Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Environmental Science International
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 7, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Air Quality Inside Passenger Car with Operating Air Quality System
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 573~580
This study examined the carbon dioxide (
) pollution inside vehicles under low ventilation condition and evaluated the Air Quality System (AQS) for in-vehicle air quality using two techniques. The low ventilation condition is not recommended in order to keep oxygen-rich condition inside vehicles. Under the low ventilation condition, the in-vehicle
concentrations exceeded 1,000 ppm, the air qualify guidelines in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan, indicating more oxygen deficiency inside vehicles. On the contrary, with the AQS-on condition, the in-vehicle
concentrations were less than 1,000 ppm fer most of the driving time, indicating that the AQS could solve the problem of
accumulation inside vehicles under the low ventilation condition. The AQS test conducted by comparing carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations inside two vehicles indicated that the AQS effectively decreased the in-vehicle concentrations by 21 to 36%, as compared to medium ventilation condition with the windows closed, the vent opened, and air conditioning on. In addition, The AQS test conducted by comparing the interior and exterior concentrations indicated that the AQS effectively decreased the in-vehicle concentrations by 18 to 31%, as compared to medium ventilation condition.
A Study on the Sensitivity Analysis of the Deterministic Sediment Yield Formulas
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 581~590
This st at the development of the adequate sediment yield formulas in Wi-Stream basin ; IHP representative basin in Korea. As a result of applying outstanding sediment yield formulas among the existing formulas, it is analyzed that including the Engelund ＆ Hansen formula, Yang formula is proper to the Wi-Stream basin. And as a result of sensitivity analysis to the sediment parameters it is analyzed that Rijn and Actors ＆ White formula is more sensible than any other formulas which has been applied the velocity and depth among the parameters. Also, Engelund ＆ Hansen and Yang formula is less sensible than any other formulas. In Wi-Stream basin, it is analyzed that Yang and Engelund ＆ Hansen formula is the most suitable sediment yield formula in this study. But because the existing formulas had been developed in foreign countries and applied the foreign natural livers and reservoirs, it makes careful use of Korean alluvial river and hoped that it will be developed the most adequate formula in Wi-Stream basin.
Evaluation of Water Quality in the Keum River Estuary by Multivariate Analysis
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 591~598
This study was conducted to evaluate water quality in the Keum River estuary using principal component analysis. The results was summarized as follow; Water quality in the Keum River estuary could be explained up to 70.40% by three factors which were included in the inffluent loading by the Keum River and Kyungpo cheon(38.99%), seasonal variation and organic matter pollution(19.05%), sediment resuspension and internal metabolism(12.35%). For spatial variation of factor score, artificial pollutant loading is highest at st.1, below Keum River barrage, and decreases toward the outer sea. For annual variation of factor score, factor 1 was highly related to artificial pollutant leading, and it was gently increased in 1994. Also, organic matter pollution, sediment resuspension and internal metabolism were increased to every year. It is necessary to control the nutrient leading by Keum river and Kyongpo cheon for Water quality management of estuary.
Studies on X-Y Chromosome Dissociation Induced by Environmental Mutagens in Mouse
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 599~605
The purpose of this work was to examine whether X-Y chromosome dissociation in the primary spermatocytes of mice could be used as an in vivo short-term assaying system that detect environmental mutagens. Four alkylating agents(EMS, MMS, MMC and MNNG) which were known as strong mutagens were administered to BALB/c male mice 3-4 months old. In the control group, the mean frequencies of previously dissociated X and Y chromosomes and autosomes were 7.17% and 2.12%, respectively. Compared to the control group, mutagen-treated groups have no significant differences in dissociation rate of autosomes, while these poops were about 1.2-2.5 times higher in the frequencies of X-Y dissociation. Generally, X-Y dissociation frequency increased consistently with the concentration of mutagens whereas the tendency of autosome dissociation frequency was variable among several mutagens. These results suggest that X-Y dissociation in the primary spermatocytes of mice is applicable as an vivo short-term assaying system for environmental mutagens. There were significantly distinct increase in dissociation of X-Y chromosome in both the hybrid and parents but the X-Y previous dissociation of hybrid appeared higher frequency than BALB /c and wild mice. These results indicate that the factor related to binding X-Y chromosome is specific to strains.
Flora of Phytoplankton in Milyang River
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 607~613
This study was carried out to investigate flora of phytoplankton in Milyang River from July 1996 to April 1997. Phytoplankton were identified 206 kinds and composed of 2 var.-for., 5 forms, 35 varieties, 164 species, 70 genera, 31 families, 14 orders, 6 classes and 5 phyla. According to the seasonal variation, 131 species were founded in summer, 109 species in spring, 108 species in autumn, and 100 species in winter, respectively. Seasonal and stationary variation of standing crops were between 10 and 5.600 cells/mι. At station 7, Cyclotella meneghiniana was bloomed 5,000 cells/mι(89.7%) in winter, and Stephanodiscus hantzschii was bloomed 3,400 cells/mι(74.3%) in spring. The number of species and standing crops were increased with proceeding from upper stream to lower stream. Important species of phytoplankton were 24 species, that are 4 species of Cyanophyta (Aphanocapsa elachista, Merismopedium glaucum, Lyngbya limnetica, Oscillatoria tenuis), 12 species of Crysophyta (Melosira varians, Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Cyclotalla meneghiniana, Fragilaria construens var. venter, Navicula cryptocephala, Cymbella ventricosa, Gomphonema olivaceum), and 8 species of Chlorophyta (Chlamydomonas reinhardi, Eudorina elegans, Pandorina morum, Oocystis borgei, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Microspora crassior). According to the similarity index among the stations, it was generally defind as two water areas such as upper stream(station 1~3) and lower stream(station 4~7).
Heat Effects for the Volatile Organic Compounds emitted from Garlic and Kimchee
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 615~622
The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) emitted from raw garlic and Kimchee were analyzed with thermal desorption or purge ＆ trap/gas chromatography/mass selective detection method. Very offensive compounds such as methyl allyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were detected, and among them, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were confirmed to be generated during the precocity of Kimchee or emitted from the stuff of Kimchee other than the garlic. Malodorous compounds emitted from the garlic or Kimchee were detected in the breath of a Korean and the refregirator keeping Kimchee. It was confirmed that the disufides emitted from the garlic or Kimchee were major components of offensive odor in the alveolar air and the refregirator. It was clarfied that heat process is very effective to reduce odorous VOCs in garlic or Kimchee.
Environmental Contamination of the Abandoned Chonju Il Mine in the Chonbuk Area
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 623~631
Pyrite contained in wasted ore dumps induces a strong acid environment when it contacts oxygenated rainfall. Present research was designed to evaluate the pollution of an area that is supposedly contaminated by pyrite of ore wasted dumps form in Chonju Il Mine. Measured are the pH and selected heavy metal elements in the supposedly polluted hydrologic system. The samples include three types : those collected from the stream waters; those from the stream sediments; and those from the rice field soil scattered over the area. The dispersion path of the pollution source was also traced. The pH of the hydrologic system ranged from 3.44 to 5.46, which clearly indicates that the area is on the acid environment. The pH tends to rise as the distance from the minehead increases. The content of heavy metal elements dissolved in the stream water varies as follows; Mn=69.73~1.99ppm, Cd=0.02~0.03ppm, Zn=0.77~1.18ppm, Cu=0.04~0.13ppm, Pb=0.22~0.32ppm. The stream water in this state may induce serious heavy metal pollution to the agricultural land and the water for human life especially in the villages down the stream. The content of heavy metal elements dissolved in the stream sediment varies as follows; Mn=245.0~4685.0ppm, Cd=10.0~15.0ppm, Zn=105.0~210.0ppm, Cu=65.0~155.0ppm, Pb=90.0~150.0ppm. The content of heavy metal elements dissolved in the rice field soil varies as follows; Mn=185.0~260.0ppm, Cd=10.0~15.0ppm, Zn=135.0~180.0ppm, Cu=65.0~90.0ppm, Pb=100.0~130.0ppm. The pollution index in the stream sediment and the rice field sell is 1.36~2.03, which shows that pollution had already begun all over the area where the samples were collected
Effects of Antioxidants on UV-B Susceptibility in Soybean
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 633~638
To determine whether the enhanced UV-B causes oxidative stress, and to test the relationship between plant growth response and biochemical defense response to UV-B, two soybean plants, Keunolkong, a highly UV-B susceptible cultivar, and Danyeubkong, a less UV-B susceptible cultivar, were subjected to the enhanced UV-B [daily dose : 0.06 (control) and 11.32 (enhanced UV-B) kJ
] for 3 weeks. Contents of malondialdehyde and total carotenold were increased in Keunolkong compared with Danyeubkong by UV-B. In control plants, ascorbate level of Danyeubkong was 3 times higher than that of Keunolkong. The ratio of dehydroascorbate/ascorbate was highly increased in Keunolkong by UV-B . The activities of antioxidative enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase were increased in both cultivars by UV-B. This results indicate that enhanced UV-B caused oxidative stress in both two cultivars, especially in Keunolkong. Susceptibility of two soybean cultivars to UV-B is closely related to the levels of antioxidants such as carotenoid and ascorbate.
Calculation of the Convective Mixed Layer by Estimation of Sensible Heat Flux
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 639~645
A Jump model was evaluated for the calculation of hourly mixing height and mean potential temperature within the height. The Sump model was modified for estimation of downward heat fluxes by mechanical convections and surface heat fluxes. The surface heat fluxes were estimated from routine weather data such as solar radiation and air temperature. Total of 8 upper-air data observed at 0000UTC and 0600UTC in Osan station during April 23 to 26, 1996 were analyzed, and compared to the model results in detail. The calculated mixing heights and potential temperatures within the height were comparable to the observations, but some differences were showed. The calculated mixing heights were generally higher than observations. And, when variations of wind directions were large, the large difference of potential temperature was occurred. From the results, it was important to note that vortical motions and advections of air masses would affect to the growth of the mixing height.
Emission Estimation of Air Pollutants in Kimhae Area
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 647~652
This study is to find out the emission estimation in Kimhae area. For this purpose, the Kimhae statistical yearbook and data of waste facilities issued by Kimhae city and the report on energy census issued by the ministry of trade, industry and energy are used. Each item for the emission estimation is
, CO, HC, Nox, TSP from point, line, area sources. The results were as follows; The air pollutants with the highest mont of emission from the emission sources is CO followed by Nox,
, TSP, HC in descending order of magnitude. The emission consists of 66.15% of line, 24.65% of area and 9.20% of point sources at Kimhae.
Biosorption of Pb and Cu by Kjellmaniella crassifolia
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 653~658
Marine algaes are capable of binding a large quantity of heavy metals. We have investigated the uptake capacity of Pb and Cu by using 22 species of marine algae. collected from Korean coast. Among a variety of different marine algae types for biosorbent potential. Kjellmaniella crassifolia showed the highest uptake capacity of Pb. Metal uptake of Pb and Cu by Kjellmaniella crassifolia increase as the initial concentration rises, as long as binding sites are remained. The metal uptake parameters for Pb and Cu had been determined according to Langmuir and Freundlich model. By increasing pH, Pb uptake was increased and Cu uptake was constant. The maximum uptake capacity of Pb and Cu by Kjellmaniella crassifolia was 437 mg/g and 129 mg/g, respectively.
A Study on Experimental Analysis of Semi-Continuous Settling Tank using Characteristics of Solid Sedimentation in the Binary
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 659~667
In the present paper, batch and semi-continuous settling characteristics of a binary calcium carbonate-water system were investigated. Using experimental data of batch settling characteristics, a graphical analysis for a semi-continuous thickening column was developed and compared with experimental results on the basis of Kynch theory, only where the feed velocity line was within the limits of Kynch theorem III. The analysis showed good agreement with experiments. Quite erroneous results, however, was observed for the analysis of a sludge region on the underloaded operation, which was considered due to the deviation from the limits of theory.
Hydrogen Permeance of Silica Membrane Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method on an
-Alumina Support Tube
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 669~677
-alumina tube of 2.5 mm O.D. and 1.9 mm I.D. was used as the support of an inorganic membrane. Macropores of the tube, about 150 nm in size, were plugged with silica formed by thermal decomposition of tetraethylorthosilicate at
. The forced cross-flow CVD method that reactant was evacuated through the porous wall of the support was very effective in plugging macropores. The H
permeance of the prepared membrane was of the order of
/, while the
permeance was below
. This was comparable to that of silica-modified Vycor glass whose size was 4 nm.
A Study on the Characteristics of the Soysauce Wastewater Treatment in Aerobic Submerged Biofilter
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 679~685
The Soysauce wastewater removal characteristics of submerged biofilters filled with two filter media respectively were experimentally examined with constant temperature, pH value and variable BOD loading and recirculation ratio. The decreasing order of BOD removal is Netring(random plastic media), cubic wire meshes(plastic module). This is mainly due to the media characteristics such as void ratio, specific surface area and media shapes. The BOD removal ratio decreases with increasing
/ volumetric loading rate, and the loading rate for the BOD removal over 85% is lower than 1.5kg
d for the plastic media of Netring and cubic wire meshes. The
removal rate increases with the recirculation ratio, but the rate of increase become smaller as the recirculation ratio increases over 20. When
volumetric loading is 1.5kg
d, the required recirculation ratio to obtain 85% BOD
removal is about 20 for Netring and it was about 30 for cubic wire meshes.s.
The Synthesis of Poly(DADM) Flocculant and Properties in Potable Water Treatment
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 687~692
Poly(DADM) was synthesized for the drinking water treatment. Poly(DADM) was produced by the free radical polymerization of diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADM) monomer and its properties were characterized. The effects of monomer concentration, initiator concentration and reaction time on synthesis of poly(DADM) were investigated. Poly(DADM) flocculant was applied to Nak-dong river water to examine its efficiency in reducing turbidity. The synthesized poly(DADM) was effective as flocculant for drinking water treatment. The addition of 1 mg/L of poly(DADM) flocculant caused the reduction of 50% PAC(polyaluminium chloride).
Study on Manufacturing Desulfurization Sorbent using Eggshell
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 693~696
We tried to develope a desulfurization sorbent using eggshell for recycling, practicability, and economic development. The calcination character of the eggshell was examined by thermal gravimetric analysis and qualitative-quantitative character by X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and scanning electron microscope(SEM). The calcination was occurred easily in the case of eggshell and its form was changed from calcite(
) to lime(CaO). The grain and pore sizes of the calcined sample after base-treatment were larger and more crystallic. The adsorption ability of the eggshell was two- to six-times in the calcination temperature more than in the grain size. Therefore, the eggshell was thought to be usable as the desulfurization sorbent.
A Study on the Availability of Activated Sludge for the
Removal in Aqueous Solution
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 697~705
removal capacity and initial
removal rate were compared between non-biomaterials (granular activated carbon, powdered activated carbon, ion exchange resin, zeolite) and biomaterials (activated sludge, Aureobasidium pullulans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The
removal capacity of biomaterials were greater than that of non-biomaterials, generally. The
removal capacities of non-biomaterials and biomaterials were shown on the order of ion exchange resin ＞ zeolite ＞ granular activated carbon ＞ powdered activated carbon and A. pullulans ＞ S. cerevisiae ＞ activated sludge, respectively. In the initial
removal rate, the non-biomaterials showed powdered activated carbon ＞ granular activated carbon ＞ zeolite ＞ ion exchange resin and the biomaterials showed A. pullulans ＞ activated sludge ＞ S. cerevisiae. Comparing the
removal capacity and initial
removal rate of activated sludge with those of other non-biomaterials and biomaterials, activated sludge may have an availability on the removal of heavy metal ions by the economical and pratical aspects.
Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in Pusan I. Temporal and spatial variation of pH and major ions
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 707~716
The chemical characteristics of precipitation was investigated in Pusan area. Samples were collected from January to November in 1996 at 4 sites, and analyzed pH, major soluble ionic components(C
). The order of anion and cation concentrations for the initial precipitation were C
, respectively. At coastal sites(P1 and P2) C
of maritime sources (seasalt) were high, but at inland sites(P3 and P4) nss-C
were high. Calcium ion for the initial precipitation showed high value of enrichement factor(EF) relative to seawater composition. The contribution of seasalt to the composition of precipitation was higher at bite P1 (53.5%) than those of the other sites. Throughout the year the concentrations of major ions for the initial precipitation were low in the heavy rain season. The mean pH for the initial precipitation was 5.4 and showed the negative relationship with the precipitaion amount. The S
do not play an important role in rain acidification due to the high(97%) neutralizing effect of amonia and calcium species.and calcium species.
부산지역 강우의 화학적 특성 II. 중금속의 공급원과 습성침적 플럭스
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 717~723
The concentrations and wet deposition flux into the sea of heavy metals of precipitation in Pusan area were measured and estimated. The samples were collected by polyethylene bottle(30ι) from January to November in 1996, and heavy metals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentration order of heavy metals was Al ＞Fe ＞Zn ＞Pb ＞Mn ＞Cu ＞Ni ＞Cd ＞Co, and they were high at inland sites and low at coastal sites. The enrichment factors for some metals(Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd), based on crustal Al, were significantly greater than unity, and the order was Cd ＞ Pb ＞ Zn ＞ Cu. This evidence suggests Cd and Pb are derived predominantly from non-crustal sources. Al, Fe and Mn contents showed good correlation with each other. Therefore this enrichment factor indicates similar geochemical behavior of these elements. The annual wet depositional flux(mg/
/yr) from Pl site was as follows: Al(121.1). Fe,(177.2), Zn(12.9), Mn(6.19), Pb(14.4), Cu(0.64), Ni(1.03), Cd(1.02) and Co(1.01).
The Response of the Subtropical High to the Variation of the Earth Surface Temperature
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 5, 1998, Pages 725~733
Three numerical experiments are done using IAP(Institute of Atmospheric Physics) global spectral model(T42L9) to investigate the influence of the surface temperatures on the 7-day simulation. Particularly, the response of the subtropical High in summer to the variation of soil temperature and sea surface temperature(SST) was emphasized through a series of experiments. Experiment 1 uses the June climate data as the earth surface conditions. Experiment 2 is similar to Experiment 1 except for the soil surface temperature. Experiment 3 is the same as Experiment 1 except for the modified SST, which is much warmer than the June climate SST on the sea around the Korean peninsula. The main finding in 7-day simulation is that the response of the subtropical high in summer to the variation of the sell surface temperature was much more than that to the variation of the SST. It is implied that the proper treatment of sell surface temperature is more important than that of the SST for the better 7-day simulation of the subtropical high in summer.