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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Comparative Analysis of Day and Night Time Video Accuracy to Calculate the Flood Runoff Using Surface Image Velocimeter (SIV)
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Yu, Kwonkyu ; Kim, Dong-Su ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 359~369
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.359
This study analyzed the velocimetry of runoff and measured the flood discharge by applying the SIV (Surface Image Velocimetrer) to the daytime and nighttime flow image data with special reference to Seong-eup Bridge at Cheonmi stream of Jeju during the flow by the severe rainstorm on May 27, 2013. A 1000W lighting apparatus with more than 150 lux was installed in order to collect proper nighttime flow image applied to the SIV. Its value was compared and analyzed with the velocity value of the fixed electromagnetic wave surface velocimetry (Kalesto) at the same point to check the accuracy and applicability of the measured velocity of flow. As a result, determination coefficient
values were 0.891 and 0.848 respectively in line with the velocity distribution of the daytime and nighttime image and the flow volume measured with Kalesto was approximately 18.2% larger than the value measured with the SIV.
Enhancement Technique of Discharge Measurement Accuracy Using Kalesto Based on Index Velocity Method in Mountain Stream, Jeju Island
Kim, Dong-Su ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Soo-Jeong ; Lee, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 371~381
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.371
In the mountain streams in Jeju Island, strong turbulence and roughness usually made it nearly impossible to utilize most of intrusive instrumentation for streamflow discharge measurements. Instead, a non-intrusive fixed electro-magnetic wave surface velocimetry (fixed EWSV: Kalesto) became alternatively popular in many representative streams to measure stream discharge seamlessly. Currently, Kalesto has shown noteworthy performance with little loss in flood discharge measurements and also has successfully provided discharge for every minute. However, Kalesto has been operated to regard its measured one-point velocity as the representative mean velocity for the given cross-section. Therefore, it could be highly possible to potentially encompass discharge measurements errors. In this study, we analyzed the difference between such Kalesto discharge measurements and other alternative concurrent discharge measurements such as Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and mobile EWSV which were able to measure velocity in multi-points in the cross-section. Consequently, Kalesto discharge deviated from ADCP discharge in amount of 48% for relatively low flow, and more than 20% difference for high flow compared with mobile EWSV discharge measurements. These results indicated that the one-point velocity measured by Kalesto should be used as a cross-sectional mean velocity, rather it should be accounted for as an index-velocity in conjunction with directly measured cross-sectional mean velocity by using more reliable instrumentations. After inducing Kalesto Discharge Correction Coefficient (KDCC) that actually means relationship between index velocity and cross-sectional mean velocity, the corrected discharge from Kalesto was significantly improved. Therefore, we found that index velocity method should be applied to obtain better accuracy of discharge measurement in case of Kalesto operation.
Estimation of Design Rainfall Based on Climate Change Scenario in Jeju Island
Lee, Jun-Ho ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Jung, Woo-Yul ; Yang, Won-Seok ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 383~391
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.383
As occurrence of gradually increasing extreme temperature events in Jeju Island, a hybrid downscaling technique that simultaneously applies by dynamical method and statistical method has implemented on design rainfall in order to reduce flood damages from severe storms and typhoons.As a result of computation, Case 1 shows a strong tendency to excessively compute rainfall, which is continuously increasing. While Case 2 showed similar trend as Case 1, low design rainfall has computed by rainfall in A1B scenario. Based on the design rainfall computation method mainly used in Preventive Disaster System through Pre-disaster Effect Examination System and Basic Plan for River of Jeju Island which are considering climatic change for selecting 50-year and 100-year frequencies. Case 3 selecting for Jeju rain gage station and Case 1 for Seogwipo rain gage station. The results were different for each rain gage station because of difference in rainfall characteristics according to recent climatic change, and the risk of currently known design rainfall can be increased in near future.
A Proposal of Unit Hydrograph Using Statistical Analysis in Oedo Stream, Jeju
Lee, Jun-Ho ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Jung, Woo-Yul ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 393~401
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.393
Rainfall-runoff model of Jeju Oedo Stream was used to compute the optimal unit hydrograph by HEC-HMS model that reflecting on watershed characteristics. Each rainfall event was comparatively analyzed with the actual flow measurement using Clark, Snyder and SCS synthetic methods for derived unit hydrograph. Subsequently, the null hypothesis was established as p-value for peak flow and peak time of each unit hydrograph by one-way ANOVA(Analysis of variance) was larger than significance level of 0.05. There was no significant difference in peak flow and peak time between different methods of unit hydrograph. As a result of comparing error rate with actual flow measurement data, Clark synthetic unit graph best reflected in Oedo Stream as compared to other methods, and error rate of Clark unit hydrograph was 0.02~1.93% and error rate at peak time was 0~2.74%.
Analysis on Correlation Coefficient of Surface Image Velocimeter (SIV) Using On-site Runoff Image
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Dong-Su ; Kim, Seojun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 403~414
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.403
This study is daytime and nighttime runoff image data caused by heavy rain on May 27, 2013 at Oedo Water Treatment Plant of Oedo-Stream, Jeju to compute runoff by applying Surface image velocimeter (SIV) and analyzing correlation according to current. At the same time, current was comparatively analyzed using ADCP observation data and fixed electromagnetic surface current meter (Kalesto) observed at the runoff site. As a result of comparison on resolutions of daytime and nighttime runoff images collected, correlation coefficient corresponding to the range of 0.6~0.7 was 6.8% higher for nighttime runoff image compared to daytime runoff image. On the contrary, correlation coefficient corresponding to the range of 0.9~1.0 was 17% lower. This result implies that nighttime runoff image has lower image quality than daytime runoff image. In the process of computing current using SIV, a rational filtering process for correlation coefficient is needed according to images obtained.
Analysis of Flooding Variation and Flood Inundation According to Increasing Rainfall
Kang, Bo-Seong ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Jung, Woo-Yeol ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 415~424
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.415
As global warming has accelerated to weather in recent years, and The frequent floods are creating heavy rains and typhoons followed by considerable damage in Jeju. This study estimated design flood discharges and flood stage in Jeju, considering climate change in connection with RCP scenario, the 5th IPCC Report recently published. It also analyzed the period which might be subject to the risk of flooding in downstream of Oedo Stream. As a result, it has analyzed that there might be a risk of flooding when there were 80 years or more rainfall events in 35 years that rainfall would have increased by 10%, 69 years that 100 years or more heavy rain and rainfall would have increased by 20%, and 104 years that 100 years or more heavy rain and rainfall would have increased by 20%. It is expected that this study results of rainfall increasing trend caused by climate change will be helpful to minimize the damage of floods which will secure the future of Jeju.
Flood Discharge Analysis on Land Use Changes in Han Stream, Jeju Island
Yang, Se-Chang ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Lee, Jun-Ho ; Jung, Woo-Yul ; Ko, Kwang-Hyo ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 425~435
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.425
A number of projects for development have been done continuously due to the increase of tourist in Jeju Island. However flood disaster countermeasure due to urbanization is not considered during this development projects. This study is to make basic process for the flood estimation in Han stream of Jeju Island. The variation of stream discharge due the every 5 years' land use change from 1980 to 2005. Data for flood events (rainfall and discharge) were collected for HEC-HMS model. Clark method was used for unit hydrograph analysis. For the estimation of Clark unit hydrograph parameters, Kraven II and Sabol's empirical equations were applied. The peak discharge increased 9.9~33.67% and total discharge amount increased 12.53~30.21%. Also, time of concentration for peak discharge was reduced by 10 minutes for each event.
Assessing Unit Hydrograph Parameters and Peak Runoff Responses from Storm Rainfall Events: A Case Study in Hancheon Basin of Jeju Island
Kar, Kanak Kanti ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Lee, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 437~447
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.437
Estimation of runoff peak is needed to assess water availability, in order to support the multifaceted water uses and functions, hence to underscore the modalities for efficient water utilization. The magnitude of storm rainfall acts as a primary input for basin level runoff computation. The rainfall-runoff linkage plays a pivotal role in water resource system management and feasibility level planning for resource distribution. Considering this importance, a case study has been carried out in the Hancheon basin of Jeju Island where distinctive hydrological characteristics are investigated for continuous storm rainfall and high permeable geological features. The study aims to estimate unit hydrograph parameters, peak runoff and peak time of storm rainfalls based on Clark unit hydrograph method. For analyzing observed runoff, five storm rainfall events were selected randomly from recent years' rainfall and HEC-hydrologic modeling system (HMS) model was used for rainfall-runoff data processing. The simulation results showed that the peak runoff varies from 164 to 548 m3/sec and peak time (onset) varies from 8 to 27 hours. A comprehensive relationship between Clark unit hydrograph parameters (time of concentration and storage coefficient) has also been derived in this study. The optimized values of the two parameters were verified by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and runoff comparison performance were analyzed by root mean square error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) estimation. After statistical analysis of the Clark parameters significance level was found in 5% and runoff performances were found as 3.97 RMSE and 0.99 NSE, respectively. The calibration and validation results indicated strong coherence of unit hydrograph model responses to the actual situation of historical storm runoff events.
Analysis on Groundwater Flow According to Low Permeable Layer Structure over Seongsan Watershed of Jeju Island
Kim, Min-Chul ; Yang, Sung-Kee ; Oh, Seung-Tae ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 449~459
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.449
The depth of low permeable layer in Jeju Island was analyzed using the geologic columnar section data. The highest low permeable layer was found in center of Mt. Halla and the deepest area was in eastern part of Jeju Island. The study area, Seongsan watershed, is located in the eastern part of Jeju where the low permeable layer showing deep in a northward direction. Based on this analysis, the MODFLOW modeling was performed for groundwater flow of Seongsan watershed. The boundary of Seongsan watershed was set up as a no-flow and the modeling result showed the difference -0.26~0.62 m compared to the observed groundwater level. Meanwhile, MODFLOW model results considering low permeable layer showed -0.26~0.36 m differences compared to groundwater level and indicated more accurate than no-flow method result. Therefore, to interpret the groundwater flow over Seongsan watershed, comprehensive consideration including the low permeable layer distribution below the basalt layer is needed.
Estimation of Transmissivity Using Parameters of Groundwater Table Fluctuation Model
Kim, Nam-Won ; Kim, Youn-Jung ; Chung, Il-Moon ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 461~470
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.461
As hydrogeologic parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and specific yield are estimated by aquifer test, these are dependent on specific points at which field test was conducted. To overcome these site-specific limitations, a method of estimating transmissivity of aquifer using distribution features for parameters in Water table fluctuation model is newly suggested. Distribution features in reaction factor, specific yield and transmissivity having the function of pore space in aquifer are used to derive empirical equation for estimating transmissivity. From the result for applying the equation for 10 groundwater stations in Northeast Jeju Island, this equation is available for estimating transmissivity compared to the value estimated by existing equations. The estimated transmissivity ranged from 14.2 to
, and its average was
An Integrated Water Budget Analysis of Oedocheon Watershed in Jeju Island
Kim, Nam Won ; Chung, Il-Moon ; Na, Hanna ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 471~480
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.471
Hydrologic component analysis was conducted to investigate water budget characteristics the Oedocheon watershed, Jeju Island. For this purpose, integrated SWAT-MODFLOW model was applied to this watershed for continuous surface water-groundwater modeling. Pasture and forest-deciduous are the major land use types and these affect general hydrologic component ratio. The spatio-temporal groundwater recharge can be obtained from SWAT and then distributed groundwater recharge can be reproduced by MODFLOW. The groundwater level variation was simulated with distributed groundwater pumping data. The water budget in this watershed was compared with the previous estimated result by Jeju-Do(2013). As this result considered discharge to the coastal side, the discrepancy was found. However, it was found that the overall tendency of both analyses were similar.
Development of a Transient Groundwater Flow Model in Pyoseon Watershed of Jeju Island: Use of a Convolution Method
Kim, Seung-Gu ; Koo, Min-Ho ; Chung, Il-Moon ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 481~494
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.481
Groundwater level hydrographs from observation wells in Jeju island clearly illustrate distinctive features of recharge showing the time-delaying and dispersive process, mainly affected by the thickness and hydrogeologic properties of the unsaturated zone. Most groundwater flow models have limitations on delineating temporal variation of recharge, although it is a major component of the groundwater flow system. Recently, a convolution model was suggested as a mathematical technique to generate time series of recharge that incorporated the time-delaying and dispersive process. A groundwater flow model was developed to simulate transient groundwater level fluctuations in Pyoseon area of Jeju island. The model used the convolution technique to simulate temporal variations of groundwater levels. By making a series of trial-and-error adjustments, transient model calibration was conducted for various input parameters of both the groundwater flow model and the convolution model. The calibrated model could simulate water level fluctuations closely coinciding with measurements from 8 observation wells in the model area. Consequently, it is expected that, in transient groundwater flow models, the convolution technique can be effectively used to generate a time series of recharge.
Groundwater Modeling for Estimating Water Balance over Pyosun Watershed in Jeju Island
Song, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Gyu-Sang ; An, Jung-Gi ; Jeon, Sun-Geum ; Yi, Myung-Jae ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 495~504
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.495
To estimate water balance of Pyosun watershed in Jeju Island, a three-dimensional finite difference model MODFLOW was applied. Moreover, the accuracy of groundwater flow modeling was evaluated through the comparison of the recharge rate by flow modeling and the existing one from water balance model. The modeling result under the steady-state condition indicates that groundwater flow direction was from Mt. Halla to the South Sea and groundwater gradient was gradually lowered depending on the elevation. Annual recharge rate by the groundwater flow modeling in Pyosun watershed was calculated to 236 million
and it was found to be very low as compared to the recharge rate 238 million
by the existing water balance model. Therefore, groundwater flow modeling turned out to be useful to estimate the recharge rate in Pyosun watershed and it would be available to make groundwater management policy for watershed in the future.
Assessment of Water Balance Considering Runoff Characteristics in the Mountainous Area of Pyosun Catchment in Jeju Island
Song, Sung-Ho ; An, Jung-Gi ; Lee, Gyu-Sang ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 505~514
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.505
The grid-based water balance of watershed scale was assessed in the mountainous area of Pyosun catchment in Jeju Island after analyzing precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from January 2008 to December 2013. The existing results of direct runoff, evapotranspirtion, and groundwater recharge comparing to precipitation were presented 22.0%, 25.6%, and 52.4%, respectively, in Pyosun catchment. However, this study indicated each component shows 14.5%, 24.2%, and 61.0%, respectively, in the mountainous area of Pyosun catchment. Therefore, groundwater recharge rate in the mountainous area appears higher than 10% comparing to the overall catchment. It would be analyzed that the amount of direct runoff is relatively small. Moreover, this difference could be generated because of the spatial discontinuities in the process of estimating the total amount of precipitation in the mountainous area. Therefore, the grid-based spatial analysis to maximize the spatial continuity would be useful for providing a more reasonable result when the total amount of water resources are evaluated in mountainous areas in the future.
Development of Agricultural Groundwater Usage Model Considering Multipurpose Water in Jeju Island
An, Jung-Gi ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Dong-Rim ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 515~524
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.515
The estimation of groundwater usage in Jeju island is important to understand hydrologic cycle system and to plan management of water resource because large amounts of groundwater have been used for agricultural and domestic purpose. The model has been developed to estimate agricultural groundwater usage for garlic at uplands and citrus at orchards raising outdoors using the soil water balance model from FAO 56, respectively. The total amount of water supplied for the crop evapotranspiration and the multipurpose function such as sprout promotion can be simulated by the model. However, due to the discrepancy of water use in initial stage between calculated and observed, the model was calibrated and verified using actual groundwater usage monitoring data for 3.5 years (2011.6 to 2014.12) at three uplands for garlic and three orchards for citrus. Consequently, it would be concluded that the model simulated efficiently actual water usage in that root mean square (RMS) and normalized RMS of the validation stage were less than 8.99 mm and 2.43%, respectively, in two different conditions.
A Study on the Improvement in Local Gauge Correction Method
Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Min-Seong ; Seo, Seong-Woon ; Kim, Park-Sa ; Kang, Dong-Hwan ; Kwon, Byung-Hyuk ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 525~540
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.525
Spatial distribution of precipitation has been estimated based on the local gauge correction (LGC) with a fixed inverse distance weighting (IDW), which is not optimized in taking effective radius into account depending on the radar error. We developed an algorithm, improved local gauge correction (ILGC) which eliminates outlier in radar rainrate errors and optimize distance power for IDW. ILGC was statistically examined the hourly cumulated precipitation from weather for the heavy rain events. Adjusted radar rainfall from ILGC is improved to 50% compared with unadjusted radar rainfall. The accuracy of ILGC is higher to 7% than that of LGC, which resulted from a positive effect of the optimal algorithm on the adjustment of quantitative precipitation estimation from weather radar.
Characteristics of Formation of Chlorination Disinfection By-Products in Extracellular Organic Matter of Various Algal Species
Son, Hee-Jong ; Park, Hong-Ki ; Hwang, Young-Do ; Jung, Jong-Moon ; Kim, Sang-Goo ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 541~547
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.541
Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethans (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) from chlorination of six different species (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus sp., Anabaena cylindrical, Microcystis aeruginosa, Asterionella formosa and Aulacoseira sp.) of algal extracellular organic matter (EOM). The EOM characteristics evaluation of six algal species reaching at the stationary phase in the growth curve showed most of its SUVA254 showed below 1 and this means hydrophilic organic matter is much higher than hydrophobic organic matter. Chloroform formation potential (CFFP), dichloroacetic acid formation potential (DCAAFP) and trichloroacetic acid formation potential (TCAAFP) were mainly composed of THMFP and HAAFP in the EOM of various algal species. In the case of THMFP/DOC and HAAFP/DOC values, EOM of blue-green algae has appeared highest and EOM of green algae and diatom in order. THMFP/DOC was higher than HAAFP/DOC in EOM of blue-green algae. In comparison of formation potential by unit DOC composed of HAAFP in algal species EOM, DCAAFP/DOC was 1.5 times to 7.5 time higher than TCAAFP/DOC in the EOM of blue-green algae, while DCAAFP/DOC was found to be relatively high compared to TCAAFP/DOC in the EOM of green algae and diatom.
Evaluation of Mixed Korean Red Ginseng Marc with Aluminum Sulfate on Gas Concentration and VFA in Poultry Litter in Comparison with Aluminum Sulfate: In Terms of Livestock and Environment Managements
Choi, In-Hag ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 549~554
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.549
This study was conducted to determine the effects of mixed Korean red ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate on gas concentration and volatile fatty acid (VFA) in poultry litter during 4 weeks in terms of livestock and environment managements. A total of 240 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatments in four replications and 15 birds per replicate. The four treatments was mixed to rice hull under each pen at 0, 10 g or 20 g red ginseng marc + 90g aluminum sulfate, and 100g aluminum sulfate per kg poultry litter (rice hulls). Carbon dioxide, methane, acetic acid, and propionic acids were measured weekly. The results that could be available include: First, during the experimental period, carbon dioxide emissions were not remarkably different among treatments. Second, no differences were observed among treatments in methane emissions at 2 weeks through 4 weeks, but at 1 week, the reduction in methane emissions was in following order: 100 g aluminum sulfate > 20 g red ginseng marc + 90 g aluminum sulfate > 10 g red ginseng marc + 90 g aluminum sulfate > control. Third, in spite of statistically differences, treatment with 10 g or 20 g red ginseng marc + 90g aluminum sulfate, and 100g aluminum sulfate reduced acetic acid and propionic acid as a function of time, except acetic acid in aluminum sulfate treatment at 2 and 4 weeks. In conclusion, the results indicated that like aluminum sulfate, using 10 g or 20 g red ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate was effective in decreasing methane and propionic acid released from poultry litter.
A Study on Tourist shopping needs and its spatial characteristics
Cao, Lin-Sen ; Zhang, Rui ; Piao, Yong-Ji ; Cho, Tae-Dong ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 24, issue 4, 2015, Pages 555~559
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2015.24.4.555
Tourists travel demand can be divided into the watch the natural landscape, such as shopping, entertainment and other projects. Each travel demand with motivation for meet the requirements of appropriate tourism space environment in order to complete. In this paper, through questionnaire investigation and SD (Semantic Differential) method for the basic attributes of shopping tourists and spatial characteristics of commercial pedestrian street. And analyzes the basic attributes of shopping as the main demand of tourists characteristics and the spatial characteristics of the suitable shopping demand, to provide a scientific basis for the design of tourist shopping space.