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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Volume 14, Issue 5 - 00 1999
Volume 14, Issue 4 - 00 1999
Selecting the target year
Studies on the Infection Condition and Formaldehyde Inactivation of Human Rotavirus Wa
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 131~135
Effects of protease,
EGTA, polybrene, medium pH, and formaldehyde on the infection and inactivation of human rotavirus Wa were investigated using T-flask culture of monkey kidney MA-104 cells. Rotavirus titer was improved by the addition of trypsin or clostripain. Rotavirus titer was increaeed 8 and 10 time sin the infection medium supplemented with 300
and in the medium adjusted its pH to 8, respectively. However, addition of EGTA or polybrene to the medium decreased rotavirus titer. Rotavirus titer was reduced to 53-95% of the initial value at 1 hr after formaldehyde treatment. Furthermore, rotavirus was inactivated more than 98% at 12 hrs after formaldehyde treatment.
Characteristics of Organic Acid Degradation by Yeast
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 136~140
Characteristics of organic acid degradation by isolated yeast strain was investigated. Optimum initial pH was 5. Increase in cell mass was proportional to the decrease in organic acid degradation. Also no accumulation of byproduct was observed during degradation. Acetic acid degraded fast, followed by butyric acid and propionic acid in order. No significant substrate inhibition was observed up to 12 g/L of acetic acid 7 g/L of propionic acid, respectively. However, inhibition of butyric acid was significant above 4 g/L. Cell mass yield was 0.2-0.4 g cell/g acids and decreased at high decreased at high organic acid concentration. 95% of organic acid (7.5 g/L), corresponding to 13,000 ppm, was degraded in 30-40 hours.
A Study on the Adsorption of Heavy Metals by Chestnut Shell
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 141~145
The study was conducted for the efficient utilization of biomaterials such as Chestnut shell which was wasted tremendously as an agricultural by-products. This biomaterials were examined for their removal rate of heavy metal ions as adsorbents in wastewater by batch adsorption experiments. In this experiment, the heavy metal ions used were
. The range of time for the removal rates of heavy metal ions were observed about 10 min. The range of high pH for the removal rates of
ere observed 7.0-9.0. The range of high pH for the removal rate of
was observed 2. In the case of raw chestnut shell, the removal rates of
were above 70 percent. The removal rates of heavy metals in formaline pretreated chestnut shells except
were above 50 percent and in phosphorylating chestnut shells except
were above 60 percent. Chestnut shells pretreated by formaline and phosphorylating were not so good enough for improvement of removal rates with pH change in mixed heavy metal solution.
Screening and Characterization of Antagonistic Strains Against Brown Blotch Causing Bacteria on Pleutrotus ostreatus
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 146~152
Screening experiments were carried out in order to select bacteria causing brown blotch disease on the mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Four bacteria causing brown blotch disease were isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus and soils around the mushroom farm. Three strains showing antagonism against brown blotch causing bacteria, A-11, A-20 and A-29 were also isolated through methods pitting test, cross checking and biochemical test, and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescence for A-11 and A-20, and Pseudomonas sp. for A-29, respectively. Colonial morphology test also showed that A-11 and A-29 were appeared as transparent gel with green color, whereas the colony of A-20 showed opaque gel with light green color.
Wastewater Treatment Characteristics by Pseudomonas sp. BLP2052 and Flavobacterium sp. BLP20515 Isolated from Sewage
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 153~159
Fifteen microbes have been isolated from Jangja pond in Kuri-Si, Kyeonggi-Do. Among them, two strains showed excellent COD removal from wastewater, which were named Pseudomonas sp. BLP2052 and Flavobacterium sp. BLP20515, respectively. Optimal pH and temperature for the cell growth were 7.0 and
for both strains. Pseudomonas sp. BLP2052 and Flavobacterium sp. BLP20515 was applied to the reactor to treat wastewater and 66.0% and 65.7% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was achieved, respectively. Comparing these results to the case of applying mixed microbes present in Jangja pond, COD removal rate was 15% less. But when adding the selected microbes to the wastewater containing mixed microbes, COD removal rate increased by 5%. After 84 hour operation, we achieved 85.6% COD removal. When inhibitors were added less than 100 ppm, during the microbial wastewater treatment, Fe, Zn, Al, phenol and Cr influenced microbial activity more deterioratively in order. In the case of over 300 pm, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al and phenol showed severe deteriorative effect in order.
High Cell Density Culture of Micro-algal Dunaliella bardawil
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 160~166
High cell density cultivation of microalga Dunaliella bardawil using nitrogen fed-batch cultures was studied in batch flask. Optimum environmental conditions include concentrated nutrients except NaCl and carbon sources, carbon sources, pH, light, agitation, nitrate and phosphate ions. Cell growth, consumption rates of nitrate and phosphate ions were monitored. Optimal conditions for higher cell density were found to be(in the range tested): 5 times concentrated media(1 times-10 times concentrated media) pH 8.0 (7.0-9.0) white light(blue and red light) 15mM of nitrate (0.94-15mM) 250mM
gas. However, the addition of phosphate ions did not enhance the algal maximum cell density and specific growth rate. Nitrate was found to be effective for the cell growth. The maximum cell density of fed-batch culture using nitrate ions in
cells/ml after 189hr incubation.
Development of a New Synthetic Medium Composition for the Submerged Culture of Phellinus linteus
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 167~173
A new synthetic medium was developed for the submerged mycelial cultures of Phellinus linteus. The medium for maximum mycelial growth of Phellinus linteus (3 days incubation, 28
, pH 5) consisted of (per 1 L): glucose, 90 g peptone, 10 g soluble starch, 10 g yeast extract, 3 g KH2PO4, 1 g MgSO4.7H2O, 1 g and CaCl2, 0.1 g. The concentrations of glucose, peptone, yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4.7H2O, and CaCl2 were examined in the ranges of 10~90 g/L, 0~10 g/L, 0~15 g/L, 0~2 g/L, 0~1 g/L, and 0~0.5 g/L, respectively. The dry weight of mycelium in 3 days increased to 16.79 mg/mL using the new synthetic medium. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth of Phellinus linteus was 28
. The concentrations of KH2OP4, CaCl2, and yeast extract, which gave the maximum mycelial growth of Phellinus linteus, existed in the concentration ranges examined in this study. But, in the cases of other compositions (MgSO4.7H2O, peptone, and glucose), the mycelial growth of Phellinus linteus increased with the concentration in the ranges.
Production and Characterization of Cholesterol Oxidase from Streptomyces sp. No.4
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 174~180
An actinomycetes strain No.4 which produce the cholesterol oxidase(EC 188.8.131.52), was isolated from soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. based on taxonomic studies. The conditions of cholesterol oxidase production and enzymatic properties were investigated. The optimum composition of medium for production of the enzyme was 1% soluble starch, 2% corn steep liquor, 0.1%
(pH 7.0). The optimum pH and temperature of the cholesterol oxidase were pH 6.0~7.5 and
, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the range of pH 6.0~9.0. The isoelectric point determined by multichambered electrofocusing unit was in the range of pH 6.0~6.5.
A Study on Industrial Media for Production of Lactic acid in Batch and Continuous Fermentations
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 181~187
We have investigated industrial media for lactic acid fermentation to reduce the cost of nitrogen sources. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was successfully used at 5% (v/v) in batch fermentations. Use of soluble CSL improved the productivity about 20% with an advantage of clearer fermentation broth. Yeast extract-complemented CSL improved the productivity about 20% with an advantage of clearer fermentation broth. Yeast extract-complemented CSL media further increased the increased the productivity. It was found that 3.1 g/L yeast extract and 5% CSL could be an effective substitute for 15 g/L yeast extract in 10% glucose medium. Brewing yeast was also used as a sole nitrogen source equivalent to 5% CSL. A continuous culture coupled with cell-recycle by microfiltration at the dilution rate of 0.05-0.065 h-1 led to the highest lactic acid productivity. Lactic acid was recovered by electrodialysis from the cell free broth. Depleted cell free broth supplemented with 5-10 g/L of yeast extract performed reasonably in batch and continuous cultures. Reuse of the fermentation broth may reduce the cost of raw materials as well as minimize the fermentation wastes.
Fortification of Amino Acids to Improve Hybridoma Cell Growth and Monoclonal Antibody Production in Perfusion Culture
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 188~191
We have investigated the fortifying effect of amino acids on the cell growth and productivity during the perfusion culture of hybridoma vR8 cells in serum-free media. Through the quantitative analysis of amino acids and metabolites in perfusion culture, we found that many amino acids(glutamine, histidine, arginine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophane) were heavily consumed at cell density of
cells/mL. Due to amino acid depletion, cells died suddenly. So we supplemented the media with those amino acids by 30-170%. As a result, were could increase maximum cell density by 270%, average specific productivity by 175%, and average volumetric productivity by 560% in this fortified media, GC-HY-S2.
Biodegradation of Crude oil by Marine Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. CHCS-2 and Composition of the Biosurfactant
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 192~197
marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. CHCS-2 produced the biosurfactant in the culture broth which contained 2%(w/v) arabian light crude oil and the productivity of biosurfactant was increased with the addition of glucose. The crude oil in the culture broth was degraded by this strain and carbon chain of
was completely degradaded during the incubation for 196 h. The crude biosurfactant was purified by Amberlite XAD-7, Sepharose CL-4B and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Therefore, 0.21g/L of the purified biosurfactnat was obtained. The purified biosurfactant was a type of lipoprotein and the molecular weight was estimated as 67kDa by SDS-PAGE. The lipid composition was identified as octadecanoic acid by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. And then, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein was determined as Ser-Val-lle-Asn-Thr-lle-X-Met-lle-Gly-Gln-Gln- and the sequence did not show homology to any other known lipoprotein. Therefore, the purified lopoprotein was predicted novel biosurfactant.
Isolation and Culture Characteristics of a Bacterial Symbiont from Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema galseri
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 198~204
Asymbiotic bacterium with highly effective toxins was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri which has been widely used against various soil-inhabiting pests. The symbiont of S. glaseri was identified as Xenorhabdus nematophilus sp. by using several biochemical and physiological tests. When this strain was released into the hemolymph of insect larva, it produced highly toxic substances and killed the larva within 2 days. Two colony forms that differed n some biochemical characteristics were observed when cultures in vitro. Phase l colonies were mucid and difficult to be dispersed in liquid. Phase II was not mucoid and was easily dispersed in liquid. It did not adsorb neutral red or bromothymol blue. Rod-shaped cell size was highly variable between two phases, ranging 2-10
. It was also found that only infective-stage nematodes can carry only primary-phase Xenorhabdus in their intestine.
Microbial Tansformatin of
-Butyrobetaine into L-Carnitine by Achromobacter cylcoclast
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 205~211
We investigated optimal conditions for the microbial transformation of
-butyrobetaine into L-carnitine by using Achromobacter cycloclast ATCC 21921. When the cells were cultivated in the medium containing
-butyrobetaine as the sole carbon source for both cell growth and L-carnitine production, the maximum L-carnitine production was 2.9 g/L and the conversion yield from
-butyrobetaine to L-carnitine was as low as 30.9 mol%. In order to enhance the L-carnitine production and the conversion yield, various carbon sources were added to the
-butyronetaine containing basal medium. In the medium supplemented with glycerol, L-carnitine production was as high as 4.6 g/L and the conversion yield was 88.2 mol%, showing a significant improvement in L-carnitine synthesis compared to those in the medium without glycerol. We also examined the additional effect of quaternary ammonium compounds such as betaine and choline, which are similar in structure to
-butyrobetaine and L-carnitien. It was observed that in the presence of those quaternary ammonium compounds, both the L-carnitine production rate and the conversion yield increased. In addition, we found that cell growth was inhibited by a
-butyrobetaine concentration of more than 3%, while L-carnitine production was efficient at the
-butyrobetaine concentration of 2-3%. By cultivating the cells in the optimal medium containing glycerol and choline, we obtained an L-carnitine concentration of 7.2 g/L with the conversion yield of 98.7 mol% in 4 days.
Simultaneous Saccharification and Extractive Fermentation for Lactic Acid Production
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 212~219
lactic acid production from cellulose by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation(SSF) was studied. The SSF using cellulase enzyme Cytolase CL and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was strongly inhibited by the end product(lactic acid). An ion-exchange resin(RA-400) was used for in-situ product removal during SSF. The sorption capacity of the resin was 200mg/g-resin. The simple SSF and the extractive SSF resulted in lactic acid concentrations of 30.4g/L and 32.0g/L, respectively, at the initial substrate concentration of 50g/L. A model was developed to simulate the extractive SSF. The lactic acid conversion for the initial substrate of 100g/L was estimated to be improved from 60% to 09% by in-situ product removal. The experimentally determined kinectic parameters were pH dependent, and fitted as empirical expressions to establish their values at different pH's. Lactic acid productivity was predicted to be maximum at pH 4.5-5.0.
Separation Characteristics of Lactic Acid by Batch Reactive Distillation
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 220~224
Lactic acid was reacted with alcohol into lactate ester, and lactate ester produced in esterification reaction was distilled simultaneously with hydrolysis reaction into lactic acid. When the yields of lactic acid recovered by batch reactive distillations with various alcohols were compared, the yield of lactic acid was increased as the volatility of lactate ester was increased. In this batch reactive distillation, because the mixtures condensed in partial condensor were flown to reboiler through distillation column, the recovery yield of lactic acid was affected by operation temperature of partial condensor. Hydrolysis reaction into lactic acid in distillation column rarelyoccurred because of short retention time of lactate ester and water. Lactate ester was reacted into lactic acid in reboiler.
Candida rugosa Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Optically Pure S-(+)-Ketoprofen
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 225~229
Enzymatic resolution reactions were investigated using Candida rugosa lipase for the production of potically pure S-(+)-Ketoprofen. When the enzymatic hydroysis (and esterification) of recemic ketoprofen esters (and recemic ketoprofen with alcohol) was investigated comparatively, aqueous media was more specific for S-enantiomer than organic media. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of racemic ketoprofen ethyl ester in aqueous media, optimal temperature and pH for enantioselectivity were
and 4, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the enzyme was enhanced by adding dialcohols such as ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The enantiomeric ratio obtained in the 40 %(v/v) ethylene glycol was 2-fold higher than that without the additive. By adding
(5%,v/v), the enantioselectivity was reversed. A dramatic increase in the stereoselectivity was achieved using lipase purified by anion exchange chromatography. The type A lipase(the first eluted lipase fraction) showed an enantiomeric ratio of >100, whereas the type B lipase(the second eluted lipase fraction) exhibited enantimomer ratio of 9.0 in the hydrolysis of racemic ketoprofen ethyl ester.
Response of Ultrafiltration Flux to Periodic Oscillations in Transmembrane Pressure Gradient
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 230~234
To improve the crossflow untrafiltration flux, we applied periodic oscillations in transmembrane pressure gradient in order to promote fluid turbulence by inducing repeated compression and relaxation of the cake/gel layer. The oscillatory forms used were square-, sine-, triangle-wave, and pumping interruption. The permeate flux profiles were mathematically simulated and compared with the experimental data. The result showed the periodic pumping interruption most effectively improved the overall flux by up to about 32%. Enough pumping off-time, at least on the order of tens of seconds, was needed to allow the solutes in the layer to diffuse back to the bulk phase. It was better to start the oscillations earlier before the layer was fully established. The square-wave oscillation yielded about 11% increase, which was particularly pronounced in the later part of the filtration. Either the amplitude or the period of the oscillations resulted little influence on flux.actate ester, and lactate ester produced in esterification reaction was distilled simultaneously with hydrolysis reaction into lactic acid. When the yields of lactic acid recovered by batch reactive distillations with various alcohols were compared, the yield of lactic acid was increased as the volatility of lactate ester was increased. In this batch reactive distillation, because the mixtures condensed in partial condensor were flown to reboiler through distillation column, the recovery yield of lactic acid was affected by operation temperature of partial condensor. Hydrolysis reaction into lactic acid in distillation column rarelyoccurred because of short retention time of lactate ester and water. Lactate ester was reacted into lactic acid in reboiler.
Rapid Screening of Mutant Strains of Trigonopsis variabilis (ATCC10679) for Cephalosporin C Bioconversion and Sequences of D-amino acid oxidase Genes
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 235~240
Simple and rapid screening methods were developed to screen mutant strains of Trigonopsis variabilis ATCC10679 (TW). D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO) from a mutant strain, T26, showed about 30% higher specific activity against cephalosporin C than from its wild type, TW. D-AAO genes from both TW and T26 strains were cloned and sequenced. There was one nucleotide changed from T to C at 811 position, resulting in an amino acid codon changed from Phe-258 to Ser-258.
Optimization of Culture Conditions for the Production of Diphtheria Toxin
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 241~247
Experimental studies were carried out to optimize the culture conditions of Corynebacterium diphtheriae for the production of diphtheria toxin. A new media which does not contain any meat digest products was selected. The main ingredient of new medium was enzymatic digests of casein known as NZ-Case. In fermenter experiments, the toxin production was increased with the increase of cell growth. The optimum initial pH of media, air flow rate and agitation speed were 7.0, 0.22, vvm and 400 rpm, respectively. The contents of iron and calcium-phosphate precipitate were important for maximal cell growth and toxin production. The optimum concentration of iron was 0.3 mg/L and calcium-phosphate precipitate could serve in gradual supply of iron to maintain the optimal culture condition which is required for enhanced yield of toxin production. In potency test, the potency of toxoid from fermentor culture was higher than that from static culture. When diphtheria toxin is produced by fermentor culture, it is possible to produce higher levels of toxin and better toxoid quality in terms of safety, yield, productivity and immunity.
Purification of Diphtheia Toxin and the Production of Detoxificated Toxoid Vaccine
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 248~254
Adverse reactions after injection of diphtheria vaccine are induced by impurities present in crude toxoids that cannot be removed completely by purification of toxoids after formalization. To increase toxoid purity, toxin purification was tried before formalization. Crude toxin was purified with ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. Purified toxin purity was improved 2.9 times higher than crude toxin, and purity was 2,560 Lf/mg PN. Purified toxin was detoxified with formalin and lysine, and potency test were performed. Toxoid, prepared from toxin treated with formalin and lysine, did not show reversion to toxin and purity was higher than the toxoid purified after formalization. Therefore, we concluded that the use of toxoid vaccine prepared from toxin purified is a useful method of minimize adverse reaction after injection of diphtheria vaccine.
Optimization of Growth Conditions for Production of Zooglan by Zoogloea ramigera
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 255~258
Effects of growth conditions on the growth of Zoogloea ramigera and the production of zooglan were investigated. The production of zooglan was greatly reduced in the phosphate-limiting medium.
improved cell growth when they were used as a nitrogen source. The medium containing 45 g/L of glucose and 27 g/L of
resulted in the highest production of zooglan at 18.5 g/L.