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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 6, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
Noise Pollution and the Perception of Noise in Seoul
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 551~562
Nine districts in Seoul were chosen randomly and a questionnaire containing 23 questions was distributed to survey the perception of noise pollution by the citizens. The results were primarily analyzed to understand the perception of Seoul citizen as a whole, and then analyzed according to 4 demographic variables -district area, age, gender and occupation -to see if there were any possible relation between nonnoise variables and noise annoyance. Actual noise level data measured by the city government were used to compare quantified noise level with the surveyed people's perception. It was found that people consider road traffic noise to be the naix source of noise pollution In Seoul and that most people have experienced annoyance in everyday life. Also it was verified that the responsibility for noise control should be on both city government and the individuals, but It was generally considered that very little effort Is actually put Into solong norse pollution from both groups. From the survey, It could be analyzed that domographic variables do affect people In the awareness of noise pollution, and that one's sensitifty and annoyance due to noise increase as one ages. From the study, It was concluded that noise pollution Is not considered currently as a hazardous problem to most Seoul citizens, however specific noise reduction policies, especially regarding road traffic noise, should be put Into practice In the near future.
Perceived Environmental Quality Index(PEQI) Model based on Estimation of Amenity Environment in Taegu-Kyungbuk Region
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 563~578
The purpose of this study is to suggest the estimation model of' amenity environment' by Perceived Envionmental Quality Index(PEQI) model. A questionnaire survey was carried out for 연e study area of Taegu-Kyungbuk region. Sampling size was 838(427 of Taegu and 411 of Kyungbuk residents by stratified sampling of each region's(7 Gu for Tae-gu, 7 Cities 61 Gun far Kyungbuk) population. The survey was done during Sep. to Nov, of 1996. The suggested model was composed of four estimation categories and 16 Indicators. The four categories were 'Cleanness 61 Quietness', 'Naturalness & Harmony', 'Beauty 61 Comfort' and 'Environmental Conservation Efforts'. And each category has several individual Indicators. The weighted means of satisfaction were different by each region. Suseong-gu, Dalseogu, Joong-gu(Taegu), Bumcheon, Andong, and Cheondo(Kyungbuk) showed high enoronmental satisfaction, but Dong-gu. Seo-gu(taegu), Youngcheon, and Pohang(Kyungbuk) showed lower environmental satisfaction. By Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) of weighting values for each categorirs, 'Enoronmental Conservation Efforts' was estimated as the most Important(value of 0.367), and 'Naturalness 61 Harmony'(0. 242),'Clenness & guletness'(0.225), and 'Beauty & Comfort'(0.166) were Important respectively. Total PEQI's were estimated as 48.0 for Taegu, and 53.3 for Kyungbuk. PEQI's for each regions were between 46.2(Dong-gu) and 59.9(Kimcheon). The validity of the suggested model was verined by factor analysis. The four factors were identnied as the same categories and indicators. Finally, The LISREL+7 model was suggested as estimauon model of 'Amenity Environment' for Taegu-Kyungbuk region.
Stratification related to Heat Flux in Deukryang Bay during Summer
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 579~588
In order to see the stratification related to the heat flux In Deukryang Bay, the oceanographic data on July 12, 1994 and the meteorological data of Kohung and Kwangju meteorological stations were analysed. The temperature durerences between the sea surface and the near bottom were 1~3 ton spring tide (July 12, 1994) In Deukryang Bay. The temperature anomalies were high about 3t during summer In 1994. These mean that the non mixing was not effective In destroying the stratification due to the sea surface heating by the solar radition, even though it was on spring tide. The maximum solar radiation was about 600 ly/day, which was the value of the same date of oceanographic observation. The sensible and the latent heat flux which are 0~100 ly/day were not so varied during summer. The absorbed heat flux through the sea surface was mostly lost by the back radiation. which ranges are about 0~-400 ly/day. The dimensionless mixing parameter related to the buoyancy flux was 5~150
. The efficiency of tidal mixing to destroy the stratecation was 0.4~0.6%.
A Sediment Transport of Cape Cod Coast, Massachusetts, USA
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 589~594
A total of 24 surface sediment samples collected from coastal region and fronting of sea cliff on Cape Cod In southeastern Massachusetts, were analyzed to Investigate the sediment transport mechanism. According to the result of grainsize analysis, the overall trend of g.k size decreases from the north(Wood End Beach) to the south(Nauset Light Beachy. The coarser materials tend to be deposited at the foreshore than at the backshore. Especially gavel content(%) Is very high in northern beaches. The lavel fraction tended to concentrate at the toe of the beach. In addition to gravel. the beach and nearshore bar also tended to be deposite of very coarse sand and the Inner fraction accumulate in the offshore bar, Grainsize analyses of sediment Indicates that the coarsest sands Including gravel accumulate In the beach and nearshore bar, the finer fraction winnowed out by wave action to be deposited In the offshore bar. The beach and nearshore bar sands and gavel are subsequently transported laterally by the wave-driven longshore drift, and finally they come to rest in the distal end of Provincetown Hook. The faller offshore sands are trnasported laterally to the south by net southward-directed longshore current.
Environmental Characteristics of Nutrients and Fluorescent Organic Hatters in the Northeast Pacific Ocean(KODOS)
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 595~604
To investigate characteristics of biogeochemical environment of the Korea Deep Ocean Study(KODOSI area in the northeast Pacific Ocean, we preferentially measured Inorganic nutrients and fluorescent organic matters. Typically. the permanent thermocline was well developed at the depth of 200~1000m In the study area. Nitrate. phosphate and silicate were low In the surface mixed layer and Increased with depth. N/P and N/Si showed 15 and 0.2 respectively In the deeper layer. Two fluorophores, biomacromolecule(protein-like) and geomacromolecule (humid-like) , were observed by three dimensional fluorescence excltatlon/ emission spectra matrix. Biomacromolecule(maximum fluorescence at
) ranged from 41.9 to 147.0 TU with its maximum In the surface mixed layer and minimum in deeper water, This is a same trend that has been reported for DOC in the equatorial Pacific. This suggests that biomacromolecule might be labile and converted to refractory humic substance after bacterial degradation In the deeper layer. On the contrary, geomacromolecule(maximum fluorescence at
), ranged from 7.6 to 46.5 QSU, showed minimum in the surface nixed layer(euphotic zone) Implying photodegradation and then increased with depth at all stations. In the characteristics of vertical profiles, the relationship between biomacromolecule and geomacromolecule showed negative correlation. Such trend can be attributed to biochemical regeneration or formation of fluorescent materials accompanying oxidation and rennnerallzation of settling organic matter.
Estimation of NPP Distribution using NOAA/AVHRR
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 605~612
This study is to evaluate the overall NPP(Net Primary Productions distribution in the Korean Peninsula from the satellite data(NOAA/AVHRR). This has been done using the linear relationship between the natural vegetation condition and the NPP. The NPP of natural vegetation increases proportional to the annual net radiation(Rn), where radiative dorless Index(RDI) is a proportional constant connecting Rn to NPP. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) Is used for monitoring vegetation change, and INDVI (Integrated NDVI) for annual analysis. The INDVI has a close relation to .Rn and NPP. which can be used effectively for estimating NPP distribution of where the meteorological data Is unavailable such as North Korea. The NPP distribution of the Korean Peninsula was estimated based on the model.
Variations of Air Quality in Kunsan, Taegu, and Pohang due to the Characteristics of Local Weather
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 613~628
Diurnal variations of air quality due to the characteristic features of local weather phenomena over Kunsan, Taegu, and Pohang are analyzed using various synoptic wand fields and the characteristics of local weather during the period of 1990 to 1992. The air pollutants analyzed are sulfur dioxide(
), nitrogen dioxide(
), and oxidants (
). The synoptic wind fields estimated at over the 850 hPa geopotential height are divided in terms of four wand directions and two wand speed categories for each season. The synoptic weather conditions are also classified Into two categories depending on the 850 hPa cloud amounts. The present study shows that the
concentration over Kunsan, and Taegu was maximum at the two or three hours after sunrise and second primary was three or flour hours after sunset. On the other hand, Its concentration over Kunsan was malnmum at 1900 LST or 2000 LST The
concentration over the three cities shows Its mapdmum In the afternoon when the solar radiation is strong. The
concentration over Kansan shows in reverse proportion to the
concentration over the Kunsan.
On Characteristics of Sea Breeze Front observed in Pusan Coastal Area, Korea
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 629~636
We have analyzed focusing on the characteristics, speed and width of sea breeze front in Pusan coastal area using the meteorological data observed at Kimhae air force meteorological station because the presence of the front has Important effects on the dInstributlon of air pollution. The inland penetration of sea breeze front was recognized by steep variation of meteorological parameters(wind direction, wind speed, temperature, dew point temperature, air pressure, relative humidity) before and after its passage and the variation of
concentration, the speed and width of the sea breeze front was 2.07m/s and 217m, respectively. The structure and inland penetration of sea breeeze front should be taken into account whenever a model is to be compared with detailed field measurements.
Influence on the Indoor Air Quality by Ambient Air during the Summer Season
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 637~644
The purpose of thins study was to quantitatively determine the Indoor Infiltration of pollutants of outdoor origin. The relationship between Indoor and outdoor air is dependent, to a large extent. on the rate of k exchange between these two environments. Mean Indoor/outdoor ratios measured from thins study were: 0.70 for HNO3; 1.60 for HNO2: 0.56 far SOg: 1.30 for mf3: 0.96 for PM2.5(dP<2.5mm: 0.89 for SO4a': 0.87 for NO3· and 0.79 for NH4 'Mean Indoor concentrations for PMa s, SO4a., HNO9, NO3 and NIL' were similar to outdoor levels. Indoor HNO2 and mB3 values were h19her than outdoors. However, the Indoor level of SO2 was lower than ambient level.
Design of a Local Ventilation System in the Non-Standard Air Condition using the Spreadsheet Model
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 645~658
A study on ventilation design using the spreadsheet model is carried out to propose means of available design. A sample of complex ventilation system In the non-standard condition Is used to illustrate thins spreadsheet model. In developing the spreadsheet model, this study has attempted to it general by using computional equations and design parameters that can be readily applied to any spreadsheet software. Also, most design data is contained in the spreadsheet template. This template provides the same design information as the ACGIH worksheet, and operates Quickly and emclenuy, and is fiexible enough to use under different conditions. This spreadsheet model allows the ventilation engineer to design quickly and accurately the ventilation system, without spending too much effort In the design process. By storing on computer and diskette, the design data computed finally can be used as a permanent record of specific ventilation system, and because of finally to be able to design over and over again while making only slight changes to the Input data, the spreadsheet model is used availably to accomplish the design optimazation by redesign and troubleshooting by review from field measurements. Also, the spreadsheet model is available for designing ventilation system under different condition or evaluating existing system or design drawing, because changes In the layout or formulae can be readily made to fit the needs of the designer.
Volatile Organic Compound Levels inside Vehicles using Commercial Air Cleaning Devices
Wan-Kuen Jo ; Kun-Ho Park ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 659~670
Vehicle occupant exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been a subject of concern In recent years because of higher levels of VOCs Inside vehicles as compared to the surrounding ambient atmosphere and because of the toxicity of VOCs. The effectiveness of two commercial ACDs for the removal of selected VOCs in the interior of automobiles was evaluated on 115 commutes throegh urban (Taegu) commutes by two cars and 9 idles. The idling and commuting studios conducted under four different driving conditions showed that the ho commercial ACDs were not effective for the removal of VOCs in the interior of vehicles. The concentrations of all target VOCs except benzene were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the interior of older car than of newer cu. The mean levels of benzene and toluene measured in thins study were well excess of earlier other studios In the United States, besides Los Angeles with which was comparable. It was reported that the in-vehicle exposure to benzene and corresponding upper-bound cancel risk were about 8 times higher than those for outdoor environment, while they were about half of those from Indoor environment.
The Submerged Biofilm Process using Oyster-Shell Media for Wastewater Treatment and Prediction
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 671~678
This study was conducted to use oyster shell as media for biological wastewater treatment. The comparison between the removal efficiencies of the activated sludge and the submerged biofilm process with oyster shell media (5% of reactor volume) for domestic sewage treatment was made. The contaminant removal efficiencies of the submerged process were higher than that of the activated sludge process. And the removal efficiencies of the submerged biofilm process with oyster shell media of 10% and 18% were Investigated at various loading rate. The removal efficiencies of 10% were higher than that of the 18% during the experimental period. The effluent concentration from the sub- merged bloom process using oyster shell media was prediceted by the Stover-Kincannon model.
Surface Water Contamination around the Sudokwon Landfill Site
Lee, In-Hyun ; Jang, Won ; Back, Young ; Doh, Kap-Soo ; Choi, Jae-Gyu ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 679~688
In order to analyze the water quality variation of surface water around the Sudokwon landfill site, seasonal variations of water temperature, pH, DO. HOD, COD, SS, NH3-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N were examined at 10 sites from January to December, 1996. It was found that the estimates of COD, DO. SS, and
were Increased compared with the results of environmental Impact assessment carried out In 1988. Higher estimates of COD, DO, and SS were due to Industrial and agricultural wastewater, and the Increase of NH3-N at Jangdo reservoir strate was due to the leachate from the landfill. In particular, the estimate of 55 was found to be increased by the soil wash from the landfill during the heavy rainy days.
Effect of the Hydrophobicity and the Surface Roughness of Support Material on the Microbial Attachment
Park, Young-Seek ; Suh, Jung-Ho ; Song, Seung-Koo ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 689~696
This paper discussed effect of the surface roughness and the hydrophobicity of support material on the microbial attachment In a rotating biological contactor. The by- drophoblclty of each support material was determined by the measurement of contact angle of water and the surface roughness was measured by the surface roughness In- strument. Microorganisms have well attached on the surface of more hydrophilic support material like Nylon6 than that of the hydrophobic support material like PE. When the relatively hydrophilic surface was roughen, the microbial attachment was increased but when the relatively hydrophobic surface was roughen, the attachment was slightly In- creased because the hydrophobicity of support material was Increased by roughening the hydrophobic surface. Although both variables, the surface hydrophobicity and the surface roughness, have Influenced the microbial attachment, the influence of the surface roughness overruled that of the surface hydrophobicity. Support material whose surfaces were roughened about 1mm, 6mm and 11mm were allowed for attached 3, 7 and 24hr, but the differences of maximum and minimum attachment of each material gave nearly constant values and similar trend with time.
Removal of Simultaneously Biological Organic, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Removal in Sequencing Batch Reactors using Night-soil
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 6, issue 6, 1997, Pages 697~709
Sequencing Batch Reactor(SBR) experiments for organics and nutrients removal have been conducted to find an optimum anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic cycling time and evaluate the applicability of oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) as a process control parameter. In this study, a 61 bench-scale plant was used and fed with night-soil wastewater in K city which contained TCODcr : 10, 680 mg/l, TBm : 6, 893 mg/l,
: 1, 609 mg/l,
: 602 mg/l on average. The cycling time In SBRs was adjusted at 12 hours and 24 hours, and then certainly included anaerobic, aerobic and inoxic conditions. Also, for each cycling time, we performed 3 series of experiment simultaneously which was set up 10 days, 20 days and 30 days as SRT From the experimental results, the optimum cycling time for biological nutrient removal with nlght-soil wastewater was respctively 3hrs, 5hrs, 3hrs(anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic), Nitrogen removal efficiency was 77.9%, 77.9%, 81.7% for each SRT, respectively. When external carbon source was fed in the anoxic phase, ORP-bending point indicating nitrate break point appeared clearly and nitrogen removal efficiency increased as 96.5%, 97.1%, 98.9%. Phosphate removal efficiency was 59.8%, 64.571, 68.6% for each SRT. Also, we finded the applicability of ORP as a process control parameter in SBRs.