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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Environmental Science International
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Weather Patterns and Acid Rain at Kimhae Area
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 271~280
This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of acidity in the precipitation and weather patterns that were influenced it at Kimhae area from March, 1992 to June, 1994. The range of pH value in the precipitation at Kimhae is 3.45 to 6.80 and the average is pH 4.62, and the major anion components associated with acidity in the precipitation are
. These distributions are to be expected the influence of industrialization such as, urbanization and construction of industrial complex at Kimhae area and the long range trasporting of air pollutants from China. The weather patterns governing the acid rain at Kimhae were classified broadly into four types(Cyclone(type I-a, type I-b), Migratory Anticyclone(type II), Tropical Cyclone(type III), Siberia High(type IV) and weather pattern which had the most occurrence frequency of acid rain was type I-a and the average pH value of precipitation in this pattern was 4.45, and we are found that the source area of air mass which was accompanied with high acidic precipitation in Kimhae was the central China include with Peking through the analysis of surface weather maps, 850 hPa wind fields, and the streamline analyses.
Characteristics of air pollution concentration on Dongsamdong, Pusan
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 281~286
This study was conduced to examine the monthly and seasonal variation of
concentration in Dongsamdong, Pusan coastal area. And the characteristics of air pollution of this area was compared to Kwangbokdong in Pusan and Taehadong in Ullungdo. Monthly mean concentration of
and TSP showed lower than Kwangbokdong,
was higher than Kwangbokdong. In case of
, seasonal variation of Dongsamdong was remarkabler thn Kwangbokdong and the concentration difference of early morning and daytime was higher than Kwangbokdong. Taehadong showed very lower concentration as background area. In case of TSP, Dongsamdong was lower concentration and smaller diurnal change than Kwangbokdong, Taehadong showed very lower concentration as backgound area. In case of
, Dongsamdong was 10ppb higher than Kwangbokdong at daytime maximum concentration, diurnal change of concentration was higher, too. In case of frequency distribution of concentration,
, and TSP at Dongsamdong showed higher frequency in low concentration class and
showed in high concentration class as compared with Kwangbokdong.
Characteristics of nocturnal maximum ozone and meteorological relevance in Pusan coastal area
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 287~292
This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of nocturnal maxiumu ozone occurrence and the meteorological relevance using to hourly ozone data and meteorological data for 1995~1996 in Pusan coastal area. Kwangbokdong showed the highest occurrence of nocturnal maximum ozone as 36.9%, and Deokcheondong showed the lowest occurrence(9.2%) for research period in Pusan. The occurrence rates of nocturnal maximum ozone concentration were decreased toward land area. The low maximum temperature, high minimum temperature, low diurnal range, high relative humidity, high wind speed, high could amount, low sunshine and low radiation were closely related to the main meteorological characteristics occuring the nocturnal maximum concnetration of ozone. It was shown that normal daily variation of ozone concentration by strong photochemical reaction at the before day of nocturnal maximum ozone. The concnetration of nocturnal maximum ozone were occured by entrainment of ozone from the upper layer of developed mixing layer. There are no ozone sources near the ground at night, so that the nighttime ozone should be entrained from the upper layer by forced convection.
Heat Budget in Incheon Coastal Area in 1994
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 293~297
Based on the monthly weather report of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and daily sea surface temperature (SST) in Incheon harbor of National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, heat budget in Incheon coastal area was estimated. The temperature differences between the sea surface and near bottom were nearly within 1
. This indicate the mixing from the sea surface and the bottom. The net heat flux through the sea surface and the advection through the inner and outer bay was affected uniformly to the water body in Incheon coastal area. The net heat flux was about 110W/
in maximum value on May, about -80W/
in minimum on January. The net heat flux through the sea surface from the solar radiation was about 2.35
W during the year. This heat flux flew out the bay through the advection by the same flux.
Application of the Convolution Method on the Fast Prediction of the Wind-Driven Current in a Samll Bay
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 299~307
In order to fast predict the wind-driven current in a small bay, a convolution method in which the wind-driven current can be generated only with the local wind is developed and applied in the idealized bay and the idealized Sachon Bay. The accuracy of the convlution method is assessed through a series of the numerical experiements carried out in the jidealized bay and the idealized Sachon Bay. The optimum response function for the convolution method is obtained by minimizing the root man square (rms) difference between the current given by the numerical model and the current given by the convolution method. The north-south component of the response function shows simultaneous fluctuations in the wind and wind-driven current at marginal region while it shows "sea-saw" fluctuations (in which the wind and wind-driven current have opposite direction) at the central region in the idealized Sachon Bay. The present wind is strong enough to influence on the wind-driven current especially in the idealized Sachon Bay. The spatial average of the rms ratio defined as the ratio of the rms error to the rms speed is 0.05 in the idealized bay and 0.26 in the idealized Sachon Bay. The recover rate of kinetic energy(rrke) is 99% in the idealized bay and 94% in the idealized Sachon Bay. Thus, the predicted wind-driven current by the convolution model is in a good agreement with the computed one by the numerical model in the idealized bay and the idealized Sachon Bay.achon Bay.
Study on the Fast Predication of the Wind-Driven Current in the Sachon Bay
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 309~318
In order to fast predict the wind-driven current in a small bay, a convolution method in which the wind-driven current can be generated only wih the local wind is developed and applied in the Sachon Bay. The root mean square(rms) ratio defined as the ratio of the rms error to the rms speed is 0.37. The rms ratio is generally less than 0.2, except for all the mouths of Junju Bay and Namhae-do and in the region between Saryang Island and Sachon. The spatial average of the recover rate of kinetic energy(rrke) is 87%. Thus, the predicted wind-driven current by the convolution model is in a good agreement with the computed one by the numerical model. The raio of the difference between observed residual current (Vr) and predicted wind-driven current (Vc) to a residual current, that is, (Vr-Vc)/Vr shows 56%, 62% at 2 moorings in the Sachon Bay.
Exposure to Benzene Associated with Gasoline and Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 319~323
This study was designed to evaluate the exposure to benzene by residents in neighborhoods near a major roadways, by persons waiting buses, and by drivers and service station attendants while refueling. It was confirmed that the outdoor air benzene concentrations near the major roadways were higher than those further away from the sources. However, neither the indoor air nor breath concentrations were different for two specified residential areas. Smoking was confirmed as an important factor for the indoor air benzene levels. Persons waiting buses, drivers and service station attendants were exposed to elevated benzene levels compared to even the residents in neighborhoods near a major roadways. The mean benzene concentration at bus stop was 2.7 to 6.9 times higher than the mean ambient air concentration. The mean benzene concentrations in the breathing zone of drivers and service station attendants were 95 to 160 and 120 to 202 times higher than the mean ambient air concentrations, respectively.
A comparative study on efficiency in the sulfate -added anaerobic landfill site and the semi-aerobic landfill site for the inhibition of methane genration from a landfill site
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 325~330
This study aims to observe the inhibition of methane generation, the decomposition of organic matter, and the trend of outflowing leachate, using the simulated column of the anaerobic sanitary landfill structure of sulfate addition type which is made by adding sulfate to a current anaerobic landfill structure, and the simulated column of semi-aerobic landfill structure in the laboratory which is used in the country like Japan in order to inhibit methane from a landfill site among the gases caused by a global warming these days, and at the same time to promote the decomposition of organic matter, the index of stabilization of landfill site. As a result of this study, it is thought that the ORP(Oxidation Reduction Potential) of the column of semi-aerobic landfill structure gradually represents a weak aerobic condition as time goes by, and that the inside of landfill site is likely to by in progress into anaerobic condition, unless air effectively comes into a semi-aerobic landfill structure in reality as time goes by. In addition, it can be seen that the decomposition of organic matter is promoted according to sulfate reduction in case of
, a sulfate-added anaerobic sanitary landfill structure, and that the stable decomposition of organic matter in
makes a faster progess than
. Moreover it can be estimated that
, a sulfate-added anaerobic sanitary landfill structure has an inhibition efficiency of 55% or so, compared with
, a semi-aerobic landfill structure, in the efficiency of inhibiting methane.
Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality Data at 14 Stations in the Geum-River Watershed
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 331~336
The monthly water quality data measured at 14 stations located in the Geum-River watershed were clustered into 2 to 7 clusters. Furthermore, factor analyses were conducted on Gabcheon and Yugucheon to characterize the water qualtiy, based on the information obtained from the results of culster analysis. The results of cluster analysis show that the water quality charactersitic of main stream of the Geum-River is somewhat different from that of substream of the Geum-River. Furthermore, the water quality characteristic of Gabcheon which is expected to have the most serious water quality problems in the Geum-River watershed shows the most different water quality characteristic from Yugucheon. Based ont he factor loadings in each factor, Gabcheon and Yugucheon have their own water quality characteristics. This is mainly because of composite factors such as different population density, industrial activities, and land use conditions in Gabcheon and Yugucheon subwatersheds.
Characterization of Dissolved Organics Based on Their Origins
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 337~347
This study was carried out to evaluate the characteristics of dissolved organics based on their origins, which were divided into two categories. The first group consisted of river, lake and secondary sewage treatment effluent, which were chosen as representative of their origins. The second group were artificial samples which were made of AHA(Aldrich humic acids) and WHA(Wako humic acids). Physicochemical characteristics, biological degradability and THMEP(trihalomethane formation potential) of the samples were analysed based on the AMWD(apparent molecular weight distribution). Large portion of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) in the river and lake samples was comprised of LMW(low molecular weight), which that of AHA and WHA was HMW(high molecular weight). The DOC of the lake was evenly distributed in the all range of molecular weight. The river, lake and secondary treated effluent have lower ultraviolet(UV) absorbance at 254nm, and have a higher amount of humic acids. Higher absorbance of humic acids means that aliphatic bond and benzenoid type components that absorb UV light were contained in these kind of humic acids. It was expected that lake sample was the most biodegradable in the different samples investigated, and in order of secondary sewage treatment effluent, river, WHA and AHA based on the result of determination of specific ultraviolet absorbance(SUVA). Biodegradability showed similar result except for AHA, while dissolved organics in the range of LMW decreased during the biodegradability test, and on the contrary those of HMW increased. Production of the SMPs(soluble micobial products) was observed during humicfication of dissolved organics and the SMPs were higher production of the SMPs. THM formation was high in the samples containing HMW and similar tendency was shown in the THMEP(trihalomethane formation potential), except for WHA.
Forecasting of Dissolved Oxygen at Kongju Station using a Transfer Function Noise Model
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 349~354
The transfer function was introduced to establish the prediction method for the DO concentration at the intaking point of Kongju Water Works System. In the mose cases we analyze a single time series without explicitly using information contained in the related time series. In many forecasting situations, other events will systematically influence the series to be forecasted(the dependent variables), and therefore, there is need to go beyond a univariate forecasting model. Thus, we must bulid a forecasting model that incorporates more than one time series and introduces explicitly the dynamic characteristics of the system. Such a model is called a multiple time series model or transfer function model. The purpose of this study is to develop the stochastic stream water quality model for the intaking station of Kongju city waterworks in Keum river system. The performance of the multiplicative ARIMA model and the transfer function noise model were examined through comparisons between the historical and generated monthly dissolved oxygen series. The result reveal that the transfer function noise model lead to the improved accuracy.
BAYQUAL Model for the Water Quality Simulation of a Bay Using Finite Element Method
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 355~361
The aim of this study is to develop the water quality simulation model (BAYQUAL) that deal with the physical, chemical and biological aspects of fate/behavior of pollutants in the bay. BAYQUAL is a two dimensional, time-variable finite element water quality model based on the flow simulation model in bay(BAYFLOW). The algorithm is composed of a hydrodynamic module which solves the equations of motion and continuity, a pollutnat dispersion module which solves the dispersion-advection equation. The applicability and feasibility of the model are discussed by applications of the model to the Kwangyang bay of south coastal waters of Korea. Based on the field data, the BAYQUAL model was calibrated and verified. The results were in good agreement with measured value within relative error of 14% for COD, T-N, T-P. Numerical simulations of velocity components and tide amplitude(M2) were agreed closely with the actual data.
Studies on the surface charge and coagulation characteristics of suspended particles in the aqueous phase
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 363~369
This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between theoretical parameters affecting the coagulation process and the real coagulation phenomenon applied to the dye wastewater. Emphasis was placed on the effective removal of the suspend particulates. Parameters studied in this study are pH, coagulant concentration and surface potential. Optimal dosages of coagulants by the measurement of the zeta potential at lower then
. The results were well agreeded with the separate Jar-test results. Emphasis was also placed on the relationship between water quality and the content of SS. It was found that the COD and DOC were reduced to 65% and 85%, respectively. The turbidity at the above condition was reduced from 300 NTU to 0~1 NTU. Efforts were made to clarify the behavior of the suspend solid as affecting the water quality. 12,000~13,000 particles/10mL in
m size range particulates in the raw wastewater were reduced to 300 particle/10mL in the same range after treatment. This research has proposed the methodology to find out the optimal condition of coagulation for small scale wastewater treatment plant or chemical coagulation process.
Characteristics of Heavy Metal Extraction by Benzamidoxime
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 371~377
The effects of benzamidoxime concentration, solvents and temperature on the degree of metal extraction were investigated to apply benzamidoxime to heavy metal extraction as chelating agent. Benzamidoxime was synthesized from benzonitrile with hydroxylamine. The chemical structure of benzamidoxime was identified. The degree of heavy metal extraction was increased with increasing the concentration of benzamidoxime and decreasing the extraction temperature. Benzamidoxime was found to be an concentration of benzamidoxime and decreasing the extraction temperature. Benzamidoxime was found to be an effective extractant for Cu-extraction by benzene or chloroform. The relationship between the thermodynamic overall equilibrium constant and absolute temperature was expressed as log K = -5.56 ＋
. Heat of extraction, $
H^0$ were calculated from overall equilibrium constants at various temperature and the extraction reactionby benzamidoxime was found to be exthothermic.
Adsorption and Leaching of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Soil of Cheju Island
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 379~386
The adsorption and leaching of organophosphorus pesticides (phenthoate, diazinon, methidathion) were investigated in Namwon soli(black volcanic soil), Aewol soil(very dark brown volcanic soil) and Mureung soil(dark brown nonvolcanic soil) sampled in Cheju Island. The Freundlich constant, K value, was 52.4, 31.3 and 27.7 for phenthoate, diazinon and methidathion in Namwonsoil, respectively and decreased in the order of phenthoate, diazinon and methidathion among the pesticides. The K value of phenthoate was 52.4, 15.9 and 5.9 for Namwon, Aewol and Mureung soil, respectively and was the highest for Namwon soil with very high organic matter content and cation exchange capacity(CEC). The Freundlich constant, 1/n, showed a high correlation with organic matter content, i.e., its value was less than unity for organic matter rich soil(Namwon soil) and greater than unity for organic matter poor soil(Mureung soil). Total recoveries of pesticides in soil and leachate with leaching in soil column, were in the range of about 74~86%. The leaching of pesticides was less for phenthate with high K values, and more for methidathion with low K values among the pesticides. It was slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and more for methidathion with low K values among the pesticides. It was slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and faster for Mureung soil with low K values among the soils.
by using Sargassum hornei
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 387~391
uptake capacity by Sargassum horneri was 185.5 mg
/g biomass and 102.6 mg
/g biomass, respectively. An adsorption equilibria were reached within about 0.5 hr for
and 1 hr for
. The adsorption parameters for
were determined according to Langmuir and Freundlich model. With an increase in pH values of 2 to 5,
uptake was increased, however
uptake jwas constant. The selectivity of mixture solution showed the uptake order of
adsorbed by S. horneri could be recovered from 0.1M HCl, 0.1M
and 0.1M EDTA by desorption process, and the efficiency of
desorption was above 98%, whereas the efficiency of
desorption was below 34%.
Selective Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals in Fe-Coagulants
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 393~397
Among various reactions which metal sulfides can undergo in the reducing environment, the lattice exchange reaction was examined in a attempt to selectively remove heavy metal ions contained in the Fe-Coagulants acid solution. We have examined Zeta potential along with pHs to investigate surface characteristics of
. As a result of this experiment, zero point charge(ZPC) of FeS is pH 7 and zeta potential which resulted from solid solution reaction between Pb(II) and
is similar to that of
. Solubility characteristics of
is appeared to that dissolved Fe(II) concentration increased in less than pH 4, and also increased with increasing heavy metal concentration. Various heavy metal ions(Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) contained in Fe-coagulants acid solution were removed selectively more than ninety-five percent in the rang of pH 2.5~10 by
. From the above experiments, therefore, We could know that the products of reaction between heavy metal ions and
are mental sulfide such as
Comparions of Removal Performances of Divalent Heavy Metals by Natural and Pretreated Zeolites
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 399~409
The three domestic natural zeolites(Yong dong-ri (Y), Daesin-ri (D), Seogdong-ri (S)) harvested in Kyeongju-shi and Pohang-shi, Kyungsangbug-Do, were pretreatd with each of the NaOH,
and NaOH following HCl solutions, and the removal performances of divalent haevy metals(Cu, Mn, Pb, and Sr) for natural and pretreated zeolites were investigated and compared in the single and mixed solutions. The natural zeolite-heavy metal system attained the final equilibrium plateau within 20 min, irrespective of initial heavy metal concentration. The heavy metal uptakes increased with increasing initial heavy metal concentration and pH. The heavy metal uptakes for natural zeolites decreased in the following sequences : D>Y>S among the natural zeolites; Pb>Cu>Sr>Mn among the heavy metals. The pretreated zeolites showed higher heavy metal removal performances than natural zeolites and decreased in the order of NaOH, NaOH following HCl,
treatment among the pretreatment methods. The heavy metal ion exchange capacity by natural and pretreated zeolites was described either by Freundlich equation or Langmuir equation, but it followed the former better than the latter. The heavy metal uptakes for natural zeolites decreased in the mixed solution, in comparing with those in the single solution and especially, the manganese uptake decreased greatly in the mixed solution. The pretreated zeolites showed the improved removal performances of heavy metals in the mixed solution than in the single solution and the heavy metal uptakes by those in the mixed solution showed the same trends in the single solution among the chemical treatment methods and heavy metals.
Studies on the Heavy Metal Removal Characteristics of
in the Presence of Organic Ligand
Journal of Environmental Science International, volume 8, issue 3, 1999, Pages 411~417
The interfacial chemical behavior, lattice exchange and dissolution, of
as one of the important sulfide minerals was studied. Emphases were made on the surface characterization of hydrous
, the lattice exchange of Cu(II) and
, and its effect on the dissolution of
, and also affect some organic ligands on that of both Cu(II) and
. Cu(II) which has lower sulfide solubility in water than
undergoes the lattice exchange reaction when Cu(II) ion contacts
in the aqueous phase. For heavy metals which have higher sulfide solubilities in water than
, these metal ions were adsorbed on the surface of
. Such a reaction was interpreted by the solid solution formation theory. Phthalic acid(a weak chelate agent) and EDTA(a strong chelate agent) were used to demonstrate the effect of organic lignads on the lattice exchange reaction between Cu(II) and
is 7 and the effect of ionic strength is not showed. It can be expected that phthalic acid has little effect on the lattice exchange reaction between Cu(II) and
. whereas EDTA has very decreased the removal of Cu(II) and
. This study shows that stability of sulfide sediments was predicted by its solubility. The pH control of the alkaline-neutralization process to treat heavy metal in wastewater treatment process did not needed. Thereby, it was regarded as an optimal process which could apply to examine a long term stability of marshland closely in the treatment of heavy metal in wastewater released from a disussed mine.