenced the change of air pollutants concentration of sites on the pathway of sea breeze.
Characteristics of Diurnal Variation of the Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration in High-Ozone Episode day in Daegu
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1253~1259
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1253
This study analyzes the surface ozone, NO and
concentration data from 1997 to 1999 in Daegu. It investigates effect on precursor during high-ozone episode days. The high-ozone episode is defined when a daily maximum ozone concentration is higher than 100 ppb(ambient air quality standard of Korea) in at least one station among six air quality monitoring stations. The frequency of episodes is 13 days(33 hours). The frequency is the highest in May and September, and the area with the highest frequency is Nowondong and Manchondong. The average value of daily maximum ozone concentration with high ozone episode is 81.6 ppb, and that of 8-hour average ozone concentration is 58.6 ppb. It means that ozone pollution is continuous and wide-ranging in Daegu. The daily variation of NO,
in high-ozone episodes are inversely proportional one another. Nowondong an industrial area, is affected by pollutants that are emitted from the primary sources, while Manchondong a residential area, is affected by the advection of
or by the primary pollutants like VOCs.
Characteristics of Organics and Nitrogen Removal with the Recycle Ratio in Anoxic / Oxic Packed Bed Process
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1261~1265
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1261
This study was focused on the investigation of the characteristics of organics and nitrogen removal with the recycle ratio in anoxic/oxic(A/O) packed bed process that consisted of the anoxic reactor and the aerobic reactor. As increasing the recycle ratio by 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, the COD removal efficiency increased by 94.0%, 98.5%, 98.8% respectively. The aerobic reactor showed the perfect nitrification efficiency by 98.5%, 99.2%, 98.0% respectively. The T-N removal efficiency with the recycle ratio, increased by 56%, 67%, 70% respectively. As increasing the recycle ratio by 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, T-P removal efficiency decreased by 62.1%, 57.4%, 51.3% respectively. The process by releasing the stored phosphorus in the anoxic reactor and uptaking the excess phosphorus in the aerobic reactor, occurred well comparatively when recycle ratio is 0.5. But this process did not occur when the recycle ratio is 1.0 and 2.0. And optimum pH of nitrification was about 6~7 and alkalinity decreased as nitrification rate increased. As increasing the recycle ratio in the anoxic reactor, DO concentration and ORP increased.
Effect of Ozone Treatment for Nakdong River Raw Water - II. Removal of VOCs and Algae in Raw Water by Conducting Batch Test of Ozonation Experiments -
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1267~1274
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1267
This study was carried out to evaluate the pollutant removal efficiencies of the advanced drinking water treatment using ozonation process. For raw water, Nakdong River was used. By conducting batch test of ozonation, the following results were obtained. When ozone dosage of
was used, ozone transfer and utilization efficiencies of the ozonation were 94 to 92%, respectively. Removal efficiencies of single VOC compound or mixed VOC compounds in the raw water were 80% to 90% by the ozonation with
dosage and 10 minutes contact time. Removal efficiencies of ABS by the ozonation with
dosage and 20 minutes contact time were 83% to 96%, respectively. Almost 67% of chlorophyll-a at the concentration of
was removed by ozonation at ozone dosage of
for 20 min. Considering the efficiency of ozone utilization and water treatment, the most effective ozonation could be obtained with high ozone dosage and short contact time.
A study on the prediction of the generation of domestic sewage by improvement of water demand estimation
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1275~1279
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1275
This study was performed to improve water demand estimation and analize correlation between generation of domestic sewage and domestic water use. To improve the prediction of water demand estimation, new water demand equation was developed. The results is as follows.
By using the statistical analysis of the "generation of domestic sewage" and "domestic water use", the regression equation between them is formed. The result is as follows. Generation of domestic sewage : 0.8487
Domestic water use + 684.57 (
= 0.972)>$R^2$= 0.972)
Evaluation of Water Quality in the Keum River using Statistics Analysis
Kim, Jong-Gu ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1281~1289
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1281
This study was conducted to evaluate water quality in the Keum River using multivariate analysis. The analysis data in Keum river made use of surveyed data by the ministry of environment from January 1994 to December 2001. Thirteen water quality parameter were determined on each sample. The results was summarized as follow; Water quality in the Keum River could be explained up to 71.39% by four factors which were included in loading of organic matter and nutrients by the tributaries (32.88%), seasonal variation (16.09%), loading of pathogenic bacteria by domestic sewage of Gapcheon (13.39%) and internal metabolism in estuary as lakes(9.03%). For spatial variation of factor score, four group was classified by each factor characterization. Station 1 and 2 was influenced by Daechung dam, station 3 was affected by domestic sewage of Gapcheon, station 10~12 was affected by estuary dyke and the rest station. The result of cluster analysis by station was classified into four group that has different water quality characteristics. In monthly cluster analysis, three group was classified according to seasonal characteristic. Also, in yearly cluster analysis, three group was classified. It is necessary to control the pollutant loadings by Gapcheon inflow domestic sewage in Daejeon city for the sake of water quality management of Keum river.
Nutritive Quality of the Crude Organic Fertilizer Produced with Coastal Aquaculture-Ground Bottom Sediments, Organic Wastes and Alkaline Stabilizers
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1291~1298
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1291
To utilize coastal aquaculture ground bottom sediment in which concentrations of harmful pollutants are low and organic content is high as an organic fertilizer alkaline stabilizers such as CaO, Oyster shell, Mg(OH)
were added to the bottom sediment organic additives of livestock or food wastes. Nutritive qualities of crude fertilizers were measured to examine effects of alkaline stabilizers and organic waste additions. The Mg(OH)
-added crude fertilizer had significantly lower total carbon(T-C) and nitrogen(T-N) content, reflecting the dilution effect due to great amount of Mg(OH)
addition. However, the addition of oyster shell had no significant effect on the T-C and T-N content of the fertilizer.
O content was considerably higher in the mixed sample of aquaculture ground bottom sediments and livestock wastes than in the mixture of the sediments and food wastes, resulting from higher
O content in livestock wastes. Addition of Mg(OH)
increased the content of MgO In the crude fertilizer but significantly reduced the content of other nutritive elements such as
O and CaO. Addition of oyster shell as an alkaline stabilizer seemed to have the advantage of saving time and expenses far dryness due to its role as a modulator of water content. Moreover, additions of effect Mg(OH)
decreased the concentrations of heavy metals in the fertilizer by the dilution while additions of oyster shell had no influence on heavy metal concentrations in the fertilizer.
Some heavy metal concentration of surface sediments from the southwestern coast of Korea
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1299~1305
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1299
Thirty sediment samples of the <63
fraction collected from the southwestern coast of Korea were analysed for their heavy metal (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) concentration. The results show that sediment texture plays a controlling role on the total metal concentrations and their spatial distribution. A single lM HCl extraction procedure was used in order to assess the environmental risk of heavy metals in bottom sediments. The non-residual fraction was the most abundant pool for Mn and Pb in most samples, which means that this metals are highly avaliable in these sediments. Cr, Ni, Fe, Co, Zn and Cu were mainly associated with the residual fraction, suggesting that their concentrations are controlled significantly by transport processes with the fine particles as carriers from diffuse pollution source. Concentration enrichment ratios(CER) were calculated from the non-residual contents and their values allowed us to classify the sediments according to their environmental risk.
Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Natural Antimicrobial substance on Salmonella enteritidis using Response Surface Analysis
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1307~1313
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1307
This study was performed to investigate the single and combined effect of concentrations of garlic juice according to the pH and temperature on the growth of Salmonella enteritidis in brain heart infusion broth, and to develope Response surface model for the effect of concentrations of garlic extract. The results of electric conductibility of Salmonella enteritidis growing in the range of incubation temperature (
), pH (5.5~9.0) and concentration of garlic Juice (0~0.8%) showed that a badge with high temperature had low D.T.value and concentration of garlic extract were significantly correlated with D.T.value (p<0.01). Growth of Salmonella enteritidis in the condition of
and pH 7.0 presented the lowest D.T.value.
Control of Enzymatic Degradability of Microbial Polyester by Surface Modification
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1315~1320
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1315
Since the enzymatic degradation of microbial poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate] (P(3HB-co-3HV)) initially occurs by a surface erosion process, a degradation behavior could be controlled by the change of surface property. In order to control the rate of enzymatic degradation, plasma gas discharge and blending techniques were used to modify the surface of microbial P(3HB-co-3HV). The surface hydrophobic property of P(3HB-co-3HV) film was introduced by CF
H plasma exposure. Also, the addition of small amount of polystyrene as a non-degradable polymer with lower surface energy to P(3HB-co-3HV) has been studied. The enzymatic degradation was carried out at 37
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of an extracellular PHB depolymerase purified from Alcaligenes facalis T1. Both results showed the significant retardation of enzymatic erosion due to the hydrophobicity and the enzyme inactivity of the fluorinated- and PS-enriched surface layers.
Behavior of Gaseous Volatile Organic Compounds Considered by Density-Dependent Gas Advection
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1321~1326
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1321
A numerical model is investigated to predict a behavior of the gaseous volatile organic compounds and a subsurface contamination caused by them in the unsaturated zone. Two dimensional advective-dispersion equation caused by a density difference and two dimensional diffusion equation are computed by a finite difference method in the numerical model. A laboratory experiment is also carried out to compare the results of the numerical model. The dimensions of the experimental plume are 1.2m in length, 0.5m in height, and 0.05m in thickness. In comparing the result of 2 methods used in the numerical model with the one of the experiment respectively, the one of the advective-dispersion equation shows better than the one the diffusion equation.
Characterization of Cork Biofilter
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1327~1331
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1327
The cork have been preferred over the conventional materials, zeolite, ceramics, and lignite as a biofilter medium. During the 6 months of operation, the performance of the cork biofilter was considered good with 150ppm of mixture BTX vapor efficiencies greater than 90% at 60 second of EBCT. It was observed 56 % of removal efficiency under transition conditions at first stage, and then the removal efficiency was increased to above 90 %, and the sustainability of removal efficiency was maintained. At second stage, the performance of cork biofilter was not decreased 90 % efficiency with 150 ppm BTX at 30 sec. EBCT. The production of
due to microbial respiration was increased to the 40 % on the operation of cork biofilter
A study on the measurement of nutrients release from sediment
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 11, issue 12, 2002, Pages 1333~1337
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2002.11.12.1333
A significant fraction of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus released from sediment are utilized by primary production in the shallow water of coast and lake. The purpose of this study is to introduce the mechanism of nutrients release from sediment and to introduce the methods of the measurement of nutrient released from sediment. One approach is to calculate nutrients released from sediment by a concentration gradient between sediment pore waters and overlying water based on the Fick's law. The other approaches of measurement are the undisturbed sediment core experiments and measurement of nutrient released from sediment by the in situ chamber equipment.