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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 7, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Multilateral Environmental Cooperation
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 735~744
This research emphasizes the necessity of building a multilateral environmental cooperation. The Process and Problems of multilateral environmental cooperation system are discussed, and some policy proposals are suggested. Especially for Northeast Asia, a comprehensive multilateral environmental cooperation system is required because of transborder pollutions. Within the contractual environment, international institutions can help the parties of conference to build up national capacity to cope with environmental threat.
Development of the Two-Zone Model to Estimate the Air Quality in Indoor Environments
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 745~751
The well-mixed room model has been traditionally used to predict the concentrations of contaminants in indoor environments. However, this is inappropriate because the flow fields in many indoor environments distribute contaminants non-uniformly, due to imperfect air mixing. Thus, some means used to describe an imperfectly mixed room are needed. The simplest model that accounts for imperfect air mixing is a two-zone model. Therefore, this study on development of computer program far the two-zone model is carried out to propose techniques of estimating the concentration of contaminants in the room. To do this, an important consideration is to divide a room into two-zone, i.e. the lower and upper zone assuming that the air and contaminants are well mixed within each zone. And between the zones the air recirculation is characterized through the air exchange parameter. By this basic assumption, the equations for the conservation of mass are derived for each zone. These equations are solved by using the computational technique. The language used to develope the program is a VISUAL BASIC. The value of air exchange coefficient(
) is the most difficult to forecast when the concentrations of contaminants in an imperfectly mixed room are estimated by the two-zone model. But, as the value of
increases, the air exchange between each zone increases. When the value of
is approximately 15, the concentrations in both zone approach each other, and the entire room may be approximately treated as a single well-mixed room. Therefore, this study is available for designing of the ventilation to improve the air quality of indoor environments. Also, the two-zone model produces the theoretical base which may be extended to the theory for the multi-zone model, that will be contributed to estimate the air pollution in large enclosures, such as shopping malls, atria buildings, atria terminals, and covered sports stadia.
Effect of Solvents on Reactive Extraction of Acrylic Acid
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 753~759
In physical and reactive extraction of acrylic acid using various solvents the equilibrium characteristics of extraction were investigated. The degree of extraction in reactive extraction with Tri-n-octylamine(TOA) was 1.5~3 times than that in physical extraction. Distribution ratio was constant in methyl isobutyl ketone(MIBK) and n-butylacetate(n-BAc) but was increased with increasing the concentration of acrylic acid in benzene and chloroform. It can be explained by formation of dimers. Maximum extraction leadings of acrylic acid were three in benzene and were two in MIBK, chloroform and n-BAc, and it was found that acrylic acid was extracted as the form of
R In benzene and
in MIBK, chloroform and n-BAc. In effect of solvent, the degree of extraction was increased as he difference of solubility parameter of solvent and solute was decreased, and as dielectric constant of solvent was increased.
Determination of Optimun Coagulant Dosage for Effective Water Treatment of Chinyang Lake -The Effect of Coagulant Dosing on Remoaval of Colloidal Pollutants-
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 761~772
This study was performed to determine the optimum coagulant dosing amount for effective treatment of raw water. The removal rate of turbidity and the variations of water qualities according to various dosage of coagulants such as Alum, PAC and PACS were investigated. The optimum coagulant dosing amount to make the lowest turbidity of water were 35mg/ι t of Alum, 30mg/ι of PAC and 10mg/ι of PACS in case of 5 NTU of raw water turbidity, and 30mg/ι of Alum, 25mg/ι of PAC and 10mg/ι of PACS in case of 10 NTU of that, respectively. The removal rates of turbidity at 4 min. and 8 min. of settling time were 10 and 72% of Alum, 44 and 62% of PAC and 25 and 55% of PACS in case of 5 NTU, and 52 and 70% of Alum, 90 and 95% of PAC and 10 and 28% of PACS in case of 10 NTU, respectively. Judging from the settling capability of floc., the reaction time of floe. formation and removal efficiency of turbidity, PAC was evaluated as more effective coagulant than Alum and PACS. Also PAC was regarded as the most effective coagulant when the water supply was changed sharply and the fluctuation of the surface loading occured with wide and sharp in settling basin. pH and alkalinity of the water were decreased with increasing coagulants dosage. But pH and alkalinity were not decreased below 5.8 which is the standard for drinking water quality, and 10mg/ι which is the limit concentration of floc. breakage, respectively. Residual Al of the treated water was decreased with increasing coagulants dosage in case of 5 and 10NTU of raw water turbidity.
consumption of the water was decreased with increasing coagulants dosage. The reduction rate of
consumption at the optimum coagulants dosage were 39% of Alum. 18% of PAC and 11% of PACS in case of 5 NTU of raw water turbidity, and 42% of Alum, 27% of PAC and 36% of PACS in case of 10 NTU of that, respectively. Any relationship was not found between the removal rate of turbidity and KMnO
consumption. TOC of the water was a bit decreased with increasing coagulants dosage up to 30mg/ι but not changed above 30mg/ι of coagulants dosage. The degree of TOC reduction was increased in the order of Alum, PAC and PACS treatment. Zeta potential of the colloidal floe. at the optimum coagulants dosage was in the range of -20~-15mV in case of 5 NTU of raw water turbidity and 0~0.5mV in case of 10 NTU of that. respectively. Although the kinds and dosages of coagulants were different, zeta potential range were fixed under the conditions of the best coagulation efficiency.
Removal of Phenol by Granular Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solution in Fixed-Bed Adsorption Column : Parameter Sensitivity Analysis
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 773~782
The adsorption experiment of phenol(Ph) from aqueous solution on granular activated carbon was studied in order to design the fixed-bed adsorption column. The experimental data were analyzed by unsteady-state, one-dimensional heterogeneous model. Finite element method(FEM) was applied to analyze the sensitivity of parameter and to predict the fixed-bed adsorption column performance on operation variable changes. The prediction model showed similar effect to mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion coefficient changes suggesting that both parameter present mass transfer rate limits for GAC-phenol system. The Freundlich constants had a greater effect than kinetic parameters for the performance of fixed-bed adsorption column. FEM solution facilitated prediction of concentration history in solution and within adsorbent particle.
The Effects of Desulfurization by Screen using Ca-based Absorbent in a Solid Waste Fluidized-bed Combustor
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 783~791
The objectives of this study were to investigate the characteristics of desulfurization under different experimental conditions and the effects of desulfurization bed fluidized bed combuster installed with the screen. The experimental results were as follows ; First, as the height of fluidized bed combustor becomes higher, the concentrations of
mainly increased and sulfur retion of paper sludge was higher than that of natural limestone. Second, the desulfurzation by natural limestone occurred at in-bed and the desulfurization by paper sludge occurred in the whole of fluidized bed combuster. In addition, we identified calcium sulfate by the analysis of SEM and XRD. Third, screen at splash region increased sulfur retention 2~5%, air velocity and anthracite fraction had a little effect on the sulfur retention.
A Study on the River Discharge Measurement Techniques
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 793~801
In this study, the Dilution Method is used to measure river discharge through the hydraulic model test. the dilution method is divided into Constant-Rate-Infection Method and Slug-Injection Method in the river discharge measurement techniques. When the dilution method is applied in the hydraulic model flume, it is analyzed that the estimated error of constant-rate-injection method is less than that of the slug-in-jection method, and the result shows that floodflow analysis is more efficient than lowflow analysis as compared observed discharge with calculated discharge. The result of statistical error analysis shows that the constant-rate-injection method is appropriate technique for the measurement of the river discharge. Therefore, the dilution method among the river discharge measurement techniques can be applied for the river basin which can't be measured with current meter or unsteady-flow regime in the urban-small drainage or hydraulic structure equipment area and can be obtained more exact results than any other discharge measurement techniques.
Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) Ions in water by the Ulva pertusa and Sargassum horneri
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 803~809
Heavy metal ions in water were removed using algal biomass as adsorbents. Absorbents were dried for 3 days, ground them by 40~60 mesh and then were swelled in a buffer solution for 1hr. After being packed in the column, commercially available standard solution of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions were diluted to get the suitable concentration and then it was eluted with the rate of 1mι/min. Heavy metals on the adsorbents were recovered with nitric acid. More amounts of Cd(II) or Pb(II) ions in green algae, Ulva pertusa, than in brown algae, Sargassum horneri, were adsorbed. Pb(II) ion was adsorbed more than Cd(II) ion in both algae. The pH effect of adsorbed amounts of Cd(II), Pb(II) ions on the biomass was shown the following order ; pH 10.5 ＞ 8.5 ＞ 7.0 ＞ 5.5 ＞ 3.5. Recovery ratio of metal ions front algae is shown higher in acidic or neutral conditions than it in alkalic ones. Pb(II) ion is recovered relatively more than Cd(II) ion in our system.
Analytical Methods for Phenolic Compounds in Water and Wastewaters(I)
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 811~815
Currently in Korea, standard operating procedure for the analyses of phenolic compounds in water is the spectrometric comparison of colors developed by 4-amino antipyrin with phenolic compounds. It is however that this method cannot identify individual compound and that some phenolic compounds do not react with 4-amino antipyrin. Spectrometric determinations of phenolic compounds were compared with chromatographic analyses of gas chromatography (GC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of various phenolic compounds. Individual phenolic compounds could be determined by both chromatographic methods but HPLC methods were more precise with lower detection levels in general.
The Material Distribution by the Ecosystem Modeling in Suyoung Bay
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 817~825
A three-dimensional ecosystem model is applied to the Suyoung Bay, located at the southeastern part of Korea, to study of the material distribution in the time scale of several tens days. The model has included of the DIN(Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen), DIP(Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate), phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus, and also was coupled with the physical processes. The spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a and primary productivity in the model is determined by the physical and chemical-biological parameters. The horizontal distributions of the DIN, DIP and chlorophyll-a are decreased from the coast to the off-shore, though the nutrients show some more complicated pattern than the chlorophyll-a. The nutrient contents in the off-shore are low, and thus a relatively low productivity(chlorophyll-a) are presented. On the whole, the distribution of the results of model are smoother than the observed ones and some small scale variation in the observed data cannot be reproduced by the model due to the resolution limits of model. However, the basic pattern and the quantitavities has been reproduced by the model well.
On the Development of the Statistical
Forecasting Technique by the Multiple Regression Analysis in Wonju City
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 827~831
forecasting technique by multiple regression analysis was designed and developed to predict
concentration in Wonju City.
concentration data measured from air pollution monitoring system and meteorological factors data such as : wind speed, atmospheric stability, surface temperature, relative humidity and precipitation were used in Wonju City during the 1996~1997. As the results, correlation model for forecasting was well fitted with some parameters including minimum temperature, wind speed and the
concentration of the previous day.
The Estimation of N, P mass Balance in Masan Bay using a Material Cycle Model
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 833~843
It is noted that the red tides and the oxygen-deficient water mass are extensively developed in Masan Bay during summer. The nutrients mass balance was calculated in Masan Bay, using the three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model and the material cycle model. The material cycle model was calibrated with the data obtained on the field of the study area in June 1993. The nutrients mass balance calculated by the combination of the residual currents and material cycle model results showed nutrients of surface and middle levels to be transported from the inner part to the outer part of Masan Bay, and nutrients of bottom level to be transported from outer part to inner part of Masan Bay. The uptake rate of DIN in the box A1(surface level of inner part) was found to be 337. 5mg/
ㆍday, the largest value in all 9 boxes and that of DIP was found to be 18.6mg/
ㆍday in box A1, and the regeneration rate of DIN was found to be 78.2mg/
ㆍday in the box A3(bottom level of inner part), and that of DIP was found to be 18.6mg/
ㆍday in box A1. The regenerations of DIN and DIP in the water column of the entire Bay were found to be 7.66ton/day and 760kg/day, respectively. And the releases of DIN and DIP from the sediments of the entire Bay were found to be 2.86ton/day and 634kg/day, respectively. The regeneration rate was 2.5 times as high as the release rate in DIN, and 1.2 times in DIP. The results of mass balance calculation showed not only the nutrients released from the sediments but the nutrients regenerated in water column to be important in the control and management of water quality in Masan Bay.
The Characteristics of Water Quality and the Estimation of Pollutant Loadings from the Flowing Streams in Cheju Island
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 845~851
In order to manage the water quality from the flowing streams in Cheju Island, the characteristics of water quality was investigated from August, 1996 to May, 1997 and the pollutant loadings for future were estimated from the watershed at each stream. Comparing the mean concentrations of each water quality with the criterion of water quality in river, it was under I class except for Changgo Stream, for DO, under I class at the whole station for SS and under II class for BOD. As the pollutant loadings at each stream in 2020 is compared with those in 1996, the estimated results are as follows : 1) for BOD, 59% at Donghong Stream, 24% at Yeonoe Stream, 44% at Ohngpo Stream and 57% at Changgo Stream. 2) for T-N, 91% at Donghong Stream, 76% at Yeonoe Stream, 63% at Ohngpo Stream and 89% at Changgo Stream. 3) for T-P, 69% at Donghong Stream, 42% at Yeonoe Stream, 45% at Ohngpo Stream and 73% at Changgo Stream. The point source loadings discharged through combined sewer could be treated at sewage treatment plant. However, the expected slow decreasing rate of BOD, T-N, and T-P loadings is due to the part of untreated nonpoint source loadings. Nonpoint source loading overflow typically occurs when the flow of stormwater combined with sewage exceeds the capacity of the interceptor sewers. Since most of the sewers used in Cheju Island are the combined sewers, the combined overflow sewage is bypassed into the receiving water area after a rainstorm. Therefore, a means to control nonpoint source loadings should be considered for the river and marine water quality management.
Purification of Isocitrate lyase Produced from Microbacterium laevaniformans
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 853~857
Purification of the isocitrate lyase extracted from Microbacterium laevaniformans was investigated. The isocitrate lyase was purified 43.6 folds by the following continuous treatment with ammonium sulfate fraction, DEAE-cellulose, DEAE-sephacel and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The purified isocitrate lyase was showed to be a single protein band by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified isocitrate lyase was estimated 54,000 Da by the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Km and Vmax values for isocitrate were estimated to be 0.83mM and 0.33units/ml, respectively. Activity of isocitrate lyase was inhibited by cystein-HCl and glutathione.
Characteristics of Groundwater Quality in Kyungnam Province
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 859~865
The analysis of groundwater quality in Kyungnam Province was conducted using monitoring results obtained during 1994. According to the analysis, most heavy metals and pesticides listed in Korean drinking water standards were not detected in Kyungnam Province groundwater, but arsonic and volatile organics such as TCE and PCE were detected. Four inorganic contaminants were detected and frequency of violating the standards was in order of
. Of organics, TCE and PCE were the only contaminants detected. TCE more frequently violated the standards than PCE. Correlation was investigated among contaminants detected in Kyungnam Province groundwater. The correlation results showed that high correlation existed among dissolved solids, hardness, and
Dewatering and Settling Characteristics of Digested Sludge from the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor for Treatment of Nightsoil
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 867~873
Laboratory study was conducted to provide basic data for operating anaerobic sequencing batch reactor(ASBR) process for treatment of nightsoil. The experiments were concerned with digestion characteristics, settleabiltity and dewaterability of digested sludge in ASBR system. Completely-mixed dally-fed control reactor without solid-liquid separation step was also operated to evaluate the baseline performance since the nature of nightsoil was changed with time. In all case, gas production from the ASBR shows 1.3 to 1.44 times higher than that from control, in spite of almost similar trend in organics removal. During thickening period, remarkable decrease in surface settling velocity was observed at the ASBRs compared with the control. In case of the ASBR run, flotation of mixed digested sludge was not occurred. Also, ultimate thickened volume of ASBRs increased 1.2~1.5 times compared with control. Dewaterability of digested sludge without conditioning decreased when the completely-mixed daily-fed reactor for ASBR run was converted to the ASBR. However, improvement of dewaterability of digested sludge from the ASBRs was observed as a result of addition of FeCl
to digested sludge for conditioning.
Characterization of Emulsion Properties for D-limonene
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 875~881
Microemulsion is prepared by the method of phase inversion emulsification with d-limonene that is environmental friendly substance and nontoxic to human body as dispersed phase. Emulsifier used for preparation of microemulsion is nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether. Stability of prepared microemulsion was estimated by the various method of ξ-potential, hydrodynamic diameter and electric conductivity. When d-limonene is emulsified by NP series, microemulsion is most stable and narrowly distributed at HLB value of 12.3(either one emulsifier or mixed emulsifiers). Stability of microemulsion is increased as the amount of emulsifiers is increased at same HLB value of 12.3. In the case of using the same amount of emulsifiers, number of produced micelle are relatively large as hydrodynamic diameter is small. Therefore, the state of microemulsion is stable and the electric conductivity is increased. One can determine that higher electric conductivity value means that microemulsion has more micelles and is more stable.
Study on the Values for Urban Green Space in terms of University Students -The Case of Talsong Park in Taegu-
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 883~888
The aim of this paper is to suggest basic guidelines for the urban park development policy in Taegu. This research is mainly based on university students' essay on ＜private inquiry of urban park in Taegu＞. Talsong Park, the most popular site for the students' essay, was selected for the purpose of the study. The research focused on the general images of the park, negative images of the park and aspirations and demands for the park in relation with Talsong Park redevelopment policy. The research of this result suggested that the renovation of Talsong Park from zoo-oriented park to the historic ＆ cultural park status. The other main suggestion was consideration of public participation from the planning stage for the betterment of park management. In addition, the importance of environmental education for the local people was stressed in order to enhance public awareness of environment for the solution of our common environmental problems in relation with Local Agenda 21.
A Comparative Study of Depositional Environments through Coring Analysis in Yeongsan and Nakdong Estuaries
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 7, issue 6, 1998, Pages 889~893