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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Selection of Bird Species for the Nakdong River Estuary Management
Kim, Bum-soo ; Yeo, Unsang ; Oh, Dongha ; Sung, Kijune ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 615~623
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.615
Bird species (BS) of the Nakdong River estuary (NRE) were selected to suggest conservation and management strategies, taking habitats and major threats into consideration. Five BS (Cygnus spp., Calidris alpina, Sterna albifrons, Fulica atra, and Anser fabalis) were selected following analysis of their dominance, national importance, seasonality, taxonomic group, and distribution within the NRE. The BS comprise two winter birds, one summer, one passage bird, and one resident bird. They can also be classified into four taxonomic groups: two under ducks and geese (Anatidae), and one each under gulls (Laridae), shorebirds (Scolopacidae), and diving birds (Rallidae). The results show that BS could be a useful tool in guiding estuary management because their habitats are clearly distinct, and include important areas of the NRE. A reduction of feeding and resting places-such as tidal flats, Scirpus planiculmis habitat, and agricultural farmland-and climate change are major threats to BS, therefore countermeasures to such threats should be considered in future estuary management plans.
Growth Responses of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) to Hydrophilic Polymer Mixture Ratio in Growing Medium for Lower Maintenance Urban Agriculture via Green Roofs
Ju, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Xu, Hui ; Yoon, Young-Han ; Choi, Eun-Young ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 625~633
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.625
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of hydrophilic polymer (HP) mixture ratio (Control, 1.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%) on growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena) for lower maintenance urban agriculture via green roofs. Although it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), substrate temperature was decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio were increased. High substrate water content (95%) was found consistently in growing media under elevated hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio at over 5% during the entire growing period. Substrate electronic conductivity was increased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio were increased. Growth index was decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio was increased. It was reduced about 1/3 and 1/5 compared to that of Control in HP5.0 and HP10.0 treatment plants, respectively. Number of leaves, leaf length, and leaf width were decreased in following order: Control> HP1.0> HP2.5> HP5.0> HP10.0 treatments. There numbers were significantly lower in HP5.0 and HP10.0 treatment plants. Dry weight of shoot and root were decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio was increased. They were reduced by 1/4 compared to those of Control treatment plants. In addition, visual value was decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio was increased. Plants grown in HP1.0, HP2.5, and HP5.0 treatments all survived. However, plants grown in the HP10.0 treatment had the lowest survival rate (56%) after 3 months of growing. These results indicate that the advantage of adding hydrophilic polymer to green roof growing media may greater during dry periods. However, the proper mixture proportion of hydrophilic polymer should be determined according to different characteristics of growing media and plant species.
The Status of Birds Consuming Fruits and Seeds of the Tree and Related Tree Species on Jeju Island, the Republic of Korea
Kim, Eun-Mi ; Kang, Chang-Wan ; Lee, Seong-Youn ; Song, Kuk-Man ; Won, Hyun-Kyu ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 635~644
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.635
Birds play a main role in the formation and change of forest structures as they are seed-dispersal agents. This study aims to identify birds consuming fruits and seeds of the tree and their associated fruits and seeds on Jeju Island in the context on the forest restoration in Korea. We conducted field surveys twice a month from 2013 to 2015 at nine study sites located across Jeju Island and collected available photographic and observation records. A total of 50 species of birds consuming fruits and seeds of the tree were identified and birds belonging to Bombycillidae, Pycnonotidae, Zosteropidae, Sturnidae and Fringillidae were confirmed as major birds consuming fruits and seeds of the tree. Gulping was the dominant type of feeding as well as crushing, but relationship between the size of a bird and the number of fruit and seed species used by the bird was not significant. We also documented that 118 fruit and seed species were consumed by birds and that shrubby fruits and seeds were more consumed by birds than those of other plant types. The relative consumption rate of fruits and seeds ranged from 0.02 to 0.44, but five species were the most important fruits and seeds for birds. Our finding suggest that avian frugivorous gulpers will benefit the seed dispersal, especially of five fruiting plants, providing useful baseline data for forest restoration and urban park design.
A Study on Development of High Functional Materials Producing Technique using By-products from Skate Processing (1) - Development of Chondroitin Sulfate Materials using Skate Cartilages
Baek, Jang-Mi ; Kang, Keon-Hee ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Noh, Jeong-Sook ; Jeong, Kap-Seop ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 645~654
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.645
For the purpose of reuse the wasted by-products from the skate process to the health functional food or medicinal material, chondroitin sulfate was extracted from the skate cartilage with the method of hydrolysis with protease enzyme, and the contents of chondroitin sulfate and hydrolyzed protein were measured qualitatively and quantitatively. The effects of chondroitin sulfate on body weight or liver weight changes, hepatotoxicity elimination and anti-inflammatory actions were measured from in vivo test with feed-treated mice. From the hydrolytic extraction of skate cartilage with the mixture of 1% alcalase and 1% protease for 4 hours, the extraction yield of chondroitin sulfate was about 32.55%. The content and molecular weight of chondroitin sulfate was 26.63% and
., respectively and the content ratio of chondroitin sulfate to protein was measured to 1 to 2.76 with gel permeation chromatography. For the odor component, trimethylamine decreased about 30% but almost not ammonia from chondroitin sulfate with the treatment of activated carbon. From the feeding chondroitin sulfate to mice, the control effect of body and liver weights decrease was measured, anti-inflammatory action and hepatotoxicity elimination action were also measured. From these results, process operation conditions for manufacturing of chondroitin sulfate were suggested.
Distribution Characteristics of Functional Feeding Groups of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Biological Evaluation of Water Quality in Jirisan National Park
Bang, Gi-Jun ; Kim, Hyoung-Gon ; Yoon, Chun-Sik ; Cheong, Seon-Woo ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 655~671
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.655
The distribution characteristics of functional feeding groups and biological evaluation of water quality with benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated from 2013 to 2014 in the mountain streams of Jirisan National Park. Both quantitative and qualitative collection had been performed six times during study periods in twelve sites located at upstream, midstream and downstream of four valleys, Chilsungol, Baemsagol, Daesunggol and Piagol of freshwater ecosystem in Jirisan National Park. As results, the total collected benthic macroinvertebrates were 3 phyla, 4 classes, 11 orders, 37 families, 107 species and 4,028 individuals. In 2013, 3 phyla, 4 classes, 10 orders, 32 families, 89 species and 1,829 individuals were collected. And in 2014, 3 phyla, 4 classes, 9 orders, 31 families, 80 species and 2,199 individuals were identified. The total dominant species was Ecdyonurus kibumensis, and EPT groups occupied 80.39% of total species number. Biotic indices were also compared to site and to season. The dominant index (DI) was highest at the downstream of Baemsagol in the spring of 2013, and the evenness index (J') was highest at the downstream of Daesunggol in the summer of 2013. Both diversity index (H') and richness index (RI) were highest at the upstream of Baemsagol in the summer of 2014. The correlation between altitude above sea level and functional feeding groups of benthic macroinvertebrates was also researched in this study. As a result, the species number of shredders and predators have significantly increased according to the increase of the altitude of their habitat. On the other hand, individuals of gathering collectors have increased according to the increase of altitude. The biological water quality was evaluated and compared with several methods in this study, and we suggest that ESB and GPI are more appropriate than KSI and BMI to evaluate biological water quality of mountain stream water.
Evaluation of Air Pollution Monitoring Networks in Seoul Metropolitan Area using Multivariate Analysis
Choi, Im-Jo ; Jo, Wan-Keun ; Sin, Seung-Ho ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 673~681
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.673
The adequacy of urban air quality monitoring networks in the largest metropolitan city, Seoul was evaluated using multivariate analysis for
, CO, PM10, and
. Through cluster analysis for 5 air pollutants concentrations, existing monitoring stations are seen to be clustered mostly by geographical locations of the eight zones in Seoul. And the stations included in the same cluster are redundantly monitoring air pollutants exhibiting similar atmospheric behavior, thus it can be seen that they are being operated inefficiently. Because monitoring stations groups representing redudancy were different depending on measurement items and several pollutants are being measured at the same time in each air monitoring station, it is seemed to be not easy to integrate or transmigrate stations. But it may be proposed as follows : the redundant stations can be integrated or transmigrated based on ozone of which measures are increasing in recent years and alternatively the remaining pollutants other than the pollutant exhibiting similar atmospheric behavior with nearby station's can be measured. So it is considered to be able to operate air quality monitoring networks effectively and economically in order to improve air quality.
Sensitivity Analysis of the WRF Model according to the Impact of Nudging for Improvement of Ozone Prediction
Kim, Taehee ; Jeong, Ju-Hee ; Kim, Yoo-Keun ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 683~694
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.683
Sensitivity analysis of the WRF model according to the impact of nudging (e.g., nudging techniques and application domains) was conducted during high nocturnal ozone episode to improve the prediction of the regional ozone concentration in the southeastern coastal area of the Korean peninsula. The analysis was performed by six simulation experiments: (1) without nudging (e.g., CNTL case), (2) with observation nudging (ONE case) to all domains (domain 1~4), (3) with grid nudging (GNE case) to all domains, (4)~(6) with grid nudging to domain 1, domain 1~2 and domain 1~3, respectively (GNE-1, GNE-2, GNE-3 case). The results for nudging techniques showed that the GNE case was in very good agreement with those observed during all analysis periods (e.g., daytime, nighttime, and total), as compared to the ONE case. In particular, the large effect of grid nudging on the near-surface meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields) was predicted at the coastline and nearby sea during daytime. The results for application domains showed that the effects of nudging were distinguished between the meteorological factors and between the time periods. When applied grid nudging until subdomain, the improvement effects of temperature and relative humidity had differential tendencies. Temperature was increased for all time, but relative humidity was increased in daytime and was decreased in nighttime. Thus, GNE case showed better result than other cases.
Comparison of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Activities of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger Extracts
Jin, Dong-Hyeok ; Kim, Han-Soo ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Chung, Hun-Sik ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 695~703
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.695
The purpose of this study was to measure the bioactivity and antioxidant activity of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger. Orostachys japonicus A. Berger have been known to contain functional materials such as kaempferol, hydroquinone, methyl gallate, quercetin, gallic acid etc. To identify the main functional materials of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger, the contents of flavonoid and phenol were measured. We extracted Orostachys japonicus A. Berger powder from four solvents such as chloroform:methanol (CM, 2:1, v/v), distilled water (DW), 70% methanol, 70% ethanol. After that, this study determined tannin, total phenol, flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and reducing power of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger extracts and as results of comparing each extract. respectively. From the above results shows that antioxidant activity and bioactivity of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger extracts was higher in the order of 70% ethanol, 70% methanol, DW and CM (p<0.05). The results showed that antioxidant activity of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger extracts supposed to affect by the total phenol and flavonoid contents.
Concentration Rise of Fine Particle according to Resuspended Dust from Paved Roads after Sudden Heavy Rain in Busan
Jeon, Byung-Il ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 705~713
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.705
This study investigates the concentration sudden rise in fine particle according to resuspended dust from paved roads after sudden heavy rain in Busan on August 25, 2015. The localized torrential rainfall in Busan area occurred as tropical airmass flow from the south and polar airmass flow from north merged. Orographic effect of Mt. Geumjeong enforced rainfall and it amounted to maximum 80 mm/hr at Dongrae and Geumjeong region in Busan. This heavy rain induced flood and landslide in Busan and the nearby areas. The sudden heavy rain moved soil and gravel from mountainous region, which deposited on paved roads and near roadside. These matters on road suspended by an automobile transit, and increased fine particle concentration of air. In addition outdoor fine particle of high concentration flowed in indoor by shoes, cloths and air circulation.
Characteristics of Metallic and Ionic Elements Concentration in PM
at Guducsan in Busan
Jeon, Byung-Il ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 715~726
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.715
This study investigates the characteristics of metallic and ionic elements concentration, concentration according to transport path, and factor analysis in
at Guducsan in Busan in the springtime of 2015.
concentration in Guducsan and Gwaebeopdong were
, respectively. Contribution rate of water-soluble ions and secondary ion in
concentration in Guducsan were 37.0% and 27.8% respectively. [
] ratio and contribution rate of sea salt of
in Guducsan and Gwaebeopdong were 0.91 and 1.12, 7.0% and 5.3%, respectively. The results of the backward trajectory analysis indicates that
concentration, total inorganic water-soluble ions and total secondary ions were high when the air parcels moved from Sandong region in China than non-Sandong and northen China to Busan area. The results of the factor analysis at Guducsan indicates that factor 1 was anthropogenic source effects such as automobile emissions and industrial combustion processes, factor 2 was marine sources such as sea salts from sea, and factor 3 was soil component sources.
The Water Soluble Ionic Composition of PM
at 1,100 m-Highland of Mt. Hallasan on Jeju Island, Korea
Lee, Ki Ho ; Hu, Chul Goo ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 727~736
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.727
The ambient mass concentration and chemical composition of the
were determined at the highland site with 1,100 m above sea level on Jeju Island from June 2013 to November 2014. Yearly averaged mass concentration of
concentrations were highest during the spring, while they tended to be lowest during the summer. Eight water soluble ionic species attributed 45.5% to
were major ions, which occupied to 27.9%, 3.7% and 12.3%, respectively. The greatest contributors to total mass concentration of water-soluble ions contained in
were sulfate, ammonium and nitrate. These three ions accounted for 96.6% in total ions mass concentration of
. We could infer that these three secondary ions exist mostly in the form of
had a good relationship and with r=0.9. The molar ratio of
in this study was lower than the value observed in sea water and higher than that in soil dust, indicating that these two ions originated from other sources rather than ocean and soil dust in this study.
Selection of Optimum Ratio of 3 Components (Ir-Sn-Sb) Electrode using Design of Mixture Experiments
Park, Young-Seek ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 737~744
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.737
For electrolysis process using an insoluble electrode, electrochemical performance was greatly affected by the manufacturing method and procedure, such as the firing temperature, pre-treatment, type of precursor solution, coating method, electrode material, etc. Components of the electrode therein is one of the most important factors in electrochemical reaction. To achieve such characteristics, a appropriate ratio of the electrode material should be carefully chosen. The aim of this research was to apply experimental design method in the optimization of electrode component for the maximum generation of oxidants in electrochemical oxidation process. Mixture design, especially expanded simplex lattice design, in DOME (design of mixture experiments) with Design Expert - commercial software - was used to analyze the data. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination (
) value of 0.9470, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the
order special cubic regression model with the experimental data. The application of response surface methodology (RSM) yielded the following regression equation, which is an empirical relationship between the TRO generation concentration and independent variables(mol ratio of 3 electrode components) in a real unit: TRO generation concentration
. The optimized formulation of the 3 component electrode for an high TRO (total residual oxidants) generation was acquired at mol ratio of Ir 0.406, Sn 0.210, Sb 0.384 (desirability d value, 1).
Effects of Supplementing Duck Diets with Houttuynia Cordata Powder on the Fatty Acid Profiles of their Breast meat -A Field Study-
Choi, In Hag ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 25, issue 5, 2016, Pages 745~748
DOI : 10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.745
Ninety ducks (one-day-old Pekins, 45 males and 45 females) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with Houttuynia cordata powder on the fatty acid profiles of duck breast meat. The ducks were allotted to one of the three treatment diets using a completely randomized design, each treatment-group containing three replicate pens with ten birds each (five of each gender). The experimental diets were: 1) Control (basal diet), 2) T1 (Control+ 1% Houttuynia cordata) and 3) T2 (Control+2% Houttuynia cordata). In spite of significant difference, the addition of Houttuynia cordata resulted in higher unsaturated fatty acid and lower saturated fatty acid contents than in the Control group. However, no remarkable difference was observed between 1% and 2 % Houttuynia cordata groups for fatty acid profiles.