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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Biological Evaluation of off-shore Water Quality in Southern Coastal Waters with Asterias Aurensis Gametes
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~6
This study was carried out to evaluate off-shore water quality and to draw marine pollution map to Southern sea in Korea by bioassay using gametes and early development system of Asterias amurensis. From the bioassay, it was determined that the water qualites of Southern sea maintained the grade II, because development of A. amurensis were moderately inhibited. However, Sunchon, Kwangyang, and Jinhae Bay belonged to grade III, because development of A. amurensis were strongly inhibited. This could be due to the inflows of several river systems and poor water circulation. The water quality at Yosu island was the grade I, because A. amurensis were not inhibited in its early development.
Biological Water Quality Evaluation using the Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Miryang River
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 7~18
Fauna and biological water quality using benthic macroinvertebrates were analysed and estimated macroinvertebrates. Samples were collected 5 times from the 7 sites in the river between April and December 1997, and the results are summarized as follows. The taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates was totally composed 81 species, 45 genus, 37 families, 15 orders, 8 classes in 3 phyla. Among them, aquatic insects were mostly abundant as 65 species, and also, there were a species of oligochaetes, 2 species of hirundinida, 6 species of gastropods, 5 species of polecypoda, and 2 species of crustaceans. Average individual numbers in the whole sampling sites was 815 per square meter, and insects were abundant (Approx. 80%). Among the insects, the major taxa were respectively ephemeroptera (Approx. 70%) and trichoptera (Approx. 18%). According to the average individual numbers in each site, Chung-do stream (site 1) showed the highest appearance rate as 262 individual/
(32.2%), and the lowest value was at the end of Miryang River (site 7) as 38 individual /
(4.7%). The dominant species among the whole samples was Ecdyomurus levis Navas, and dominance indices was 0.3. In each site, Ecdyomurus levis Navas was dominant species from site 1 to site 5, and dominant species at site 6 and 7 was respectively Hirudinidae sp. 1. Species diversity index in total average of samples was 2.66. Average of species diversity index according to each study site was the highest value at site 4 (H'=3.47), and site 2, 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 in that order. According to the water quality as biotic indices, GPI value was 1.49 in total average of Miryang river, and the pollution indices evaluated secondary water quality criteria as
-mesosaprobics. In each site, the best water quality was at site 3, and it revealed the first water quality criteria as Oligosaprobic. It was then site 1, 2, 4 and 5 in the order of water quality, and was evaluated secondary water quality criteria as
-mesosaprobics, respectively. Site 6 was also revealed the third water quality criteria as
-mesosaprobics. The worst water quality was at site 7, which revealed the third water quality criteria as a-mesosaprobics.
A Study on the Remaining Concentration of Pesticides in Tap Water of Taejon City by Ellman′s Enzyme Method and the Countermeasure
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 19~26
The degree of pesticides accumulation in tap water in Taejon from June 1995 to Apr 1996 was measured by Ellman's coupled enzyme assay. Since organic phosphate and carbamate pesticides specifically inhibit the neurotransmitter modulating enzyme acetylcholinesterase(AChE), the enzyme activity can be used as a diagnosis for the pesticides accumulation in water and various samples. During the period of this study, the enzyme activity was changed almost every week. The lowest enzyme activity was 64 % of that of the control reaction and there are several days showing about 100 % enzyme activity. In general, the enzyme activity is higher in summer than other seasons especially early spring times. The pH value of tap water was very close to neutral(pH 7.0) and it seems that the enzyme activity was not affected by the small pH changes. Either boiling of tap water or addition of NaOH solution decomposed the pesticide components. These results show that AChE assay is a convenient, sensitive, and reliable method for detection of pesticides in water samples.
Emission Characteristics of Air Pollutants produced from Idling of Vehicles
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 27~32
This study identified concentrations of all pollutants emitted from idling of vehicles such as cars, taxis, trucks, and buses. In this investigation we analyzed concentrations of
, NOx, CO, and
omitted from exhaust pipe of vehicles as a function of vehicle type, mileage, exhaust volume, and fuel type using the GreenLine. Compact or light cars, which have relatively low exhaust volume, showed much higher exhaust concentrations of
, CO, and NOx than those emitted from vehicles with high exhaust volume. Vehicles using light oil showed much higher exhaust NOx concentrations than those of vehicles using gasoline. Vehicles using LPG and compact cars showed very high exhaust CO concentration compared to other vehicles. NOx exhaust concentrations were increased with increasing the mileage of vehicles.
Characteristics of Air Pollution at Kimhae
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 33~43
This paper aims to describe the characteristics of air pollution using air pollutants concentration and meteorological data observed at Kimhae from December 1996 to November, 1997. The results are as follows : The concentration distribution of sulfur dioxide(
), carbon monoxide(CO), particulate matter(PM-10), and nitrogen dioxide(
) is high during the late fall and winter and low during the summer, but ozone concentration is low during the winter season and high during summer season except Jangma period and these distributions appear to be closely connected with insolation and the number of clear day. Diurnal variation of concentrations for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide are high during the rush hours and nighttime and low during the daytime and these variations are distinct toward the winter season. And diurnal variation of nitrogen dioxide concentration has also same pattern and these patterns are closely related to the increasing traffic volume at rush hours. Diurnal variation of ozone concentration is generally increase for daytime and decrease for the late afternoon and are closely related to the insolation and photochemical reaction. The 24 hour average concentrations of air pollutant observed at Kimhae represented a positive correlation and a negative correlation for
and also a negative correlation for the meteorological elements such as wind speed and cloud cover.
Permeation of Organic Chemicals through Gasketed Cast Iron Pipe
Yong-Chan Seo ; Nack-Joo Kim ;
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 45~50
Four cast iron pipe sections containing 3 styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) gaskets (1 joint and 2 end caps) were filled with water and maintained at approximately 40 psi internal pressure. The pipe sections were placed inside 16 gallon drums filled with initially clean sand. Three of the tanks were subsequently contaminated with gasoline, gasoline spiked with pyrene and naphthalene, and toluene. The forth tank served as a control. The water inside each pipe was monitored over time for organic chemical contamination. Permeation of organic chemicals into the water inside the pipe systems was found to occur in all 3 contaminated pipe systems after approximately 100 days as measured organic chemicals concentrations were significantly above those in the uncontaminated cell. Flushing experiments in which the water inside the contaminated pipes was replaced with initially clean water showed that organic chemical concentrations inside the pipe rapidly (12 days) reached their preflushing levels.
Residence Times and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols I. Concentration of Major Ions and Heavy Metals in Pusan
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 51~59
Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols was measured at 4 sites in Pusan. All the samples were collected with a high volume air sampler from January to October 1996, to analyze major ions and heavy metals. Dominant ions of aerosols were S
in anion and N
in cation. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions in aerosols showed high enrichment factor to soil and seawater composition. The concentrations of heavy metals in aerosols was lowest at the site PI near the coast. The lowest concentrations of major ions and heavy metals mainly appeared in August, probably due to scavenging by frequent rains. Especially, the concentrations of total suspended particulate matter(TSP) and heavy metals in aerosols showed good correlations in Pusan. Based on crustal Al, enrichment factors for some metals(Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in aerosols were significantly greater than unity, and the order was Cd ＞ Pb ＞ Zn ＞ Cu. This evidence suggests that Cd and Pb are derived predominantly from non-crustal sources.s.
Characterization of Emulsion Properties for Modified Amino Polysiloxanes
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 61~67
Silicone oil has organic and inorganic properties, and its skeleton is polysiloxane bonding that silicon is bonded hydrogen or organic group. Silicone compounds are very smooth and lubricant properties by low surface tension, low temperature dependence, and nonadhesive properties. Because of these properties, silicone compounds are used as many parts of chemicals, softener, smooth and libricant agents, water-repellent agent, and defoaming agent, etc. Emulsion was prepared with the inversion emulsification method which adopted the agent-in-oil method dissolving the polyoxyethylene(7) tridecyl ether(HLB 12.2) into methoxy terminated poly(dimethyl-co-methyl amino) siloxane and hydroxy terminated poly(dimethyl-co-methyl amino) siloxane in water. At this time, processed emulsion was almost microemulsion. When ratio of emulsifier increases, emulsion is stable bacuause microemulsion is solubilized by emulsion drop size and zeta-potential are decreased. But, when amount of electrolyte is increase, emulsion became unstable because emulsion drop size is increased.
Soil Properties Affecting the Adsorption of Lead
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 69~74
Soil properties which affect the retention of Pb(I) were investigated in the laboratory. It was determined, through selective removal, that organic matter and Fe-oxides are of lesser importance in influencing Pb retention than are soil clay minerals. The following trend : clays ＞ organic matter ＞ Fe-oxides represents the relative importance of each constituent in the adsorption of Pb by soils. The consistently greater Pb uptake by surface over subsurface samples was apparently due to differences in organic matter content, inasmuch as organic matter removal from both resulted in similar adsorption characteristics. All five soils stooled exhibited a pH-dependent trend of adsorption. The extent of Pb adsorption was least at low pH values(4~5), was maximum in the neutral pH range, and leveled off or diminished under more alkaline conditions. There was no strong correlation between Pb uptake and soil cation exchange capacity as routinely measured by the NH
OAc method. A knowledge of clay mineralogy in conjunction with soil pH is suggested as being the most reliable guide to predicting Pb retention by soils.
A Study on the Advanced Treatment of Wastewater by Plants
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 75~81
In recent years increasing production and disposal of wastewater have caused an accelerated eutrophication of receiving waters. Therefore, in order to alleviate the detrimental impact of wastewater discharge, there is an increasing demand for removing the main nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the organic content of the waste water prior to disposal. This is effectively achieved by extended conventional treatment technology. However, the working expenses and energy requirements of such advanced treatment systems are rather high. So in a sparsely populated rural community is required development of wastewater treatment system combined with the regional characteristics. In this study, the systems are planted with Reeds and Amaryllis In A.C and estimated purification potential of system. The results obtained are as follows. BOD removal rate is 20% in the early stage, the last removal rate is 35% in A.C process and is 65% in Amaryllis+A.C process and is 50% in Reed+A.C process. T-N removal rate by Amaryllis is average 2.6g/
ㆍd, T-N removal rate by Reed is average 1.76g/
ㆍd. T-P removal rate by Amaryllis is average 0.27g/
ㆍd, T-P removal rate by Reed is average 0.25g/
ㆍd. BOD removal rate constant with retention time is 1.4494(1/d), T-N removal rate constant is 0.5428(1/d), T-P removal rate constant is 0.5287(1/d).
A Study on the Choice of Proper Region for Moving Cage Culture Facilities
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 83~94
A Study on the choice of proper region for moving cage culture facilities were carried out in the South Sea of Korea. Optimum temperatures of habitats for cage culture fishes, Sebastes schlegeli, Paralichthys olivaceus, Seriola quinqueradiata, Lateolabrax japonicus, Pagrus major, Takifugu vermicularis, and Mugil cephalus were 18~26
, and 19~27
, respectively. In winter, wintering regions for continuous growth of fishes were proper around Komundo, Sorido, Soimal, Gadukdo and Chejudo for Paralichthys olivaceus and Lateolabrax japonicus, while Seoguipo and Udo for Seriola quinqueradiata, Pagrus major and Takifugu vermicularis. Sanji was not proper for wintering region because variation of water temperature is large by effect of strong northwestern wind. Wintering regions of Sebastes schlegeli and Mugil cephalus were not in the south of Korea. In summer, proper regions for fishes to avoid from damage by red tide were Komundo and around Chejudo. No red tide has occurred in these regions for 6 years. Mokpo and Yoja Bay were not proper for moving region because the former had strong tides and the latter had only one exit out of the bay which made it impossible to move cages in other route when dangerous red tides burst into.
A Study on the Optimal Design in the Indirect Aerated Fluidized Bed
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 95~100
Process intensification without any increase in bed requires the exploitation of fluid mechanical phenomena as the basis for elegant solutions to the process engineering problems which result from the need to retain and control the immobilized biomass, and for biomass recovery. The fluidized bed biological reactor provides a solution to these needs. The wastewater treatment characteristics of the fluidized bed was filled with sand media. Indirect aeration were studied experimentally. The researcher was filled with sand particle size(0.60~0.42mm) in three reactors with different section area(A)/height(H), in the state BOD loading 4.5kg-
ㆍd, and under the fixed state of hydraulic retention time for around 32 minutes.
The Relationship between Phytoplankton Productivity and Water Quality Changes in Downstream of Nakdong River
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 101~106
The relationship between primary productivity and changes in water quality was investigated at Mulgum station, a site downstream of the Nakdong River, Korea. Phytoplankton production was characterized by blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa during the summer and Stephanodiscus hantzschii during the winter. Primary production and secondary production by bacterioplankton ranged from 1.5~53.5 mg-C/ι day and 0.1~0.3 mg-C/ι day, respectively. Distribution of total organic carbon appeared to be highly correlated with phytoplankton biomass, especially during blooms of M. aeruginosa, when particulate organic carbon was 81% of total organic carbon and the main source of organic materials supplied into the water. The correlation coefficient between chlorophyll-a and BOD was 0.86. Thus it was concluded that autochthonous phytoplankton mostly affected the BOD level. Total bacterial numbers were also highly correlated with chlorophyll-a (
= 0.84) and the bacterial community appears to be regulated by phytoplankton biomass in this area.
Characteristics of Denitrification from Municipal Wastewater Treatment using a Combined Fixed Film Reactor (CFFR) Process
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 107~113
A new biological nutrient removal system combining
process with fixed film was developed in this work and the characteristics of denitrification were especially investigated in the combined fixed film reactor(CFFR). Media was added in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic reactors, respectively. Tests were made to establish the effluent level of
, COD, DO and nitrite effects on
removal in the CFFR by decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.0 to 3.5 hours and by increasing internal recycle ratio form 0% to 200%. The influent was synthesized to levels similar to the average influent of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Korea. SARAN media with a porosity of 96.3% was packed 40% / 130% / 25% based on its reactor volume, respectively. It was found that COD rarely limited dentrification in the anoxic reactor because of high
ratio in the anoxic reactor, while DO concentration in the anoxic reactor and
from the aerobic effluent inhibited denitrification in the anoxic reactor. It was proved that the critical points of DO concentration in the anoxic reactor and
from the aerobic effluent were 0.15mg/L and 10%, respectively. As the internal recycle ratio increased, DO concentration in the anoxic reactor and
from the aerobic effluent increased. Especially, at the condition of internal recycle ratio, 200%, DO concentration in the anoxic reactor and
from the aerobic effluent exceeded the critical points of 0.15mg/L and 10%, respectively. Then, denitrification efficiency considerably decreased. Consequently, it was represented that the control of DO concentration in the anoxic reactor and
from the aerobic effluent can assure effective denitrification.
Cost Analysis of Ocean Outfall and Tertiary Treatment Processes in Suyong Sewage Treatment Plant
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 115~123
Sewage has been almost treated by secondary treatment process. Secondary-treated effluent of sewage treatment plant caused the pollution of nearby beach. Nitrogen(N) and Phosphorus(P) in effluent water have caused many problems on estuary, such as red tide, eutrophication and aquatic toxicity. Therefore, the effective nitrogen and phosphorus removal from sewage treatment plants is necessary to prevent those pollution problems. However, little sewage treatment plant in Korea is effectively being operated for the removal of the nutrients. This study is analyzed for the effectiveness of cost when tertiary treatment process and Ocean Outfall are applied for the water quality of Suyong Bay After secondary treatment process, the effluent was discharged from the seabed in the depth of 32m of 4000m offshore. Pollutant concentration is decreased as much as the 180 times after the result of initial dilution, so that environmental protection requirement of Suyong Bay can satisfied. This Ocean Outfall process can save the 2.6~3.5 times as much as the cost of construction and operation for tertiary treatment process running over a 20 year.
Kinetic of High-Temperature Removal of
by Ca-based Sorbents
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 125~133
Sorbents of calcined limestone and oyster particles having a diameter of about 0.63mm were exposed to simulated fuel gases containing 5000ppm
for temperatures ranging from 600 to 80
in a TGA (Thermalgravimetric analyzer). The reaction between CaO and
proceeds via an unreacted shrinking core mechanism. The sulfidation rate is likely to be controlled primarily by countercurrent diffusion through the product layer of calcium sulfide(CaS) formed. The kinetics of the sorption of
by CaO is sensitive to the reaction temperature and particle size, and the reaction rate of oyster was faster than the calcined limestone.
The Development of Air Quality Model Considering Shipping Source in Pusan Region
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 1, 1999, Pages 135~144
Air quality modeling about coastal urban region such as Pusan shoud be consider shipping source emmited from ships anchoraging and running. It has been proved at our previous studies that the ratios of air pollutants emission amount in coastal area to inland are 12.2% for NO
and 11.7% for
and the air qualify of coastal urban area consierably counts on ships. Also the dispersion pattern of the all pollutants followed local circulation system in this region. Therefore this study has been developed air quality model which can describe the formation, transport, transformation and deposition processes of air pollutants considering shipping source. Currently, restriction for emission amount of ships does not exist, so our study will be useful to set the omission standard and for devising air quality policy in coastal urban region.