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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
On the Thermal Effect of Vegetation Canopy to the Surface Sublayer Environment Part 1 : Numerical Experiment
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 145~150
To estimate the thermal effect of the vegetation canopy on the surface sublayer environment numerically, we used the combined model of Pielke's1) single layer model for vegetation and Deardorff's2) Force restore method(FRM) for soil layer. Application of present combined model to three surface conditions, ie., unsaturated bare soil, saturated bare soil and saturated vegetation canopy, showed followings; The diurnal temperature range of saturated vegetation canopy is only 20K, while saturated bare soil and unsaturated bare soil surface are 30K, 35K, respectively. The maximum temperature of vegetation canopy occurs at noon, about 2 hours earlier than that of the non-vegetation cases. The peak latent heat fluxes of vegetation canopy is simulated as a 600Wm-2 at 1300 LST. They have higher values during afternoon than beforenoon. Furthermore, the energy redistribution ratios to latent heat fluxes also increased in the late afternoon. Therefore, oasis effect driving from the vegetation canopy is reinforced during late afternoon compared with the non-vegetated conditions.
On the Thermal Effect of Vegetation Canopy to the Surface Sublayer Environment
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 151~154
To verify the accuracy of the numerical experiment of Part I, measurements at the matured rice canopy located around Junam reservoir were performed at August 14, 1995. According to the measured data, the foliage temperature recorded the highest value, and the ground temperature was the lowest around noon, and these results coincided with those of the numerical experiment using the combined model of Part I. From the estimation using measured data, the maximum value of the latent heat flux was 380
, the highest value among energy balance terms, and the energy redistribution ratio of the latent heat flux was averaged as 0.5, the highest values among redistribution ratios. These results are the same as those of the numerical experiment in tendency, but they reveals a little lower in the absolute values than those from the numerical experiment.
A Study on the Eutrophication in the Keum River
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 155~160
To investigate the water quality characteristics and eutrophication of the Keum River, survey were conducted on samples collected from 6 stations in Aug. and Oct. in 1995 and Jan. and May in 1996. The results were summarized as follows ; Concentration of pollutants were in the range of 1.74~6.35(mean 3.81)mg/
for BOD and 1.98~8.21(5.14)mg/
for COD and 1.46~51.94(18.52)g/
for TSS. Water quality were evaluate to be 2~3 grade of station 1 and other stations were 3~4 grade of water quality criteria. The concentration of nutrients were in the range of 55.2~735.3(309.3)
for Dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) and 0.06~6.03(2.80)
for dissolved inorganic phosphate(DIP). Nutrient concentrations in Keum River were usually high and the DIN/DIP ratio ranged from 72 to 2648. The concentration of chlorophyll-a was in the range of 1.1~143.7(44.3)mg/㎥. Chlorophyll-a concentration were high 10mg/㎥ except station 1, which is the value of eutrophication criteria by EPA. Correlations between nutrients and chlorophlly-a were not significant. According to eutrophication evaluation, Keum river was equivalent to the eutrophic state.
The Effects of Temperature on Biological Evaluation of Seawater with Seaurchins
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 161~164
This study was done to research the effects of temperature on biological evaluation of seawater quality using gametes, embryos and early development system of seaurchin species, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, Anthocidaris crassispina and Scaphechinus brevis. As the result of performing effects of temperature on early embryo development, the conditions of appropriate temperature on formation of normal pluteus were appropriate at 5-16
for H. pulcherrimus, 8-2
for A. crassispina, 12-2
for S. brevis. The conditions of optimum temperature on biological evaluation were 16
for H. pulcherrimus and 2
for A. crassispina and S. brevis.
Isolation and Identification of Aseptic Meningitis Virus in Pusan, 1998
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 165~169
The incidence of aseptic meningitis infection is ensuing and threatening the health of children. Enteroviruses are the major agents of aseptic meningitis and identification of virus has been a clue to diagnosis and epidemiology. The outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in Pusan, 1998. Patients were concentrated from April through November. Children were more susceptible than adults. Among 306 cases of specimens from stool, throat swab tested, only 7.2% were positive on virus isolation, 12 cases from stool and 10 from throat, respectively. All isolated 7 serotypes of viruses represented cytopathic effect on cultured cells. Three types of echovirus 6.25, 30 and coxsackievirus B2, B3, B4, B6 were identified by neutralizing antibody test. Isolated coxsackievirus and echovirus were observed by an electron microscope with negative staining.
Residence Times and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols II. Residence Times of Aerosols in Pusan
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 171~176
To estimate the residence times of aerosols in air, the activities of
in aerosols were measured at 4 sites in Pusan. All aerosol samples were collected by a high volume air sampler from January to October 1996. The activities
in Pusan were varied from 11.77 to 67.57 dpm/1000
and from 2.63 to 15.91 dpm/1000
, respectively. The mean activities were 34.62 dpm/1000
and 8.24 dpm/1000
. The highest values of the activities of
were appeared at P3 site and the lowest values at P4 site. During the sampling period, the trends of the activities of
were similar to total suspended particulate matter(TSP) concentrations. The mean residence times of atmospheric aerosols calculated from
activity ratio was about 60~80 days in Pusan. The longest residence time of atmospheric aerosols was in January because of the lack of rainout and washout, but the shortest residence time was in August, largely due to scavenging effect by frequent rains. The activities of
in atmospheric aerosols were different in time and space, which seems that the distribution of
activities and scavenging processes in air may be controlled by the local and meteorological conditions.
Removal of ammonia by packed bed bioreactor using immobilized nitrifiers
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 177~182
Nitrifier consortium entrapped in Ca-alginate bead were packed into aerated packed bed bioreactor and non aerated packed bed bioreactor and the performances of two bioreactors were evaluated for the removal of ammonia nitrogen from synthetic aquaculture water. Total ammonia nitrogen(TAN) removal rate was decrease in aerated packed bed bioreactor below 0.3hr of hydraulic residence time(HRT), but increased in non aerated packed bed bioreactor until 0.5hr of HRT. At HRT of 0.05hr, TAN removal rate of non aerated packed bed bioreactor was about 335g TAN/㎥/day and the optimum ratio of packing height and inside diameter of reactor (H/D) was 4. The performance of two bioreactors indicated that non aerated packed bed bioreactor was better than aerated packed bed bioreactor in ammonia removal from synthetic aquaculture water.
A Study on the Correlation Level Among Air Pollution from Solid waste Incinerator
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 183~187
The purpose of this study is providing basic data to control the air pollutants from solid waste incinerator. Incinerating the waste wood, the electrostatic precipitator had the best collection efficiency. The leather incineration had the same collection efficiency as synthetic resin incineration. And the coarse particle collection efficiency was high. As you know in correlation of leather incineration. pollutants produced a from incinerator are mostly fine particles. If the scrubber used only in the process produced a lot of fine particles. It is adequate to use the above control devices, together with high efficiency collector like bag-filter. To select the adequate control devices, it is required to investigate the size distribution before establishing control devices.
The Determining factors and Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Jinhae Bay
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 189~195
Determining factors and temporal & spatial characteristics of COD(Chemical Oxygen Demand) at the sea surface in Jinhae bay have been examined by using seasonal data, taken at twenty six stations over the whole bay during 1989~1994 by NERDA. The data have been analyzed in terms of long term means, anomalously large values. Jinhae bay is divided into three regions based on the time mean : mouth of Jinhae bay, inner sea of Masan bay, western sea of Jinhae bay called region 1,2 and 3, respectively. The horizontal distribution of the long term mean of COD at each station is similar to those of nitrogen and phosphorus. Characteristics of whole mean variation in the year shows high range of variation in region 2. It was appear to decreases every year in whole trend. Factors determining seasonal variation in whole COD mean are relative to salinity and nutrient, affected by precipitation in summer. Spatial variation shows high range of fluctuation in region 2 compare to other region. Factors determining of spatial variation of COD was appear to nutrient, affected by pollutant load of land area and bottom sediment. The long term mean of COD at each station is closely related with thats of nutrients. The correlation coefficient between COD and nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus was found to be high as 0.75, 0.78, respectively. Anomalously large COD was observed 14 times at 6 stations. These stations are located in inner sea of Masan bay(Region 2) and Songjeong bay(Region 1). The seasonal frequency of the observed anomalous COD is large in April, and other seasons are much the same.
Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Stream around the Abandoned Mine Land
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 197~204
The extent of heavy metal pollution in agricultural in soils near the abandoned mine land site was investigated using their concentrations from the 47 sampling sites in B mine. Samples were prepared using 0.1N HCI - Korean Standard Methods - and then analysed for Cd, Cu, Pb, As and Cr by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer. In addition, soil and mine tailing samples were sequentially extracted to investigate the chemical speciation of heavy metals in them. The soils in the vicinity of mining area are highly contaminated by heavy metals ranging up to 5.96mg Cd/kg, 253.3mg Cu/kg, 76.7mg Pb/kg, and 15.45 mg As/kg, according to the analysis of Korean Standard Methods. The heavy metal levels by the sequential extraction are much higher than its level by Korean Standard Methods, and little correlated with each other. Based on the results, it is suggested that the As pollution in agricultural soils near the AMLS should be dealt as of prior significance in establishing reclamation strategies for the area.
Removal of Se(IV) by the Fe(III)-impregnated Sea sand - Zeta potential approach to depict the binding between Fe(III) and Sea sand
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 205~209
Iron hydroxides are good adsorbents for uncomplexed metals, some metal-ligand complexes and many metal oxyanions. However, their adsorption properties of these precipitations are not fully exploited in wastewater treatment operations because of difficulties associated with their separation from the aqueous phase. This study describes experiments in which iron hydroxides were coated onto the surface of ordinary adsorbents(Sea sand) that are very resistant to acids, The coated adsorbents were used in adsorption of oxyanionic metals. The process was successful in removing some anions such as
over a wide range of metal concentrations and sorption of oxyanionic metals increased with decreasing pH. Formation of two surface complexes for oxyanionic metals adsorption on iron hydroxides comprise (1) complexation of the free anion by a positively charged surface site, and (2) protonation of the adsorbed anion (or alternatively adsorption of a protonated form from solution) The coated adsorbents are inexpensive to prepare and could serve as the basis of a useful oxyanionic metal removal.
Studies on the Adsorption Modeling of Cationic Heavy Metals(Pb, Cd) by the Surface Complexation Model
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 211~219
Surface complexation models(SCMs) have been performed to predict metal ion adsorption behavior onto the mineral surface. Application of SCMs, however, requires a self-consistent approach to determine model parameter values. In this paper, in order to determine the metal ion adsorption parameters for the triple layer model(TLM) version of the SCM, we used the zeta potential data for Zeolite and Kaolinite, and the metal ion adsorption data for Pb(II) and Cd(II). Fitting parameters determined for the modeling were as follows ; total site concentration, site density, specific surface area, surface acidity constants, etc. Zeta potential as a new approach other than the acidic-alkalimetric titration method was adopted for simulation of adsorption phenomena. Some fitting parameters were determined by the trial and error method. Modeling approach was successful in quantitatively simulating adsorption behavior under various geochemical conditions.
Food Processing Wastewater Treatment with Ejector-Type Aerator
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 221~225
This study was conducted to evaluate the treatment efficiency including reaction kinetics and hydraulic characteristics of food processing wastewater by using an ejector-type aeration system (ETAS) in activated sludge process. The oxygen transfer efficiency in ETAS can be changed in accordance with the depth of reactor. However, the optimum air velocity was found less than 1.82 m/hr at a superficial liquid velocity of 634 m/hr. The ETAS process showed higher organic material removal efficiency than that of the existing activated sludge process under hydraulic detention time 6 to 12 hours. This process, which can maintain MLVSS highly, is able to have high organic material removal efficiency at short HRT and deal with variable organic material loading.
A Study on recycling of waste concrete for
-P removal contained in livestock wastewater
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 227~231
This study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of
contained in livestock wastewater using waste concrete. With small particle size, increased dosage and temperature of water,
was well removed by waste concrete.
was removed by adsorption reaction in low pH of the primary phase, but the crystallization reaction predominated for increasing pH with passed time. As a result of adapting the adsorption isotherm equation,
removal was more affected by the crystallization reaction than the adsorption reaction. In the SEM micrograph, there was no evident change on the waste concreter surface. Particle size was plate-phase before reaction but appeared a dense form to progress in the crystallization reaction.
Photocatalytic-Photooxidation of Halogen Derivatives of Phenols in Aqueous Solution
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 233~240
Industrial waste which highly loaded by halogenide phenols was photooxidized by laboratory-scale photooxidation of these organic impurities in the presence of aerotropic and titaniumdioxide as photocatalyst. The disapperance of organic compounds was determined as a function of the irradiation time. Some contaminants such as 2-chlorophenol, 2-bromphenol, 3-bromphenol, 4-bromphenol, 2,4-dibromophenol and 2,6-dibromophenol were photodegraded separately to obtain information on the reaction rates, reactivities, and reaction mechanisms of the photooxidation, and on the stoichiometric correlation between organic reactant and inorganic products concentration in the course of the photocatalytic photoreaction.
Photocatalytic-Photochemical Reaction of Wastewater Dyes in aqueous Solution
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 241~248
The photocatalytic decolorization and photodegradation of wastewater contamininated with dyes such as methyleneblue tetrahydrate(MBT), methyl orange(MO), phenol red(PR) and the mixed dyes have been studied using a batch reactor in the presence of aerotropic and titania. Degussa P25 titanium oxide was used as the photocatalyst and proved to be effective for the dyes-degradation when irradiated with UV-light source emitting the wavelength of 253.7 nm in the presence of air. In addition to removing the color from the wastewater, the photocatalytic reaction simultaneously reduced the COD and optical density which suggests that the dissolved organic compounds have been photooxidized. The reaction rate of disappearance of the dyes were measured as a function of the irradiation times. The photooxidative procedure of the aquatic solution have the first order reaction-kinetics. The rate constants were increased in the order of PR < MBT <
powder were irradiated with the UV -light source.
Characteristics of Cadmium Biosorption and Desorption by Brown Marine Algae
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 249~254
The biosorption and desorption of Cd were carried out using brown marine algae, known as the good biosorbent of heavy metals. The content of alginate bound to light metals could be changed by the physical and the chemical pretreatment of Sargassum fluitans biomass. The Cd uptake was independent of the alginate content. In case of protonated biomass, Cd uptake was the lowest because the alginic acid of biomass was dissolved to cadmium solution during the biosorption. The maximum Cd uptake of Sargassum biomass was ranged from 79 mg/g to 139 mg/g. In case of raw biomass, the higher the alginate content of biomass, the higher was the Cd uptake. 100% of Cd and light metals sorbed in the biomass were eluted at 0.1N HCI(pH 1.1). However, the elution efficiency in
solution was varied by the concentration, the solid to liquid ratio and the pH of calcium solution. The distribution coefficient between Cd and protons in the desorption solution at pH ranged from 1.6 to 2.9 was observed on the constant stoichometric coefficient(1.3).
The Effects of Acidic Electrolytic Water on the Development of Barley Chloroplast
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 255~261
To investigate the effects of strong acidic electrolytic water on the chloroplast, barley leaves were treated with strong acidic electrolytic water(pH 2.5). And to investigate the effects of weak acidic electrolytic water on the chloroplast development, etiolated barley leaves were treated with weak acidic electrolytic water(pH 6.5) during greening period. Chl contents, Fo, Fv, and Chl fluorescence quenching coefficient in barley leaves were measured during and after treatment of acidic electrolytic water. The following results were obtained. Chl a, b, and carotenoid were decreased with treatment of strong acidic electrolytic water. Chl contents were significantly decreased than that of the control after 5 min. These results provide evidence that the strong acidic electrolytic water dissimilate the Chl and so that the value of Fo was slightly increased. The strong acidic electrolytic water damaged PS II because Fo was increased and Fv, Fm, and Fv/Fm ratio were decreased. qP, qNP and qE were decreased. On the other hand qI was increased than that of the control. But Chl content and Chl fluorescence patterns were a little changed as the pH increase over 4.0 Chl a, b, and carotenoid were increased with treatment of weak acidic electrolytic water during greening period. Chl contents were significantly increased than that of control after 12 hours greening. These results provide evidence that the weak acidic electrolytic water accelerated the chlorophyll synthesis. And the weak acidic electrolytic water accelerated PS II development because Fv, Fm, qP and Fv/Fm ratio were increased than that of the control.
Pore Size Control of Silica-Coated Alumina Membrane for
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 2, 1999, Pages 263~269
separation using pore size controlled membrane, silica was deposited in the mesopores of a
-alumina film by chemical vapor deposition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and phenyl-substituted ethoxysilanes at 773-873K. The membranes prepared with phenyl-substituted ethoxysilanes were calcined to remove the phenyl group and control the pore size. The gas permaselectivity of prepared membranes was evaluated by using
single component and a mixture of
. The membranes produced using TEOS contained micropores having permselectivity only to hydrogen, but the phenyl-subsitituted ethoxysilane derived membranes possessed micorpores which are recognizable molecules of
. In the diphenyl-diethoxysilane-derived membrane, the
permeance and selectivity of
and 11, respectively. Therefore, the use of phenyl-substituted ethoxysilane was effective in controlling micropore size for