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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Volume 14, Issue 5 - 00 1999
Volume 14, Issue 4 - 00 1999
Selecting the target year
Investigation of the Hydrolysis Characteristics of Fish Oil by Means of Aspergillus oryzae Lipase Lipolase-100T
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 259~263
Fish oil was hydrolyzed with Aspergillus oryzae lipase, Lipolase-100T. The hydrolysis characteristics of Lipolsae-100T were investigated. Lipolase-100T showed 1,3-positional specificity which hydrolyzed acyl chains combined on the 1 or 3 position of triglyceride into free fatty acids. Lipolase-100T represented another property that the saturated fatty acids composing the triglyceride were hydrolyzed more easily that the polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs). n-3 PUFAs, such as C16:4, C20:5 and C22:6, were hardly hydrolyzed, so that the concentrations of those in the mixture of glycerides were increased according to hydrolysis time. Especially docosahexaenoic acid(DHA), C22:6 showed the highest increase in the concentration. This result explained that n-3 PUFAs were combined on 2-position of triglyceride. When the hydrolysis of fish oil with Lipolase-100T 0.4 wt% was performed for 120 hr, n-3 PUFAs wt% was increased to 50 wt% in the mixture of glycerides. This result was obtained due to the 1,3-positional specificity of Lipolase-100T and positional specificity of n-3 PUFAs.
Characteristic of whole cell benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 264~272
Benzoylformate was converted to benzaldehyde by whole cell enzyme from Pseudomonas putida KCTC 1751. We investigated the effect of the composition of the growth medium on th accumulation of benzoylformate decarboxylase in the microbial cell. We prepared a calcium alginate capsule containing Pseudomonas putida cells to develop a reusable whole cell enzyme. Pseudomonas putida cells were inoculated in the capsule and cultured in M1 medium for 1 day followed by cultivation in M3 medium for 3 days. The dry cell density reached 77.75 g/L on the basis of the inner volume of the capsule. The specific activity of encapsulated whole cell benzoylformate decarboxylase was half as high as that of free whole cell enzyme. The activity of encapsulated whole cell benzoylformate decarboxylase was half as high as that of free whole cell enzyme. The activity of encapsulated whole cell benzoylformate decarboxylase decreased 20 % after use for 20 batches and 40% after use for 30 batches. The dry cell density reduced about 10 % after 30 trials.
Binding Characteristics of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Ibuprofen Enantiomers
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 273~278
The molecularly imprinted polymers(MIPs) synthesized at various polymerization conditions were examined as ibuprofen receptors in terms of binding characteristics. The 4-vinylpyridine polymers had 1.2 times higher adsorption capability for (S)-(+)-ibuprofen than the methacrylic acid polymers. The methacrylic acid polymers synthesized by UV radiation had 1.9 times higher selectivity for (S)-(+)-ibuprofen compared to those by thermal initiation. Effects of various solvents for binding were also examined in this research. According to the Scatchard analysis, the (S)-(+)-ibuprofen artificial receptors had two different kinds of binding sites for (S)-(+)-ibuprofen while having only single kind of binding site for ketoprofen. The binding sites of (S)-(+)-ibuprofen, n were calculated as 4.3~4.9
mol/g and the dissociation constants,
were 0.68 mM for the specific binding.
Optimization of Chromatographic Separation of Lysozyme from Homogenate of Hen Egg White by Comparison of Breakthrough Behavior
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 279~283
We have compared the breakthrough behavior of lysozyme contained in fresh han egg white on various cation exchagers, and the adsorbent, known by the trade name Cellufine C-200 (Amicon), has shown the best performance. The effects of ion strength, pH, and linear flow rate on the breakthrough behavior were examined using the Cellufine C-200 adsorbent. The optimal conductivity, pH and linear flow rate were determined from the breakthrough behavior and found to be 2.75 mS/cm, 7.0, and 0.635 cm/min, respectively.
Production of High Concentration Cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum BRC5 in Fed-Batch Culture
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 284~290
Glucose fed-batch culture was studied to improve cellulose productivity by Acetobacter xylinum BRC5. When initial glucose concentrations in batch cultures were less than 20 g/L, yield coefficients of cellulose (Yp/s) remained a constant value of 0.21 g cellulose/g glucose. But a low yield coefficient, Yp/s=0.13 was obtained from an initial glucose concentration of 40 g/L. Since initial high glucose concentrations in batch culture resulted in low yields of cellulose, constant fed-batch cultures were carried out. The optimal feed rate for fed-batch culture was 2.22 g glucose/L.h. In constant fed-batch culture without DO control, 10 g/L of cellulose was obtained from 40 g/L of glucose with this feed rate, which was approximately two fold higher than that of the batch culture with the same initial glucose concentration. In DO stat plus fed-batch culture, the highest cellulose productivity could be obtained when dissolved oxygen level was controlled at 10% of air saturation, and cellulose productivity increased about 1.5 times compared with that of the culture without DO control.
Biocatalytic Production of Chiral Epoxides
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 291~296
Chiral epoxides are key intermediates for the production of chiral pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and functional food additives. Chiral epoxides can be produced by either chemical or biological method. In biocatalytic production routes, chiral epoxides can be produced via epoxidations of prochiral alkenes by monooxygenase or peroxidase. Kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides using whole cells of bacteria or fungi might be commercially useful, since it is possible to obtain chiral epoxides with high optical purities from relatively cheap and readily avaiable racemic epoxides. Some bioprocesses already are commercially developed: the biocatalytic production of chiral epichlorohydrin via microbial stereospecific dehalogenation, and lipase-catalyzed enantioselective hydrolysis in a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor for the production of chiral methyl trans-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)glycidate. the intermediate for calcium antagonist diltiazem. The importance of biocatalytic production of chiral epoxides with several examples from literature are presented.
Control of Drug Release from Polymeric Matrices Coated with Poly(DL-lactide) I. Effect of Coasting Substance on the Drug Release in pH 1.2 Hydrochloride Solution
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 297~302
The polymeric matrices coated with poly(DL-lactide) were prepared using chitosan derivatives such as chitosan, chitosan hydrochloride, and sulfonated chitosan for application of drug delivery systems. The drug release study using prednisolone as a model drug was performed in the hydrochloride solution at pH 1.2. The release rate of drug was decreased according to the increased content of matrices. The release rate of prednisolone according to the kinds of polymeric matrices coated were decreased in the order to chitosan, sulfonated chitosan, and chitosan hydrochloride. Drug release rate of polymeric matrices coated with poly(DL-lactide) was not only two times slower than noncoated one, but also the burst effect of initial period of drug release was decreased in comparison with noncoated one. From these results, it was expected that these formulations based on the chitosan derivative matrices coasted with poly(DL-lactide) were acceptable drug delivery devices for a sustained-release dosage form of drug.
In Vitro Culture of Entomopathogenic Nematode with Its Symbiont for Biopesticide
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 303~308
An in vitro culture method for entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri was developed. A symbiotic bacterium was isolated from Steinernema glaseri and identified as Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Phase variation that differed in some biochemical characteristics of symbiotic bacterium was observed. Entomopathogenic nematodes carried only phase I bacterium in their guts. Phase I bacterium could be converted into phase II form in in vitro culture medium consisting of 5% yeast extract, 0.5% NaCl, 0.05%
. The optimum temperature for bacterial growth was
. The pH of the culture medium increased up to 9.0-9.5 during the exponential growth period of the culture, regardless of initial pH 6-7. Various culture media such as chicken offal, dog food, bovine liver, peanut, and so on were tested for in vitro culture of the nematodes. The best medium for Steinernema glaseri production was obtained from concentrated homogenate of bovine liver and the nematode growth was highest at 80% bovine liver. In the co-culture of entomopathogenic nematode with its symbiont, the growth rate of nematodes was 2 times faster than that without its symbiont and the nematode concentration reached about
/mL within 15 days.
Optimization of Biotransformation Process for Sodium Gluconate Production by Aspergillus niger
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 309~314
In order to produce high concentration of sodium gluconate, optimization of the fermentation conditions, such as glucose concentration, inoculum size, dissolved oxygen concentration and glucose feeding method, was examined. When the glucose concentration was maintained in the range of 30∼50 g/L during the batch fermentation, glucose conversion yield and productivity were 92.2% and 6.0 g/L/hr, respectively. In the case of the low concentration below 30 g/L, the yield decreased by about 25%. As the inoculum size increased above 20%(w/v), lag phase was shortened but the productivity decreased. The dissolved oxygen level of 60∼70% was shown to be the threshold point for 75% of increase in the productivity of sodium gluconate. Finally, optimal glucose feeding rate was determined using various feeding methods such as exponential feeding, feeding based on the average glucose consumption rate and was determined using various feeding methods such as exponential feeding, feeding based on the average glucose consumption rate and on the oxygen uptake rate and etc. Our result shows that glucose feeding, based on the oxygen uptake rate is a very simple, efficient and robust method, especially when oxygen is consumed as a substrate for the bioconversion. Using the above glucose feeding strategy under the optimized condition, 255 g/L of sodium gluconate concentration, 12 g/L/hr of productivity and 95% of glucose conversion yield were achieved with A. niger ACM53.
Effect of Varous Physicochemical Factors on the Biodegradation of Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Stenotropomonas maltophilia
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 315~321
The relationships between the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and several relevant physicochemical environmental parameters were examined. At neutral pH of the cultures, the degradation of TNT proceeded to completion, whereas only about 50% of TNT was utilized when the cultures were adjusted to acidic pH. The effect of various co-substrates (e.g., glucose, fructose, acetate, citrate, succinate) on the degradation of TNT by the test culture of S. maltophilia was evaluated. The results indicated that, among the various co-substrates studies, the test culture that received 2 mM fructose degraded 100 mg/L of TNT completely within 20 days of incubation at ambient temperature, whereas partial degradation of TNT was observed in the test culture with acetate, citrate, or succinate as a co-substrate, respectively. In fact, fructose was the best co-substrate for TNT degradation in this experiment. The effect of supplemented nitrogens [e.g., (NH
Cl. urea] on the TNT degradation was monitored. All supplemented nitrogens in this study were inhibitory to TNT degradation. Addition of 1% Tween80 accelerated TNT degradation, and showed complete degradation of TNT within 8 days of incubation. Addition of yeast extract resulted higher growth yields, based on turbidity measurement, but it inhibited TNT degradation.
Purification and Characterization of Cholesterol Oxidase Produced by Streptomyces sp. No.4
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 322~327
The cholesterol oxidase(EC.184.108.40.206) produced from Streptomyces sp. No.4 which isolated from soil was purified and investigated for the enzymatic properties. The enzyme was purified specifically by cholesterol affinity column chromatography with a yield of 28.3%. The purified enzyme showed a single polypeptide on SDS-PAGE and the molecular weight was estimated to be 60,000 daltons. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by metal ions such as
. Dithiothreitol and mercaptoethanol inhibited the enzyme activity at concentration of 1mM. The Michaelis constant(Km) for cholesterol was found to be 1.38mM by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. Amino acid analysis showed that the enzyme protein was composed of 416 amino acid residues including 52moles of glycine and 19moles of tryptophane.
Simultaneous Treatment of Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia by Microalgal Culture
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 328~336
A green microalga, Chlorella vulgaris UTX 259, was cultivated in a bench-scale raceway pond. During the culture, 15%(v/v)
was supplied and industrial wastewater discharged from a steel-making plant was used as a culture medium. In a small scale culture bottle, the microalga grew up to 1.8 g
of cell concentration and ammonia was completely removed from the wastewater with an yield coefficient of 25.7 g dry cell weight
. During the bottle-culture, microalga was dominant over heterotrophic microorganisms in the culture medium. Therefore, the amount of carbon dioxide fixation could be estimated from the change of dry cell weight. In a semi-continuous operation of raceway pond with intermittent lighting (12 h light and 12 h dark), increase of dilution rate resulted in increase of the ammonia removal rate as well as the
fixation rate but the ammonia removal efficiency decreased. Ammonia was not completely removed from the medium (wastewater) of raceway pond which was operated in a batch mode under a light intensity up to 20 klux. The incomplete removal of ammonia was believed due to insufficient light supply. A mathematical model, capable of predicting experimental data, was developed in order to simulate the performance of the raceway pond under the light intensity of sun during a bright daytime. Simulation results showed that the rates of
fixation and ammonia removal could be enhanced by increasing light intensity. According to the simulation, 80 mg
of ammonia in the medium could be completely removed if the light intensity was over 60 klux with a continuous lighting. Under the optimal operating condition determined by the simulation, the rates of carbon dioxide fixation and ammonia removal in the outdoor operation of raceway pond were estimated as high as
Effects of Loess on the Mycelial Pellet Formation of Phosphate Dissolving Fungus, Penicillium sp. GL-101 in the Submerged Culture
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 337~341
In order to investigate effects of loess on the mycelial pellet formation a phosphate dissolving fungus, Penicillium sp. GL-101, was cultured in potato dextrose broth containing loess. The strain formed an amorphous pellet or loose aggregates agitated at a low speed(50rpm) while spherical and regular pellets at a high speed(150rpm). The higher concentration of loess, the smaller size of a pellet in the medium formed by the strain. Cultured in the medium supplemented with 1.5% loess the pellet size was reduced to a seventh compared to the control. In the case of addition of several insoluble salts, which are main components of loess, to the culture medium the higher concentrations of salts, the smaller sizes of pellet formed by the strain and the smallest pellet was formed by the addition of calcium sulfate.
Response of Photobacterium phosphoreum to Heavy Metal
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 342~350
Photobacterium phosphoreum was used in order to study response to heavy metal including
in view of developing monitoring system for toxic substances. The concentrations of heavy metal causing 50% reduction(
) in bioluminescence intensity were determined with both free and immobilized P. phosphoreum. The bioluminescence responses were examined at various concentrations of heavy metal after 10, 20 and 30 min of exposure. The linear correlation between Gamma values and concentrations of heavy metal was obtained and
was calculated from the linear correlation. The significant inhibitory concentrations for bioluminescence emission were found to be 0.05mg/L for
, 25mg/L for
, 50mg/L for
and 12.5mg/L for
, respectively. The free cell and disc type were shown to be more sensitive to heavy metal than cells mixed with Na-alginate or immobilized on Sr-alginate. However, the linear regression curves were derived from the Sr-alginate immobilized cells indicating the immobilization method is a useful tool for monitoring of heavy metal under more stable condition of bioluminescence.
Isolation and Its Optimal Culture Condition for High Agarase-Producing Mutant
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 351~357
A marine bacterium Bacillus cereus ASK202, agarase producing strain, was treated with some mutagenic agents, ultraviolte(UV), 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine(NTG), and ethyl methane sulfonate(EMS), several times for the increasing of the agarase production After mutagen treatment, we isolated one mutant strain treated with NTG showed the highest stability and agarase productivity and named as Bacillus cereus ASK202-N3. This Bacillus cereus ASK202-N3 strain was well grown in the modified marine medium containing 0.5%(w/v) agar, 0.3%(w/v) yeast extract, and 5.0%(w/v) NaCl, and the optimal initial pH, temperature and culture time were 7.8,
and 32h, respectively. In the optimal culture conditions, the agarase production was increased to 5.3 fold(850units/L) compared to that of the wild type.
Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Pretreatment of Oakwood in a Percolation Process
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 358~364
The effect of hydrogen peroxide on pretreatment of oakwood was investigated. Reaction temperature was
and reaction solutions used in pretreatment were aqueous ammonia, sulfuric acid and pure water. When 10% ammonia solution was used, the extents of delignification and hemicellulose recovery were 55% and 26%, respectively. These values were significantly higher as delinigfication and lower as hemicellulose recovery than those of acid hydrolysis. To overcome this problem, hydrogen peroxide was added into ammonia solution stream to increase hemicellulose recovery. But delignification and hemicellulose recovery were not increased as much as hydrogen peroxide loading was increased. And as hydrogen peroxide loading was increased, the decomposition of sugars solubilized from hemicellulose and cellulose were increased. So there were significant differences between the total amount in solid residue and liquid hydrolyzate, and the total amount in the original biomass. It was found that hydrogen peroxide added was reacted with substrate packed mostly in the front part of reactor. In order to increase hemicellulose recovery, it was necessary to treat with acidic solution than with alkali solution. Effect of hydrogen peroxide was higher in water than acid solution.
Spore Production of Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana 726, Using Molasses
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 365~370
To optimize the culture conditions for Beauveria bassiana 726, the effects of culture medium, pH, and temperature on mycelium and spore production were investigated. The optimum temperature and pH for the cultivation of B. bassiana 726 were 28
and 5.0, respectively. The optimized medium was composed of 1.0~2.0% total sugar from molasses, 0.5% corn steep liquor and 0.05% KH
. In the cultivation of B. bassiana 726 with the optimum medium, the specific growth rate and substrate utilization were well-fitted with the proposed kinetic model in the shake flask and stirred tank reactor. When the fed-batch cultivation using carbon suorce, nitrogen source, and mineral salt as a feeding medium was compared with batch cultivation in stirred tank reactor, mycelium (12.7 g/L) and spore production (5.4
) were enhanced up to 110% and 85%, respectively.
Simulation of Preparation Protein Chromatography
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 371~376
Simulation of preparative protein chromatography becomes necessary for separation as well as optimal operation. A mathematical model describing the behavior of elution peaks in preparative protein chromatography for single and binary component separation was solved numerically using a PDEsolver Macsyma
(Macsyma Inc., Arlington, MA, U.S.A.). Band profiles were calculated with the equilibrium-dispersive model of chromatography. The effects of the sample volume, concentrations of solutes in the sample, flow velocity and column length on the band profile of the elution peaks are discussed. The results in this paper suggest the model simulation for the binary mixture can be extended to multicomponent separations.
Optimization of Gene Transfection Using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter(FACS) Analysis of Green Fluorescent Protein(GFP)
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 377~379
In order to improve the transfection efficiency of CHO/dhfr- cells using cationic lipid, optimal concentrations of the cationic lipid(
) and DNA(pEGFP-C1) need to be determined. The use of green fluorescent protein(GFP) gene as a reporter gene facilitated the quantification of transfection efficiency. The green fluorescence intensity of each cell transfected at various lipid-DNA concentrations was measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorter(FACS) analysis. A combination of
cationic lipid and
DNA in a well resulted in the highest trasfection efficiency. Taken together, the method using FACS analysis of GFP is simple and fast, facilitating the optimization of transfection.
Influence of Surfactant on Biodesulfurization of Dibenzothiophene by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 380~383
During the biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene to 2-hydroxybiphenyl by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8, a surfactant-like substance was secreted into the medium resulting in the decrease of the surface tension of the medium. Due to the substance, the optical density (at 600 nm) of the medium had no co-relation with dry cell weight during cultivation. The growth rate of IGTS8 increased by the addition of 1 % Tween 80, but it was inhibited over Tween 80 concentration of 2 % (v/v).
Analysis of Low-level
-D-glucose-1-phosphate in Thermophilic Enzyme Reaction Mixuture Using High pH Anion-exchange Chromatograph
KSBB Journal, volume 14, issue 3, 1999, Pages 384~388
We have used high pH anion-exchange chromatography to analyze low level (below
-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P) that can be used as a cytostatic compound, an antibiotic, and immunosuppressive drug. Our chromatographic method afforded excellent peak resolution and seletivity for glucose-6-phosphate and various maltooligosaccharides as well as G-1-P. The pulsed amperometric detector yielded linear response on G-1-P ranging from 2 -
, giving slope of
). The detection limit was
. This method was applied to the purification of thermophilic
-glucan phosphorylase from Thermus caldophilus. The technique will be extremely useful in future studies concerning carbohydrate metabolism in living organisms.