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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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Simulation of Groundwater Variation Characteristics of Hancheon Watershed in Jeju Island using Integrated Hydrologic Modeling
Kim, Nam-Won ; Na, Hanna ; Chung, Il-Moon ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 515~522
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.515
To investigate groundwater variation characteristics in the Hancheon watershed, Jeju Island, an integrated hydrologic component analysis was carried out. For this purpose, SWAT-MODFLOW which is an integrated surface-groundwater model was applied to the watershed for continuous watershed hydrologic analysis as well as groundwater modeling. First, ephemeral stream characteristics of Hancheon watershed can be clearly simulated which is unlikely to be shown by a general watershed hydrologic model. Second, the temporally varied groundwater recharge can be properly obtained from SWAT and then spatially distributed groundwater recharge can be made by MODFLOW. Finally, the groundwater level variation was simulated with distributed groundwater pumping data. Since accurate recharge as well as abstraction can be reflected into the groundwater modeling, more realistic hydrologic component analysis and groundwater modeling could be possible.
A Method of Simulating Ephemeral Stream Runoff Characteristics in Cheonmi-cheon Watershed, Jeju Island
Kim, Nam-Won ; Chung, Il-Moon ; Na, Hanna ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 523~531
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.523
In this study, a method of simulating ephemeral stream runoff characteristics in Jeju watershed is newly suggested. The process based conceptual-physical scheme is established based on the SWAT-K and applied to Cheonmi-cheon watershed which shows the typical pattern of ephemeral stream runoff characteristics. For the proper simulation of this runoff, the intermediate flow and baseflow are controlled to make downward percolation should be dominant. The result showed that surface runoff simulated by using the modified scheme showed good agreement with observed runoff data. In addition, it was found that the estimated runoff directly affected the groundwater recharge rate. This conceptual model should be continuously progressed including rainfall interception, spatially estimated evapotranspiration and so forth for the reasonable simulation of the hydrologic characteristics in Jeju island.
Assessment of Actual Evapotranspiration in the Hancheon Watershed, Jeju Island
Kim, Nam Won ; Lee, Jeong Eun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 533~542
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.533
In this study, estimation methods for actual evapotranspiration have been studied using the concept of potential and actual evapotranspiration. Among the diverse estimation methods, SWAT-K application is chosen for hydrological modeling. For Jeju island we have characterized annual and monthly evapotranspiration using SWAT-K. In the results, simulated potential evapotranspiration reached to the 91% of small pan evaporation. With respect to the temperature lapse rate(
) depending on the altitude of Halla mountain, evapotranspiration rate decreased by 7.5% compared to the status when the temperature data from the Jeju weather station were applied to the watershed. As the average of annual rainfall increased, potential evapotranspiration was increased, actual evapotranspiration was, however, decreased.
Development of Topological Correction Algorithms for ADCP Multibeam Bathymetry Measurements
Kim, Dong-Su ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Soo-Jeong ; Jung, Woo-Yul ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 543~554
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.543
Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) are increasingly popular in the river research and management communities being primarily used for estimation of stream flows. ADCPs capabilities, however, entail additional features that are not fully explored, such as morphological representation of river or reservoir bed based upon multi-beam depth measurements. In addition to flow velocity, ADCP measurements include river bathymetry information through the depth measurements acquired in individual 4 or 5 beams with a given oblique angle. Such sounding capability indicates that multi-beam ADCPs can be utilized as an efficient depth-sounder to be more capable than the conventional single-beam eco-sounders. The paper introduces the post-processing algorithms required to deal with raw ADCP bathymetry measurements including the following aspects: a) correcting the individual beam depths for tilt (pitch and roll); b) filtering outliers using SMART filters; d) transforming the corrected depths into geographical coordinates by UTM conversion; and, e) tag the beam detecting locations with the concurrent GPS information; f) spatial representation in a GIS package. The developed algorithms are applied for the ADCP bathymetric dataset acquired from Han-Cheon in Jeju Island to validate themselves applicability.
Characteristics of Runoff on Urban Watershed in Jeju island, Korea
Jung, Woo-Yul ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Lee, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 555~562
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.555
Jeju Island, the heaviest raining area in Korea, is a volcanic Island located at the southernmost of Korea, but most streams are of the dry due to its hydrological/geological characteristics different from those of inland areas. Therefore, there are limitations in applying the results from the mainland to the studies on stream run-off characteristics analysis and water resource analysis of Jeju Island. In this study, the SWAT(soil & water assessment tool) model is used for the Hwabuk stream watershed located east of the downtown to calculate the long-term stream run-off rate, and WMS(watershed modeling system) and HEC-HMS(hydrologic modeling system) models are used to figure out the stream run-off characteristics due to short-term heavy rainfall. As the result of SWAT modelling for the long-term rainfall-runoff model for Hwabuk stream watershed in 2008, 5.66% of the average precipitation of the entire basin was run off, with 3.47% in 2009, 8.12% in 2010, and root mean square error(RMSE) and determination coefficient(
) was 496.9 and 0.87, respectively, with model efficient(ME) of 0.72. From the results of WMS and HEC-HMS models which are short-term rainfall-runoff models, unless there was a preceding rainfall, the runoff occurred only for rainfall of 40mm or greater, and the run-off duration averaged 10~14 hours.
Estimation of Roughness Coefficient Using a Representative Grain Diameter for Han Stream in Jeju Island
Lee, Jun-Ho ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Dong-Su ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 563~570
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.563
Roughness coefficient was computed for review of applicability based on measurement of the representative grain diameter reflecting channel characteristics of Han Stream. After field survey, collection of bed material, and grain analysis on the collected bed material, roughness coefficient was computed using representative grain and existing empirical equation for roughness coefficient. Value of roughness coefficient calculated using equation by Meyer-Peter and Muller (1948) was 0.0417 for upstream, 0.0432 for midstream, and 0.0493 for downstream. As a result of comparing the computed roughness coefficient to other empirical equations for review of applicability, the coefficient was larger in Strickler (1923) equation by 0.006. Smaller coefficient was shown by Planning Report for River Improvement Works. Equation by Garde and Raju (1978) was larger by 0.004, and equations by Lane and Carlson (1953) and by Meyer-Peter and Muller (1948) were larger by 0.001. Such precise roughness coefficient is extremely important when computing the amount of flood in rivers to prevent destruction of downstream embankments and property damages from flooding. Since roughness coefficient is a factor determined by complicated elements and differs according to time and space, continued management of roughness coefficient in rivers and streams is deemed necessary.
Stream Flow Analysis of Dry Stream on Flood Runoff in Islands
Yang, Won-Seok ; Yang, Sung-Kee ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 571~580
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.571
In this study, compared with the result of water surface elevation and water velocity on the establishment of river maintenance basic plan and result of HEC-GeoRAS based GIS, and after use the result of water surface elevation and velocity were observed in the Han stream on Jeju island, analysis 2 dimensional stream flow. the lateral hydraulic characteristics and curved channel of the stream were analyzed by applying SMS-RMA2 a 2 dimensional model. The results of the analysis using HEC-RAS model and HEC-GeoRAS model indicated that the distribution ranges of water surface elevation and water velocity were similar, but the water surface elevation by section showed a difference of 0.7~2.18 EL.m and 0.63~1.16 EL.m respectively, and water velocity also showed differences of maximum 1.58m/sec and 2.67m/sec. SMS-RMA2 analysis was done with the sphere of Muifa the typhoon as a boundary condition, and as a result, water velocity distribution was found to be 1.19 through 3.91 m/sec, and the difference of lateral water velocity in No. 97 through 99 the curved channel of the stream was analyzed to be 1.59 through 2.36 m/sec. In conclusion it is anticipated that the flow analysis of 2 dimension model of stream can reflect the hydraulic characteristics of the stream curved channel or width and shape, and can be applied effectively in the establishment of river maintenance basic plan or management and designing of stream.
Flood Runoff Measurements using Surface Image Velocimetry
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Yu, Kwon-Kyu ; Kim, Dong-Su ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 581~589
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.581
Surface Image Velocimetry(SIV) is an instrument to measure water surface velocity by using image processing techniques. Since SIV is a non-contact type measurement method, it is very effective and useful to measure water surface velocity for steep mountainous streams, such as streams in Jeju island. In the present study, a surface imaging velocimetry system was used to calculate the flow rate for flood event due to a typhoon. At the same time, two types of electromagnetic surface velocimetries (electromagnetic surface current meter and Kalesto) were used to observe flow velocities and compare the accuracies of each instrument. The comparison showed that for velocity distributions root mean square error(RMSE) was 0.33 and R-squared was 0.72. For discharge measurements, root mean square error(RMSE) reached 6.04 and R-squared did 0.92. It means that surface image velocimetry could be used as an alternative method for electromagnetic surface velocimetries in measuring flood discharge.
Characteristics of Runoff on Southern Area of Jeju Island, Korea
Kang, Myung-Su ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Jung, Woo-Yeol ; Kim, Dong-Su ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 591~597
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.591
For Kangjeong stream and Akgeun stream in the central part of the southern Jeju Island, on-site discharge estimation was carried out for approximately 10 months (July 2011-April 2012) twice a month on a regular basis by using ADCP (acoustic doppler current profiler) and long term rate of discharge was calculated by using SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model. The discharge was
for Kangjeong stream and
for Akgeun stream. It showed the maximum in the summer and the minimum in the winter. As a result of parameter sensitivity analysis of SWAT model, CN (NRCS runoff curve number for moisture condition II), SOL_AWC (available water capacity of the soil layer), and ESCO (soil evaporation compensation factor) showed sensitive responses. By using the result, the model was corrected and the rate of discharge was calculated. As a result, the annual discharge rate was 27.12-31.86(%) at the Akgeun basin and 23.55-28.43(%) at the Kangjeong basin.
Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield in Mountainous Stream
Ko, Jae-Wook ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Yang, Won-Seok ; Jung, Woo-Yeol ; Park, Cheol-Su ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 599~608
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.599
Jeju island, which is located along the moving path of typhoon, suffers from flooding and overflow by torrential rain. So abrupt runoff occurring, damages of downstream farm field and shore culturing farms are increasing. In this study, Oaedo stream, one of the mountainous streams on Jeju island, was selected as the basin of study subject and was classified into 3 sub-basins, and after the characteristics of subject basin, the soil erosion amount and the sediment delivery of the stream by land usage distribution were estimated with the use of SATEEC ArcView GIS, the sediment yield amount of 2000 and 2005 was analyzed comparatively. As a result of estimating the sediment yield amount of 2000, the three sub-basins were respectively 12,572.7, 14,080 and 157,761 tons/year. and sediment yield amounts were estimated as 35,172.9, 5,266 and 258,535 tons/year respectively in 2005. The soil erosion and sediment yield amount of 2005 using single storm rainfall were estimated high compared with 2000, but for sub-basin 2, the values rather decreased due to changes in land use, and the land coverage of 2005, since there are many classifications of land usage compared with 2000, enabling to reflect more accurate land usage condition, could deduce appropriate results. It is anticipated that such study results can be utilized as basic data to propose a direction to predict the amount of sediment yield that causes secondary flooding damage and deteriorates water quality within detention pond and grit chamber, and take action against damages in the downstream farm field and shore culturing farms.
Evaluation of Regional Characteristics Using Time-series Data of Groundwater Level in Jeju Island
Song, Sung-Ho ; Choi, Kwang-Jun ; Kim, Jin-Sung ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 609~623
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.609
Fluctuation patterns of groundwater level as a factor that reflects the characteristics of groundwater system can be categorized as the various types of aquifer with the time-series data. Time-series data on groundwater level obtained from 115 monitoring wells in Jeju Island were classified according to variation types, which were largely affected by rainfall(Dr), rainfall and pumping(Drp), and unknown cause(De). Analysis results indicate that 106 wells belong to Dr and Drp and the ratio of the wells with the wide range of fluctuation in the western and northern regions was higher than that in the eastern and southern regions. From the results that Drp is relatively higher than Dr in the western region which has the largest agricultural areas, groundwater level fluctuations may be affected significantly due to the intensive agricultural use. Non-parametric trend analysis results for 115 monitoring wells show that the increasing and decreasing trends as the ratio of groundwater levels were 14.8% and 22.6%, respectively, and groundwater levels revealed to be increased in the western, southern and northern regions excluding eastern region. Results of correlation analysis that cross-correlation coefficients and the time lags in the eastern and western regions are relatively high and short, respectively, indicate that the rainfall recharge effect in these regions is relatively larger due to the gentle slope of topography compared to that in the southern and northern regions.
Regional Drought Assessment Considering Climate Change and Relationship with Agricultural Water in Jeju Island
Song, Sung-Ho ; Yoo, Seung-Hwan ; Bae, Seung-Jong ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 625~638
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.625
Recently, the occurrences of droughts have been increased because of global warming and climate change. Water resources that mostly rely on groundwater are particularly vulnerable to the impact of precipitation variation, one of the major elements of climate change, are very sensitive to changes in the seasonal distribution as well as the average annual change in the viewpoint of agricultural activity. In this study, the status of drought for the present and future on Jeju Island which entirely rely on groundwater using SPI and PDSI were analyzed considering regional distribution of crops in terms of land use and fluctuation of water demand. The results showed that the precipitation distribution in Jeju Island is changed in intensity as well as seasonal variation of extreme events and the amount increase of precipitation during the dry season in the spring and fall indicated that agricultural water demand and supply policies would be considered by regional characteristics, especially the western region with largest market garden crops. Regarding the simulated future drought, the drought would be mitigated in the SPI method because of considering total rainfall only excluding intensity variation, while more intensified in the PDSI because it considers the evapotranspiration as well as rainfall as time passed. Moreover, the drought in the northern and western regions is getting worse than in the southern region so that the establishment of regional customized policies for water supply in Jeju Island is needed.
Estimation of Regional Agricultural Water Demand over the Jeju Island
Choi, Kwang-Jun ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Sung ; Lim, Chan-Woo ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 22, issue 5, 2013, Pages 639~649
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2013.22.5.639
Over 96.2% of the agricultural water in Jeju Island is obtained from groundwater and there are quite distinct characteristics of agricultural water demand/supply spatially because of regional and seasonal differences in cropping system and rainfall amount. Land use for cultivating crops is expected to decrease 7.4% (4,215 ha) in 2020 compared to 2010, while market garden including various vegetable crop types having high water demand is increasing over the Island, especially western area having lower rainfall amount compared to southern area. On the other hand, land use for fruit including citrus and mandarin having low water demand is widely distributed over southern and northern part having higher rainfall amount. The agricultural water demand of
in 2020 is estimated about 1.39 times compared to groundwater supply capacity of
in 2010 with 42.4% of eastern, 103.1% of western, 61.9% of southern, and 77.0% of northern region. Moreover, net secured amount of agricultural groundwater would be expected to be much smaller due to regional disparity of water demand/supply, the lack of linkage system between the agricultural water supply facilities, and high percentage of private wells. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the total net secured amount of agricultural groundwater to overcome the expected regional discrepancy of water demand and supply by establishing policy alternative of regional water supply plan over the Island, including linkage system between wells, water tank enlargement, private wells maintenance and public wells development, and continuous enlargement of rainwater utilization facilities.