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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Oct 1996
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Jun 1996
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Apr 1996
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
Selecting the target year
Reduction of Nitro and Nitroso Compounds by Glucose and Baker's Yeast
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 623~629
m-Bromonitrobenzene was reduced to m-bromoaniline with a 86∼91% yield by either baker's yeast (Sigma type I) or glucose and baker's yeast in conjunction with glucose. Nitrosobenzene was reduced to aniline in good yields using baker's yeast(Sigma type I) only.
Adsorptive Binding of Plasma Proteins to Red Blood Cell Ghosts
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 630~635
Blood plasma proteins dissolved in isotonic phosphate-buffered saline were found to be adsorbed to red blood cell ghosts suspended in the solution. This was evidenced by concentration reduction of the plasma proteins in the bulk solution. For initial concentration of 0.1mg/mL immuno globulin, concentration reduction increased from 14% to 45% as the volume fraction of red blood cell ghosts in the solution increased from 5% to 45%. For initial concentration of 0.075mg/mL albumin, the concentration reduction increased from 12% to 47% as the volume fraction of red blood cell ghosts in the solution increased from 5% to 70%. The concentration reduction of plasma proteins in hardened red blood cell ghosts was higher than that in red blood cell ghosts. The number of adsorbed protein molecules per a red blood cell ghost were reduced as volume fraction of the ghosts in the solution increased.
Characteristics of Mannitol Production by Leuconostoc sp. KY-002
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 636~641
The production of extracellular mannitol by a new mannitol-producing bacterium, Leuconostoc sp. KY-002 was studied in shake flask cultures. The new isolate has a capability of utilizing fructose and sucrose for mannitol formation. Maximum mannitol production was obtained with fructose as the sole carbon source. Under the optimal culture conditions, within 70 hours of incubation, a final concentration of 26 g/L of mannitol from 50 g/L fructose was obtained with an indicated yield of 52% based on fructose consumed. However, higher concentrations of fructose ranging from 100 to 250 g/L could not effectively be transformed to mannitol due to a lack of osmotolerance. The strain produced no other polyols such as glycerol and sorbitol as by-products. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source and high levels of inorganic phosphate up to 10 g/L promoted mannitol formation. Any mineral ions and salts did not play important role in both cell growth and mannitol production. Nicotinic acid enhanced mannitol production by 16%. The optimum culture temperature and initial pH were
and 6, respectively.
Studies on Methanol Production from Methane by Methylosinus trichosporium
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 642~648
The effects of EDTA(Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), Cu, temperature, and gas(methane and oxygen) composition on methanol production from methane with Methylosinus trichosporium were investigated. In this experiment EDTA was found to be a potential methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor since it causes methanol accumulation and 6mM was found to be optimum concentration of EDTA for methanol production. When Cu was added in culture media, the produced methanol concentration level was increased. Hence it is believed that Cu enhanced the particulate methane monooxygenase formation and consequently the addition of Cu could increase the methanol production from methane. In this experiment the optimum concentration of Cu was found to be 1mM for methanol production. When temperature was shifted down from
, the methanol production level was enhanced by 50%. When the ratio of methane to oxygen in gas phase was increased to 2.3 from 1, produced methanol concentration was also enhanced by 100%
The Immobilization Characteristics of Thiobacillus sp. IW
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 649~653
Imnmobilization characteristics of Thiobacillus sp. IW which oxidizes sulfur compound was studied to use the bacterium in odor controlling equipment for the future. The optimum growth conditions for Thiobacillus sp. IW were pH7,
and the generation time was 38min, which was extremely fast compared with other sulfur oxidizing bacteria. Optimum growth conditions in activated carbon as a carrier was pH5,
and those in bioceramics was pH 7∼8,
. Cell growth immobilized in bioceramics was more stable in pH, temperature change than that immobilized in activated carbon and total number of cells in bioceramics were also higher. Based on these results, the bioceramics is thought to be better carrier in immobilization of Thiobacillus sp. IW.
Isolation and Characterization of a Crude oil-Degrading Strain, Nocardia sp. H 17-1
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 654~662
Bacterial strains which degrade crude oil were isolated by liquid culture from oil-spilled soil, and four isolates were selected among them. The strain Hl7-1 was finally selected after testing emulsifying activity and oil conversion rate. The strain Hl7-1 was identified as a Nocardia sp. based on the test for morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics. It appears to be highly specialized for growth on crude oil in minimal salts medium since it showed preference for oil or degradation products as substrates for growth. It was found that it could grow on at least fifteen different hydrocarbons. The optimum cultural and environmental conditions were seeked. Cell growth and emulsification activity as a function of time were also determined. Crude oil degradation and the reduction of product peak was identified by the analysis of remnant oil by gas chromatography after 3 days of cultivation. Approximately 83% of oil were converted into a form no longer extractable by organic solvents.
Recovery of Intracellular Enzyme Using Phage Lysogen and Expanded Bed Adsorption
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 663~668
In the production of recombinant protein using E. coli, phage lysogen system can be usefully applied for simultaneously achieving protein production at high cell concentration and recovery by cell disruption in the same bioreactor. A major drawback of this system is that the intracellular product and complex broth components are mixed together in culture broth and hence purification efficiency is reduced. With the E. coli double-lysogen system, the expanded bed adsorption is very useful because the pretreatment processes in a routine bioseparation process can be done in a single column operation, and therefore may contribute towards lowering the operating cost of overall recovery/purification process. In the operation of EBA, it has been observed that the change in broth feed volume does not influence much the protein recovery in a tested range. The amount of protein adsorption per mL of resin was increased from
by doubling the column length. By two-fold increase of the column diameter, the ratio of protein concentration in eluent to that in feed was increased from 0.8 to 2.1. It is concluded from the present investigation that the increase of column length and diameter is necessary to enhance the protein adsorption amount per volume of resin and protein concentration in the eluent. The development of resins with various physical properties will be necessary for more extensive application of EBA.
Development of Cyanide Sensor Using S. cerevisiae
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 669~675
Two types of cyanide sensor system were constructed for monitoring river water simply. One is membrane type flow system composed of S. cerevisiae coated membrane and oxygen electrode, the other is reactor type flow system composed of S. cevevisiae immobilized reactor and two oxygen electrode. S. cerevisiae and oxygen electrode were used for detecting cyanide compounds. These sensors are based on the inhibition of cyanides on the respiration activity of S. cerevisiae. Membrane type sensor system could detect cyanides ranging 0.10∼1.00ppm, and the respiration activity of S. cerevisiae continued for a day. Reactor type sensor system composed of immobilized chitopearl HP-5020 with S. cerevisiae could detect cyanides in the range of 0.10∼1.00ppm, and maintained 90% respiration activity for sixteen days. It was found that the optimum reactor size exist for the reactor type biosensor when respirating activity inhibition is used for detection of cyanides.
Release Characteristics of Sulfadiazine Using Chitosan Matrices
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 676~680
The characteristics of controlled drug release were studied for a biodegradable drug delivery system. A biodegradable chitosan matrix was prepared after swelling chitosan with 10%-acetic acid and adding sulfadiazine. The release behavior of sulfadiazine from the chitosan matrix was studied using the Higuchi's diffusion controlled model in phosphate buffer solutions of pH 7.4 and pH 1.2. The drug release time was delayed by increasing the content of sulfadiazine. The drug release at pH 7.4 was more delayed than that at pH 1.2. The reason is that chitosan has greater swelling abilities at low pH than at high pH. The apparent release rate constant(K) increased as the concentration of drug increased. In shoat, the formulation the biodegradable chitosan matrix to suppress the burst effect of drug release mechanism, which led to a sustained release pattern.
Peroxidase-Catalyzed Removal of Aromatic Pollutants
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 681~688
In the removal of phenolic precipitates formed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and
from waste water, the effects of the concentrations of phenolic compounds and
on the removal efficiency of various phenols were studied. More than 90% of various phenolic compounds were removed from the aqueous solutions (pH 5-7) by HRP and H2O2. The removal efficiency of phenolic compounds by HRP was reduced to a great extent when the initial concentration of
was over 10mM. Furthermore, no phenolic compounds were removed when 50mM of
was used. The HRP's turnover number, which indicates the number of phenolic molecules removed per one molecule of HRP, was the largest as 18047 for p-ethoxyphenol while it was the smallest as 1244 for m-chlorophenol when the initial concentrations of phenolic compounds and H2O2 were the same at 1mM. HRP which was separated from the aqueous solution containing phenol and
after 24hr of reaction revealed structural changes and diminished activity. The Soret absorbance near 404nm of this HRP sample was decreased to 48% of that of fresh HRP. The values of kcat and kcat/Km of this HRP sample for the oxidation of guaiacol were also reduced to 41% and 51% of those of fresh HRP, respectively. The removals of nonphenolic aromatic compounds such as benzene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BET) by HRP and
were enhanced when phenols were coexisting in the aqueous solutions of BET.
Identification of Harringtonine and Homoharringtonine and Their Contents in Korean Native Plumyew(Cephalotaxus koreana)
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 689~695
Harringtonine and homoharringtonine known as anti-cancer agents were isolated from Korean native plumyew(Cephalotaxus koreana) using column chromatography(CHCl3:MeOH=19:1, Rf=0.28). The structure of the mixture of two compounds was characterized by 1H-NMR. Comparison of our spectra of harringtonine and homoharringtonine with previously reported ones indicated that the two are identical. The contents of harringtonine and homoharringtonine in the needles, stems, and roots of Korean native plumyew were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The contents of both compounds varied with the site of location and the part of plant. The content of harringtonine was higher in needles and roots than in stems, whereas the content of homoharringtonlne was lower than harringtonine. Homoharringtonine contents in needles at Mt. Palgong, Mt. Dukyu, Mt. Baekyang, Mt. Jiri, and Namhae were higher than in stems and roots. But homoharringtonine contents in needles al Mt. Jokye and Jindo were lower than in stems and roots.
Optimal Production of N-acetyl-
-D-glucosamine Using Chitinolytic Enzyme
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 696~703
The bacterium Serratia marcescens QM Bl466 produces selectively large amount of chitinolytic enzymes(about 1mg/L medium). Enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin to N-acelyl-
-D-glucosamine(NAG) is performed by a system consisting of two hydrolases : chitinase and chilobiase. Objectives of this study included optimization of a microbial host by using chitin particles for chitinase/chitobiase production and secretion and also development of batch fermentation system for high cell density cultivalion of S. marcescens QM B1466. Also, the influence of chitin source and carboxymethyl(CM) chitin on chitinase/chitobiase production and NAG production was investigated. When carboxymethyl chitin was substituted for colloidal and practical grade chitin, the chitinase activity was increased about 7∼10U/mL. In this case, the ratio of chitinase/chitobiase was 30.03U/3.44U(9:1). The highest amounts of NAG(3.0g/L) was obtained.
Application of a Bioprocess Flowsheeting Software to a Process Design for the Mass Production of Foreign Protein by Using Microorganism
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 704~711
An optimal process design of a foreign protein production system was carried out using a bioprocess flowsheeting software, BioPro Designer, with a capability of economic analysis. The flowsheeting program was applied to a production system of the tailspike protein of Salmonella phage P22, and helped save time and efforts in selecting an optimal process. A wild type tailspike and two types of mutant tailspikes, tsf G244\longrightarrow,R and Su A334\longrightarrowV, were considered in this study to show that the folding characteristics of foreign protein produced inside host influenced the selection of the best production system. An optimal production system for mature tailspike was chosen under the criterion of capital investment per unit mass of mature protein recovered.
Saccharification Characteristics and Kinetic Analysis of Modified Cellulase with a Copolymer
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 712~717
Cellulase was modified with synthetic copolymers of polyoxyethylene derivative and maleic acid anhydride. The saccharification characteristics and enzymatic reaction kinetic mechanism of modified and native cellulases were observed. In modification reaction of cellulase, degree of modification(DM) increased, as mass ratio of copolymers to enzyme increased. Maximum DM was 55% at mass ratio of 4 and remained activity was 75%. In saccharification experiment modified enzyme had maintained higher stability than native enzyme over all the reaction and the final conversion yield of modified enzyme was greater than that of native enzyme. Numerical simulation based on the reaction mechanism considering enzymatic deactivation was performed. Modified enzyme had kept higher free enzyme concentration over all the reaction than that of native enzyme. Comparing calculation values with experimental data, calculation values were in accordance with experimental data.
Effects of Endoglucanase and Exoglucanase from Trichoderma viride on Brightness and Physical Properties of Deinked Old Newsprint
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 718~725
Old newsprint was deinked with endoglucanase, exoglucanase and their various compositions from Trichoderma viride. The yield decreased with an increase in enzyme concentration. Especially, it was the lowest in the treatment of endo-exo mixture(1:1). It may be regarded as a synergistic actions of the cellulase components. The brightness was the highest in pulp deinked with endo-exo mixture(1:1). Maximum brightness was observed when 0.5mg/mL of the endo-exo mixture was used. The physical strength increased with increasing concentration in exoglucanase. But, it decrease with increasing concentration in endoglucanse and endo-exo mixture(1:1). Also, we investigated the yield, brightness and physical strength of endoglucanase in combination with exoclucanase(12:1, 8:1, 4:l, 1:1, 1:4, 1:8, 1:12). Maximal deinking conditions, obtained at a specific optimal ratio of endoglucanase to exoglucanse are as follow ; 12:1 for yield, 12:1 for brightness, 4:1 for tensile strength, 12:1 for bursting strength, and 8:1 for tearing strength. These results indicated that the deinking depended largely upon the action of endoglucanase. Exoglucanase was occupying more than 60% of the total crude cellulase contents. Therefore, the most effective deinking must repress the action of exoglucanase.
Selective Adsorption of Flavonoids Compounds from the Leaf of Ginkgo biloba L.
KSBB Journal, volume 11, issue 6, 1996, Pages 726~732
Selective adsorption of plant metabolites from a polar dilute solution onto a polycarboxyl ester sorbent (XAD-7) was investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that neutral resins could selectively concentrate specific flavonoids from dilute aqueous mixtures. Adsorption was dependent on the pH of medium, dosage of the resins and medium composition. Especially the medium composition was a key factor for the selective adsorption and it was found that the selective adsorption was dependent on specific sorbent-sorbate-medium characteristics. Under the optimum condition, selectivity increased up to 85% and the yield of recovery was approached to 98%. It was also found that XAD-7 adsorbed flavonoids in the order of hydrophobicity.