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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
Optimum Operation of a PVDF-type Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor for Continuous Sewage Treatment
Shin, Choon-Hwan ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1315~1322
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1315
A membrane bioreactor (MBR) was designed using polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF)-type hollow fiber membrane modules with a treatment capacity of 10 ton/day. A pilot plant was installed in a sewage treatment plant and was operated with an intermittent aeration method which avoids any concentration gradient of suspended solids (SS) in the MBR. For continuous operation, the pilot plant was first tested with influent (mixed liquor suspended solid:MLSS of 1000-2000 mg/L) of aeration tanks in the sewage treatment plant. The MBR was pre-treated with washing water, 10% ethanol solution, 5% NaOCl solution and finally washing water, one after another. To demonstrate the effect of the MBR on sewage treatment, compared with conventional activated sludge processes, we investigated the relationships among permeate amount (LMH), change in operation conditions, influent MLSS level and sludge production. It was found that the optimum aeration rate and suction pressure were
/min and 30~31 cmHg, respectively. Under stable conditions in aeration, suction pressure, influent flow rate and drainage, the SS removal efficiency was more than 99.99% even when the MLSS loading rate changes. Compared with conventional activated sludge processes, the MBR was more effective in cost reduction by 27% based on permeate amount and by 51.5% on sludge production.
Variations in Marine Environments and Phytoplankton Community around Mokpo Harbour
Cho, Eun-Seob ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1323~1336
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1323
This study was carried out to determine marine environments and phytoplankton community around Mokpo harbour on March to November during the period of 2004-2009. The remarkable fluctuations of marine environments were shown around Mokpo harbour depending on monthly and yearly. Among seasons, summer was a great that was associated with extremely releasing the freshwater from Youngsan River Weir, contributing to effect the fluctuations of water quality. Nevertheless of monthly and yearly, the molecular ratio of N:P was always shown in above 16 that was mainly attributed to freshwater discharge on March to November. This indicates that phosphorus playes an important role in limiting factor as growth in phytoplankton. During this study, Skeletonema costatum was found to be richer than the other groups of diatoms in terms of abundance and species number. Mokpo harbour, with the presence of a narrow avenue for exchange with offshore waters, has limited growth in phytoplankton, but this species is able to well adapt and fast grow under even high level of suspended solid and low intensity of light compared with other species. The discharge of freshwater is associated with significantly fluctuation of marine environments in this region, but it does not affect the quantitative and qualitative distribution of phytoplankton. It is necessary to persistently monitor based on water quality and phytoplankton community.
Environmental Characteristics of Habitats of Iris odaesanensis Y.N.Lee
Cheon, Kyeong-Sik ; Han, Jun-Soo ; Seo, Won-Bok ; Kim, Kyung-Ah ; Yoo, Ki-Oug ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1337~1353
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1337
This study intended to investigate environmental factors including soil and vegetation in order to understand the environmental and ecological characteristics of 12 different habitats of Iris odaesanensis. These habitats, according to investigations, are mostly located at elevation of 280 m to 1,555 m with angles of inclination ranging from 2 degree to 30 degrees. A total of 273 vascular plants are identified in 23 quadrates of 12 habitats. Dominant species of woody plants in 12 habitats are represented as Quercus mongolica in the tree layer (T1) and the subtree (T2) layer, and Lespedeza maximowiczii, Lindera obtusiloba, Rhododendron schlippenbachii in the shrub (S) layer. The importance value of Iris odaesanensis is 9.65%, as regards the herbaceous layer, and 6 highly ranked species such as Carex siderosticta (3.92%), Meehania urticifolia (2.67%), Spodiopogon cotulifer (2.58%), Aconitum pseudolaeve (2.51%), Carex bostrychostigma (2.28%) and Disporum smilacinum (2.09%) are considered to be an affinity with Iris odaesanensis in their habitats. The degree of their average species diversity is 1.32, and that of dominance and evenness are 0.08 and 0.89, respectively. The type of soil is sandy loam and loam, and the average field capacity of soil is 28.31%. Their average organic matter is 16.71%, soil pH 5.29, and available phosphorus is 9.29%. Correlation coefficients analysis based on environmental factors, vegetation and soil analysis shows that the coverage of Iris odaesanensis is correlated with pH and dominance, and species richness is positive related with species diversity.
Environmental Change and Its Enhancement of a Bay Sediment by Using Useful Microbial and Chemical Treatments
Cho, Dae-Chul ; Bae, Hwan-Jin ; Lee, Jung-Yeol ; Kwon, Sung-Hyun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1355~1362
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1355
This study was carried out in order to observe how the bay sediment would be changed with microbial treatments and a chemical oxidant like
. The sediment during the treatments was analyzed in terms of pH, ORP, volatile organics content, COD, AVS, T-N, and T-P. With
treatment, pH was kept over 9.66 and ORP ranged from +4.70~+46.0, which meant an aerobic state meanwhile with the microbial treatment those were worse. In addition the chemical treatment showed better environmental index values than the microbial one: volatile organics content and COD values in the former were 12.9% and 37.9% while those in the latter were 4.5% and 18.7%, respectively. AVS and T-P were 71.1% and 100% versus 56.5% and 85.8%, respectively. However, the microbial treatment was better for T-N(66% higher). On the other hand, both treatment at a time enhanced all the environmental indices but COD meantime pH and ORP values were lower than with the chemical treatment only. Thus additional input of an oxygen generator like
could improve the environmental state of a bay sediment where the biological treatment is going on.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil in Jang-San Wetland, Busan Metropolitan City
Cha, Eun-Jee ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Kim, Hyun-Ji ; Lee, Jeong-Hwan ; Ok, Soon-Il ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1363~1374
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1363
This study examined the physical and chemical properties of soil in Jang-San wetland in Busan Metropolitan City. The wetland covers wide and flat area comparing to its outside. The samples of the wetland soil were collected and analyzed in order to identify the profiles and chemical properties. According to the analyses of soil moisture and particle size distribution, the wetland soil mostly belongs to sandy loam with the soil moistures of 14.9-153.2%. The soil profiles are configured with O, A, B, and C horizons from the land surface. The organic matter content (2.38-16.7%) at most sampling locations decreases downwardly with the highest at 0-20 cm depth. The organic matter content has a good positive relationship with soil moisture content. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the wetland soils contain quartz and feldspar (the main components of rhyolite porphyry) as well as montmorillonite, gibbsite, and kaolinite (the weathered products of feldspar). The wetland soil displays the highest iron concentration (average 22,052 mg/kg), indicating oxidation of iron. High concentrations of potassium (average 17,822 mg/kg) and sodium (average 5,394 mg/kg) originate from the weathering of feldspar. Among anions, sulfate concentration is highest with average 9.21 mg/kg that may originate from sulfate minerals and atmosphere.
Analysis of Nonpoint Sources Runoff Characteristic by Road Types
Yoon, Young-Sam ; Kwon, Hun-Gak ; Yi, Youn-Jung ; Yu, Jay-Jung ; Lee, Chun-Sik ; Lee, Jae-Kwan ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1375~1384
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1375
Growth in population and urbanization has progressively increased the loading of pollutants from nonpoint sources as well as point sources. Especially in case of road regions such as city trunk road, national road and highway are rainfall and pollutants runoff intensive landuses since they are impervious and emit a lot of pollutants from vehicle activity. This research was conducted to investigate the nonpoint sources concentration and quantifying stormwater pollutants which are contained in rainfall runoff water. Three different monitoring sites in Jinju and Changwon city were equipped with an automatic rainfall gauge and flow meter for measuring rainfall and the volume of rainfall runoff. In the case of average EMC value, city trunk road was shown the highest value in target water quality items like as BOD, COD, SS, TN and TP. Or the amount of runoff loads by water quality items showed the highest value in city trunk road. And runoff load in city trunk road was 43.8 times high value compared to highway by value of city trunk road
, national road
in the case of BOD.
A Study on Decreasing Metals from Hanwoo Slurry with Chemical Additives
Kim, Chang-Mann ; Choi, Jung-Hoon ; Ko, Soo-Hyun ; Choi, In-Hag ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1385~1390
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1385
Repeated additions of untreated slurry to soil affected ecology and caused high levels of heavy metal in soil and ground water. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal from hanwoo slurry with ferrous sulfate (
), aluminum sulfate [
, alum] and aluminum chloride (
) as a way to improve environmental management in hanwoo industry. The treatment rates, which were incorporated totally within the hanwoo slurry, were 1.0 g and 1.5 g of ferrous sulfate, alum and aluminum chloride/25 g of hanwoo slurry. The various rates of chemical additives significantly increased dry matter (9.98~13.94%) and decreased pH (3.48~6.52) compared with the controls. The use of chemical additives decreased Fe (11~29%), Al (7~12%), Zn (13~36%), and Cu (4~32%) contents, except for Fe in hanwoo slurry with ferrous sulfate and Al in hanwoo slurry with alum and aluminum chloride. In addition, the reduction in heavy metal should be associated with reduction in pH. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that alum and aluminum chloride additives at rate of 1.5 g were cost-effective management practice that significantly reduces heavy metal from hanwoo slurry, while it may be improved environmental management.
Isolation and Identification of a Biphenyl-degrading Bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. DS-94
Lee, Dae-Sung ; Jeong, Seong-Yun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1391~1396
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1391
Three biphenyl-degrading microorganisms were isolated from polluted soil samples in Sasang-gu, Busan. Among them, isolate DS-94 showing the strong degrading activity was selected. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of DS-94 were investigated by API 20NE and other tests. This bacterium was identified as the genus Pseudomonas by 16S rDNA sequencing and designated as Pseudomonas sp. DS-94. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. DS-94 were
and pH 7.0, respectively. This isolate could utilize biphenyl as sole source of carbon and energy. Biphenyl-degrading efficiency of this isolate was measured by HPLC analysis. As a result of biological biphenyl-degradation at high biphenyl concentration (500 mg/L), biphenyl-removal efficiency by this isolate was 73.5% for 7 days.
Development of Real-time Oceanographic Information System for Long Line Hanging Aquaculture Farm and Temperature Variation in the Coastal Area of the East Sea
Yang, Joon-Yong ; Kim, Lim-Hak ; Lee, Joon-Soo ; Hwang, Jae-Dong ; Suh, Young-Sang ; Kim, Dae-Chul ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1397~1405
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1397
Mass mortalities of cultivated organisms have occurred frequently in Korean coastal waters causing enormous losses to cultivating industry. The preventive measures require continuous observation of farm environment and real-time provision of data. However, line hanging aquaculture farm are generally located far from monitoring buoys and has limitations on installation of heavy equipments. Substituting battery pack for solar panels and miniaturizing size of buoy, newly developed system can be attached to long line hanging aquaculture farm. This system could deliver measured data to users in real-time and contribute to damage mitigation and prevention from mass mortalities as well as finding their causes. The system was installed off Gijang and Yeongdeck in Korea, measuring and transmitting seawater temperature at the sea surface every 30 minutes. Short term variation of seawater temperature, less than one day, in Gijang from June to July 2009 corresponded tidal period of about 12 hours and long term variation seemed to be caused by cold water southeast coast of Korea, particularly northeast of Gijang. Seawater temperature differences between Gijang station and the other station that is about 500 m away from Gijang station were
on average. This fact indicates that it is need to be pay attention to use substitute data even if it is close to the station. Daily range of seawater temperature, one of crucial information to aquaculture, can be obtained from this system because temperature were measured every 30 minutes. Averages of daily range of temperature off Gijang and Yeongdeok during each observation periods were about
respectively. Dominant period of seawater temperature variation off Yeongdeok was one day with the lowest peak at 5 a.m. and the highest one at 5 p.m. generally, resulting from solar radiation.
The Relation Between Water Quality and Structure of Aquatic Ecosystem in Agriculture Reservoir, Otae-ji
Seo, Jung-Kwan ; Lee, Hae-Jin ; Jeong, Hyun-Gi ; Tak, Bo-Mi ; Lee, Jae-Kwan ; Kim, In-Taek ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Hwang, Ui-Wook ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1407~1421
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1407
This study was carried out to elucidate the relation between water quality and structure of the aquatic ecosystem in the agriculture reservoir Otae-ji from January to December in 2009. The proportion of forest was 46.98%, which means that non-point sources are major contributor of water pollution in this area. The annual mean COD(Chemical Oxygen Demand) in Otae-ji was
, indicating, level II of environmental standards and the trophic state was mesotrophic. Although total phosporus concentration in the reservoir was high in August due to large inflow of nutrients from outside the reservoir during monsoon season, there was no break out of significant algal bloom in the summer. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton showed that the dinophyta dominated in the the spring, chlorophyta in the summer, chrysophyta and chlorophyta in the autumn and chrysophyta in the winter. In case of zooplankton, rotifers dominated in the most seasons, but cladoceran(Bosmina longirostris) dominated in June and copepod(Nauplii) in August. The macrophyte plants showed diverse species compositon consisted of 3 varieties, 24 species, 23 genera, 15 families and 14 orders. The macroinvertebrates also showed various FFG(Functional Feeding Groups) such as GC(Gathering-Collector), P(Predator), SH(Shedder), FC(Filter-Collector) and PP(Plant-Piercer). Ecosystem stability analysis using aquatic insects was classified as Group I, which has high resilience and resistance indices. A total of 14 species of fish was collected but exotic species such as Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides were not found in Otae-ji. In conclusion, the preservation of healthy food wed in the reservoir ecosystem is closely related to water quality management as well as effective prevention of algal bloom by helping good material circulation in aquatic ecosystems.
Effects of Meteorological and Reclaiming Conditions on the Reduction of Suspended Particles
Choi, Jae-Won ; Lee, Young-Su ; Kim, Jae-Jin ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1423~1436
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1423
The effects of meteorological and reclaiming conditions on the reduction of suspended particles are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with the k-
turbulence closure scheme based on the renormalization group (RNG) theory. Twelve numerical experiments with different meteorological and reclaiming conditions are performed. For identifying the meteorological characteristics of the target area and providing the inflow conditions of the CFD model, the observed data from the automatic weather station (AWS) near the target area is analyzed. Complicated flow patterns such as flow distortion, horse-shoe vortex, recirculation zone, and channeling flow appeared due to the topography and buildings in the domain. Specially, the flow characteristics around the reclamation area are affected by the reclaiming height, reclaiming size and windbreak height. Reclaiming height affected the wind speed above the reclaiming area. Windbreak induces more complicated flow patterns around the reclaiming area as well as within the reclaiming area. In front of the windbreak, flow is distorted as it impinges on the windbreak. As a result, upward flow is generated there. Behind the windbreak, a secondary circulation, so called, a recirculation zone is generated and flow is reattached at the end of the recirculation zone (reattachment point). At the lower part of the recirculation zone, there is a reverse flow toward the windbreak. Flow passing to the reattachment point starts to be recovered. Total amounts of suspended particles are calculated using the frictional and threshold frictional velocities, erosion potential function, and the number of surface disturbance. In the case of a 10 m-reclaiming and northerly wind, the amount of suspended particles is largest. In the presence of 5 m windbreak, the friction velocity above the reclaiming area is largely reduced. As a result, the total amount of the suspended particles largely decreases, compared to the case with the same reclaiming and meteorological conditions except for the windbreak The calculated suspended particle amounts are used as the emission rate of the dispersion model simulations and the dispersion characteristics of the suspended particles are analyzed.
"Green Harmony" - The Horticultural Therapy Program for Holistic Health of College Students
Choi, Min-Hee ; Lee, In-Sook ; Cho, Tae-Dong ; Suh, Jeung-Keun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1437~1444
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1437
This research was to find out the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy program based on the therapeutic factors and the most meaningful experiences of the clients. For this purpose "Green harmony" program focused on harmony through horticulture was implemented. It is based on the preposition that holistic health is promoted with harmonious relationships with oneself, other people, community and nature. The program has three-fold structure: In innermost it deals with the task of the late adolescent, i.e., self identity, secondly the experience of communication and solidarity in the group, and finally extension of interest to the community. For the therapeutic intervention, questions using the metaphor of the activity were given to the clients for the establishment of self-identity, while group activity and the donation of the works let the second and third purpose accomplished. Outdoor activity, 'Tire garden project', has provided the clients with chances of the contact with nature, cooperation with other group members, and a contest to provoke enthusiasm. Also recycling and greening of the community were possible by utilizing old tires for the containers and by donating the final works to the community. For the evaluation of the result, the effect of the program on the stress of the college students was tested, and the most meaningful experiences during the participation to the program were asked to identify the therapeutic factors acknowledged by clients. "Green harmony" program has brought positive effects on the stress of the clients in spite of relatively short period of five weeks. The clients has acknowledged plant/nature contact and interactions between group members for the most meaningful experiences. This research suggests "Green harmony" horticultural therapy program based on the therapeutic factors is highly applicable for the general populations.
Phytoplankton Community in Junam Reservoir by Pollution Sources, Loads and Water Quality
Lee, Hae-Jin ; Seo, Jung-Kwan ; Jeong, Hyun-Ki ; Tak, Bo-Mi ; Lee, Jae-Kwan ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 19, issue 11, 2010, Pages 1445~1456
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2010.19.11.1445
This study presented seasonal changes of the phytoplankton community in Junam reservoir by pollution and water quality of the lake. The water storage of the reservoir is 5.3 million ton, most of which are being utilized for agricultural, industrial and residential purposes. The annual precipitation during the investigation period was 1,868.9 mm, increasing by 20% from the average annual level of 1,506.7 mm in 2009. The annual average water storage was 57.3%. It decreased during agricultural season and then increased again after monsoon rainfall. The loads of BOD were
, and 81% of them came from livestock and household. The TN and TP loads were
, respectively, and 76% of them came from livestock. We assessed water quality of the Junam reservoir using 17 variables. According to the result, the reservoir met the fourth grade, meaning slightly bad, because of high concentration of COD, SS and chlorophyll-a. Eutrophication assessment was conducted by revised Carlson's Index (TSIm, Aizaki), and it was found that the entire lake was eutrophicated with high chlorophyll-a concentration all through the year, except during February to April and in July. A total of 76 phytoplankton species were identified from the samples. Among them, the largest number of species were Chlorophyceae with 33 species(43.4%), followed by Bacilliophyceae with 27 species(35.5%), Cyanophyceae with 8 species(10.5%), and Cryptophyceae with species(10.5%). The total cell number of phytoplankton was the highest in October(7,884 cells
) among Cyanophyceae and Bacilliophyceae. The seasonal succession of Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas spp.), Cyanophyceae(Microcystis aeruginosa) and Cryptophyceae(Rhodomonas spp.) was observed during January to May, July to September and October to December respectively.