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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Phosphate Flux at the Sediment-water Interface in Gamak Bay during the Hypoxic Water Mass
Kim, Sook-Yang ; Jun, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Young-Sik ; Lee, Yong-Hwa ; Kim, Byeoung-Man ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1069~1078
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1069
The environmental changes related to hypoxic water mass were investigated at Gamak bay in summer times, June, July and August 2006. The hypoxic water mass was found, in first, at the northern area of Gamak bay on 27 June. This water mass has been sustained until the end of August and disappear on 13 September. In Gamak bay, the hypoxic water mass was closely related to geography. During the formation of oxygen deficiency, changes in dissolved nutrients was studied and found that on surface layer and lower layer, DIN were 0.80
) and 1.13
), and DIP were 0.01
), and 0.01
), respectively, far higher distribution on lower layer of the water where hypoxic water mass was occurred. The configuration of phosphorus was analyzed to figure out the possibility of release of phosphorus from sediments. It was found that the Labile-Phosphorus, which is capable of easy move to water layer by following environmental change was found more than 70%. Therefore, in Gamak bay, it was found that the possibility of large amount of release of soluble P into the water, while hypoxic water mass was occurred in deep layer was higher. It is suggested that DIP in the northern sea of Gamak bay mainly sourced from the soluble P from lower layer of the waters where hypoxic water mass was created more than that from basin. However, existence form of phosphorus in sediments during normal times, not during creation of hypoxic water mass, needs further study.
Characteristics of Membrane Fouling and Nitrification in Nitrifying Membrane Bioreactor
Lim, Kyoung-Jo ; Hong, Soon-Ho ; Yoo, Ik-Keun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1079~1085
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1079
The purpose of this study is to find the operational characteristics of nitrifier-dominated membrane bioreactor (MBR), which has been extensively studied for organic removal, especially in terms of nitrite (
-N) build-up and membrane fouling. Membrane fouling is one of the important factor which determines the economics of MBR system. The characteristics of membrane fouling was monitored in terms of the fouling indices such as sludge volume index (SVI), the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in a membrane permeate or sludge extract, the absorbance of supernatant at 260 nm. Most of index values except for protein concentration in EPS had a close relation with the increase of suction pressure and SVI value. Nitrifying MBR was superior to the conventional organic-oxidizing MBR in terms of membrane fouling since the fouling index value of nitrifying MBR was lower than that of BOD-oxidizing MBR.
Potential of Marine Ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as a Standard Test Species for Marine Ecotoxicological Study
An, Kyoung-Ho ; Park, Gyung-Soo ; Lee, Seung-Min ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1087~1093
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1087
The mixotrophic marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum possesses a highly modified algal endosymbiont as a nutrition source for the species. Accordingly, we assumed that the species can reflect the ecotoxicity on marine producer (as phytoplankton) and consumer (as zooplankton) both. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the potential of the species as a standard test species for marine ecotoxicological study. The comparison of species sensitivity on reference toxic materials was made using potassium dichromate for phytoplankton and copper chloride for zooplankton. The ciliate revealed the highest sensitivity on both reference materials among the seven test species including phytoplankton, benthic copepod and rotifer species. The toxicity end point of the species was 72hr-
=1.52 mg/L (as potassium dichromate) estimated by population growth inhibition (PGI), which is more sensitive than the most sensitive phytoplankton Skeletonema costatum (72hr-
=3.05 mg/L). As comparison to rotifer, it also revealed higher sensitivity on copper chloride; 72hr-
=0.38 mg/L for ciliate and 48hr-
=0.48 mg/L for rotifer. Also, the elutriate toxicity test of various ocean disposal wastes were conducted to identify the potential of ciliate toxicity test application using industrial waste sludges. The toxicity of leather processing waste sludge was highest on the ciliate, followed by dyeing waste sludge and dye production waste sludge as an increasing order of toxicity. 72h-
of ciliate PGI test was 1.83% and that of S. costatum 3.84% for leather waste sludge which showed highest toxicity. The toxicity test results also revealed that the highest sensitivity was observed on ciliate species on ocean disposed sludge wastes. Also, ciliate toxicity test well discriminated the degree of toxicity between sludge sources; 72h-
values were 1.83% for leather processing waste sludge, 16.75% for dye production waste sludge and 27.75% for textile production waste sludge. Even the laboratory culture methods of the species were not generally established yet, the species has high potential as the standard test species for marine toxicity test in terms of the dual reflection of phyto- and zooplankton toxicity from single test, sensitivity and test replicability.
Survey Research Analysis for Enhancing the Utilization Level of Marine Meteorological Information
Park, Jong-Kil ; Jung, Woo-Sik ; Kim, Eun-Byul ; Choi, Su-Jin ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1095~1104
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1095
A survey of professionals employed in marine related fields was conducted on subjects related to marine meteorological forecasts and special reports. The outcome of the survey indicated that the respondents were overall satisfied with the determination of the zones related to marine meteorological forecasts and special reports and with the number of forecast factors, but in regards to the questions about specific adjustment methods, it was found that the respondents perceived a need for adjustment. In addition, although there was a high consensus among the respondents that the criteria for watch and warning in the marine special reports were suitable, they voiced the opinion that it will be necessary to implement changes in the current criteria for watch and warning in order to further improve the compatibility of the criteria. The survey found that there was a high level of utilization for the marine meteorological information provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA), and that respondents mostly acquired this information via internet and TV. On the other hand, however, the satisfaction level regarding the accuracy of the marine meteorological information was low in comparison to the utilization level. The survey regarding areas for improvement in the forecasts and special reports also indicated that the need for 'improvement in the accuracy of forecasts' was cited most frequently.
Evaluation of Thermal Environment Improvement Effect from Public Design Improvement Project on the Urban Street Space
Baek, Sang-Hun ; Shimizu, Aki ; Kim, Hak-Yoon ; Jung, Eung-Ho ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1105~1114
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1105
In this study, thermal environment improvements throughout public design improvement project on the urban street space were compared and evaluated. Thermo-Render 3.0, 3D-CAD based thermal environment simulation program, had been used for thermal environment improvement evaluations. Followings are the results. First, clayey blocks which have low heat transfer rate and cool island effect by trees and roof gardens brought cooling effects for buildings and surface of streets. Seconds, MRT values showed low levels because of low radiant mulching materials. Thirds, roof gardens contributed to reduce heat island effect since HIP levels were affected by decreasing heat storage effect of buildings from roof gardens. As a result, reducing heat storage effect throughout selecting and arranging proper materials which would not increase heat island potentials should be performed to improve heat island effects.
Effect of Water Quality of Artificial Sewage on E. coli Disinfection Using Electrolysis Process
Park, Young-Seek ; Kim, Dong-Seog ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1115~1124
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1115
There is an increasing incidence in health problems related to environmental issues that originate from inadequate treatment of sewage. This has compelled scientists to engage in innovative technologies to achieve a effective disinfection process. Electrolysis has emerged as one of the more feasible alternatives to conventional disinfection process. The objectives of the present paper were to investigate the effect of chemical characteristics on oxidant formation and Escherichia coli (E. coli) disinfection in synthetic sewage effluents. The influence of parameters such as COD, SS, T-N and T-P were investigated using laboratory scale batch reactor. The results showed that the higher COD, T-N and T-P concentration, the lower N, N-Dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (RNO, indicator of the generation of OH radical) degradation and E. coli disinfection was observed. The order of effect of RNO degradation and E. coli disinfection was T-P > COD > T-N > SS. When 4 parameter of water quality were worked simultaneously, oxidants formation and disinfection was decreased with increase of the concentration of sewage. To increase of the disinfection performance, the increase of disinfection time or electric power was need.
Flora and Life form of 4 Man-made Wetlands in Gunsan City
Kim, Chang-Hwan ; Kang, Eun-Ok ; Choi, Young-Eun ; Park, Byoung-Mo ; Baek, Jong-Seon ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1125~1140
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1125
According to previous research on evaluating vegetative value of wetland and RAM evaluation targeting the man-made wetland in Gunsan, Gunsan Reservoir and Gongchang Reservoir had been found to have satisfactory results while Anjeong Reservoir and Changan Reservoir had been found to have unsatisfactory results. Aimed at those reservoirs, a vegetation survey was conducted to analyze differences in terms of flora and growth habit. As for the flora, Gunsan Reservoir ranked first with 433 kinds of plants, followed by Gongchang Reservoir with 306, Changan Reservoir with 176 and Anjeong Reservoir with 167. As for specific plant species by floristic region, it was identified that Gunsan Reservoir had 18 species, larger than other wetlands and also, it had more species of naturalized plants than others. This phenomenon is related to various wetland environments resulted from wider area of Gunsan Reservoir. In the case of dormancy form, hemicryptophytes were mainly distributed in Gunsan Reservoir and Gongchang Reservoir while annual plants were mainly distributed in Anjeong Reservoir and Changan Reservoir with heavy disturbance.
Seasonal Variation of Coastal Front by Numerical Simulation in the Southern Sea of Korea
Bae, Sang-Wan ; Kim, Dong-Sun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1141~1149
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1141
The three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was simulated to understand coastal sea front of formation and seasonal variation in the Southern Sea of Korea. In this study, we used to concept of stratification factor, to realize seasonal distribution of stratification coefficient which of seasonal residual flow, considered with, tide, wind and density effect. Tidal current tends to flow westward during the flood and eastward during ebb. The current by the wind stress showed to be much stronger the coastal than the offshore area in the surface layer. And the current by the horizontal gradient of water density showed to be relatively weak in the coastal area, with little seasonal differences. On the other hand, the flow in the offshore area showed results similar to that of the Tsushima Warm Current. The stratification factor (SHv) was calculated by taking into account the total flow of tide, wind and density effect. In summer, the calculated SHv distribution ranged from 2.0 to 2.5, similar to that of the coastal sea front. The horizontal temperature gradient showed to be strong during the winter, when the vertical stratification is weak. On the other hand, the horizontal gradient became weak in summer, during which vertical stratification is strong. Therefore, it is presume that the strength of vertical stratification and the horizontal temperature gradient affect the position of the coastal sea front.
Parameter Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis for Numerical Modeling of Flow and Bed Changes near the Opening Gate for Sediment Release
Jang, Eun-Kyung ; Lim, Jong-Chul ; Ji, Un ; Yeo, Woon-Kwang ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1151~1163
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1151
The bed change analysis near the opening gate of a dam or weir to release deposited sediments have been conducted mostly using the numerical models. However, the use of unverified input parameters in the numerical model is able to produce the different results with natural and real conditions. Also, the bed changes near the opening gate of a dam or weir calculated with a numerical model could be varied depending on the geometry extent included the downstream area with supercritical flow in the model. In addition, the different time steps could provide different results in the bed change calculation, even though other conditions such as input parameters, geometries, and total simulation time were same. Therefore, in this study, hydraulic experiments were performed to validate the eddy viscosity coefficient which is the one of important input parameters in the RMA2 model and relevant to variation of simulation results. The bed changes were calculated using the SED2D model based on flow results calculated in the RMA2 model with the verified and selected eddy viscosity coefficient and also compared with experimental results. The bed changes near the opening gate were underestimated in the numerical model comparing with experimental results except only the numerical case without the modeling section of sediment release pipe and downstream area where the supercritical flow was produced. For the simulation of minimum time steps, different shapes of scour hole were produced in numerical and physical modeling.
Estimation of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Il-Gwang Watershed Using Water Budget Analysis and Rn Mass Balance
Gwak, Yong-Seok ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Hamm, Se-Yeung ; Kim, In-Soo ; Khim, Boo-Keun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1165~1182
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1165
The evaluation of potential submarine groundwater is an important research topic for exploring an alternative water resource. Two different approaches, water budget analysis and Rn mass balance method, were employed to investigate the annual variation of submarine groundwater discharge in 2010 at a marine watershed located at the south-eastern part of Korean Peninsula. In order to obtain reliable hydrological data during study period, temporal and spatial variations of rainfall and soil moisture had been collected and hydro-meterological data such as temperature, humidity and wind speed were collected The runoff response was simulated using SCS-CN method with spatial distributions of landuse and soil texture from GIS analysis. Six different methods were used to estimate the monthly variation of evapotranspiration and field measurements of soil moisture were used to account for the infiltration. Comparisons of infiltration and surface runoff between simulation and water balance with measurements showed coincidence. The water budget analysis and Rn mass balance method provide mean daily submarine groundwater as 5.35 and 4.07
in 2010, respectively.
Analysis of Agricultural Characters to Establish the Evaluating Protocol and Standard Assessment for Genetically Modified Peppers
Cho, Dong-Wook ; Chung, Kyu-Hwan ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1183~1190
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1183
This study was aimed to establish the evaluating protocol and standard assessment for genetically modified (GM) hot pepper and to find out a proper statistic method to analyze for equality of agricultural characters between GM and non-GM pepper lines. GM and non-GM hot pepper lines were cultivated in two GMO fields in the middle region of Korea and total of 52 agricultural characters were collected during the plant growing season for 4 years, 2007 to 2010. Levene's test was conducted to confirm the homogeneity of raw data before statistic analysis. Two-way ANOVA in the multivariate tests and t-test were conducted to analyze 52 agricultural characters in order to find out the equality between H15 and P2377. From the statistical analysis through two-way ANOVA, 16 out of 16 plant growth traits, 9 out of 18 green fruit traits and 7 out of 18 red fruit traits among 4 years and 9 out of 16 plant growth traits, 4 out of 18 green fruit traits and 3 out of 18 red fruit traits between H15 and P2377 have shown the statistic differences. With the same raw data of 52 agricultural characters, t-test was also conducted. Based on the result from t-test, only 1 out of 16 plant growth traits, 2 out of 18 green fruit traits and 1 out of 18 red fruit traits have shown the differences between H15 and P2377, so that it was concluded that there is no statistic difference between H15 and P2377 in terms of agricultural characters. Also, the t-test is a proper statistic method to analyze each trait between GM and its control lines in order to evaluate agricultural characters.
A Study on the Observation of the Typhoons that Affected Southeastern Region of the Korean Peninsula
Jung, Woo-Sik ; Park, Jong-Kil ; Kim, Eun-Byul ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1191~1203
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1191
In case of Typhoon Dianmu, the temperature, wind speed, wind direction and the rainfall per hour changed dramatically when the center of the typhoon passed through Gimhae. Such a change was commonly found in the regions where the center of the typhoon passed through but almost not in the regions far away from it. For example, in the case of Typhoon Malou where the center of the typhoon was far away from the observation site, such a phenomenon was not observed. The analysis of the vertical observation data showed that there was a little change in the wind speed and wind direction in the vertical direction in the case of Typhoon Dianmu of which center passed through Gimhae. There was a great change in the wind speed according to the height in the lower atmosphere just before the center of the typhoon approached the region. When the center of the typhoon was passing through the region, the vertical wind speed was decreased. However, the wind speed was rapidly increased again after the center of the typhoon had passed through the region. Unlike the Dianmu, the difference in the wind speed and wind direction between the upper layer and lower layer of the atmosphere was relatively great in the case of Malou.
A Study on Satisfaction Factors of Pedestrian Road in Residence District according to Usage Purpose
Yeom, Sung-Jin ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 20, issue 9, 2011, Pages 1205~1212
DOI : 10.5322/JES.2011.20.9.1205
As serving people's activities, pedestrian road systems are basic and necessary facilities in urban structure. To provide and utilize these pedestrian road systems in residential area would enhance urban environment as well as quality of life. For this reason, pedestrian road should be planned by consideration of people's activity in residential area. Evaluation of existing pedestrian road should be also oriented how people use it and what people do in it. This study amis to investigate functions of pedestrian road system throughout evaluation of user's satisfaction in order to improve better pedestrian road system in residential area. The purposes of this study are to analyze components of factors affecting on user's satisfaction, and to find the relationship among affecting factors. For this study, the on-site questionnaire method was applied to 267 individuals who were collected as the study areas where locate Toyogaoka and Kaidori, Japan. The collected data were clarified exploratory factors, and analyzed relationship between the factors and satisfaction by applying quantitative statistical techniques for the mapping investigation, Mann-Whitney u-test, and correlation. The results of this study are follows. The pedestrian road system is more preferred than surroundings of vehicle roads in residential district area where maintains pedestrian road as open space. In addition, satisfactions of the pedestrian road for each purpose were highly evaluated, because of conformability and convenience for usage. Consequently, the pedestrian road which is secure and greening as an open space is well carried out for the living circulation of residents. It would suggest that pedestrian road have to be managed and planned not a function of circulation but an open space system.